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PROM JULY 1, 1876, TO JUNE 30, 


WITH THE Toronto ' 






AUGUST, 1877. 



Bntisif) pftarmamitiral Conferenre, 


Committee of Publication. 





Prof. ATTFIELD, Ph.D., F.C.S., Secretary. 

Editor of the Transactions of the Conference. 
Prof. ATTFIELD, Ph.D., F.C.S. 


OFFICERS FOR 1877-78. 

G. F. SCHACHT, F.C.S., Clifton, Bristol. 

Who have filled the office of President. 

Prof. BENTLEY, F.L.S., M.R.C.S., London. 
W. W. STODDART, F.C.S., F.G.S., Bristol. 
H. B. BRADY, F.R.S., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
THOMAS B. GROVES, F.C.S., Weymouth. 
Prof. REDWOOD, Ph.D., F.C.S., London. 


R. REYNOLDS, F.C.S., Leeds. r. „ . . ,^ 

R. W. PRING,L.A.H.D.,BfWpt.| p.QP Qp PHAR^iAC 
J. WILLIAMS, F.C.S., LoMbrfr '""-''- ^^^ ' 

Treasurer. -rr~\ 

C. BKIN, F.C.S., 8, Argyle Street, BaThP RO NTO , 

Genbrax Secbetaries. 

Prof. ATTPIELD, Ph.D., P.C.S., 17, Bloomsbury Sq., London, W.G. 
F. BADEN BENGER, F.C.S., 7, Exchange Street, Manchester. 

Assistant Secretab,t. 
A. SENIBR, M.D., F.C.S., 17, Bloomsbury Square, London, W.G. 

LocAi Secretary. 
W. HAYES, Dublin. 

Other Members of the Executive Committee, 1877-78. 
M. CARTEIGHE, F.C.S., London. 

A. P. BALKWILL, Plymouth. 
N. H. DRAPER, F.C.S., Dublin. 

B. S. PROCTOR, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
E. SMITH, F.C.S., Torquay. 

W. A. TILDEN, D.Sc, F.C.S., Clifton. 

C. UMNEY, F.C.S., London. 
J. T. HOLMES, Dublin. 

J. C. THRESH, F.C.S., Buxton. 

S. B. TURNEY, Plymouth. W. ALLEN, Dublin. 

These Officers collectively constitute the Executive Gommittee. Three re- 
tire annually, the remainder being eligible for re-election. 



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The most important ways in which a member can aid the objects of 
the Conference are by suggesting subjects for investigation, working 
upon subjects suggested by himself or by others, contributing infor- 
mation tending to throw light on questions relating to adulterations 
and impurities, or collecting and forwarding specimens whose exa- 
mination would afford similar information. Personal attendance at 
the yearly gatherings, or the mere payment of the annual subscrip- 
tion, will also greatly strengthen the hands of the executive. 

A list of subjects suggested for research, is sent to members early 
in the year. Resulting papers are read at the annual meeting of the 
members ; but new facts that are discovered during an investigation 
may be at once published by an author at a meeting of a scientific 
society, or in a scientific journal, or in any other way he may desire ; 
in that case, he is expected to send a short report on the subject to 
the Conference. 

The annual meetings are usually held in the provinces, at the 
time and place of the visit of the British Association ; that for 
1878 will be held in Dublin on Tuesday and Wednesday, the 13th 
and 14th of August. 

Gentlemen desiring to join the Conference, can be nominated at 
any time on applying to either of the secretaries or any other officer 
or member. The yearly subscription is seven shillings and sixpence, 
payable in advance, on July 1st. Further information may be ob- 
tained from the secretaries — 

Professor Attpield, 17, Bloomsbury Square, London, W.C. 
F. Baden Benger, F.C.S., 7, Exchange Street, Manchester. 


The Conference annually presents to members a volume of 500 to 
GOO pages, containing the proceedings at the yearly meeting, and an 
Annual Report on the Progress of Pharmacy, or Year-Book, which 
includes notices of all pharmaceutical papers, new processes, prepa- 
rations, and formulae published throughout the world. The neces- 
sary funds for accomplishing this object consist solely of the sub- 
scriptions of members. The Executive Committee, therefore, call 
on every pharmacist — principal, assistant, or pupil — to offer his 
name for election, and on every member to make an effort to obtain 
more members. The pi'ice of the Year-Book to non-members is 
ten shillings. The constitution and rules of the Conference, and a 
convenient form of nomination, will be found at page 345. 



Introduction 1 

Pharmaceutical Chemistry .......... 19 

Materia Medica ............ 155 

Pharmacy 235 

Notes and Formulas 289 

Constitution and Rules of the British Pharmaceutical Conference . . . 345 

Honorary Members of, the Conference 346 

Members residing Abroad .......... 347 

Alphabetical List of Members of the British Pharmaceutical Conference . 350 

,, „ Towns at which Members reside ..... 391 

Associations inyited to send Delegates to the Annual Meeting . . . 413 

Presentation Copies of the Tear-Book, to whom forwarded .... 414 

List of Journals received in Exchange for the Year-Book of Pharmacy • . 415 

Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Conference .... 417 

General Index 639 


The record of pharmaceutical research forms an important if but 
a small part of the scientific literature of the year. A period of 
bustling activity, embracing as it does the numerous and not wholly 
unsensational reports on jaborandi and salicylic acid, has been fol- 
lowed by an interval of compai-atively quiet but none the less 
valuable research. Many new observations full of interest to phar- 
macists have been made, older ones have been confirmed, others 
disproved, and fresh light has been shed on subjects which hitherto 
appeared in an almost hopeless state of confusion. As a striking 
instance in which skill and perseverance combined have raised an 
important subject of investigation from a condition little better 
than chaos to a fruitful field of inquiry, we refer to the chemistry of 
aconite root, as elucidated by successive annual contributions to the 
British Pharmaceutical Conference, and especially by the reports pre- 
sented to its recent meeting at Plymouth by Dr. Wright, Mr. Groves, 
Mr. Williams, Dr. Paul and Mr. Kingzett. The three chemists first 
named constitute a committee specially appointed at the previous 
meeting to continue investigations on the aconite bases. From 
these and former reports it appears that the roots of Aconitum Na- 
pellus contain three distinct alkaloids, viz. aconitine, Cs^H^sN^O^O' 
a highly active crystallizable body, furnishing erystallizable salts; 
pseudaconitine, CggH^gNOji, likewise active and crystallizable, but 
not readily yielding crystallized combinations ; and an amorphous 
base with a higher percentage of carbon, yielding non-crystalline 
salts, and possessing little physiological potency. The amorphous, 
bitter, inert alkaloid, furnishing well crystallized salts and answering 
to the formula Cg^ H^- N O^o, which Mr. Groves isolated from one 
batch of roots (see Year-Booh of Pharmacy, 1875, p. 514), is now 
distinguished from the other bases by the name picraconitine. Th^ 
roots of Aconitum fevox are shown to contain comparatively large 
quantities of pseudaconitine, besides a small amount of aconitine 
and an amorphous base with a larger percentage of carbon, which, 
however, does not appear to be identical with the analogous body 
from Acordiura Xapellus. 

The results of Messrs. Paul and Kingzett's researches on Japanese 



aconite point to the existence therein of a crjstalHzable alkaloid of 
the formula CigHjgN O9, differing from any of the bases described 
by other observers. In Dr. Wright's opinion this substance is not a 
distinct alkaloid, but a mixture of pseudaconitine and decomposition 
products thereof; but tliis view is stoutly contested by the two- 
authors just named. The latter, on the other hand, incline to the 
belief that the various bodies which have been described as aconite 
bases may be combinations of alkaloids with aconitic or some other 
organic acid ; and that it is doubtful whether the alljaloid or alka- 
loids to which the medicinal properties of aconite are ascribed have 
ever yet been obtained in a separate state. That some diversity of 
opinion should still continue to exist on this subject appears the 
less surprising in view of the great difficulties connected with its 
investigation, arising mainly from the great tendency of these 
alkaloids to undergo changes during their extraction and puriScation. 
The nature of these changes, so readily brought about under various 
influences, form one of the leading features of the Committee's 
report already referred to, and is briefly represented by the follow- 
ing equations : — 

(1) CasH^oNO,. -1- H.O = C;H,,0, + C.gHcgNOn 

Aconitine. Benzoic ncid. Aconinc. 

(2) C36H,9XOn + 11,0 = CoHioO, + a^^H^iNOs 

Pseud- Dimetbylproto- Pseud- 

aconitine catechuic acid. aconine. 

These decomposition products never fail to be present in the 
extract prepared from aconite roots, and in the aconitine of com- 
merce. The latter appears to be a mixture of true aconitine and 
pseudaconitine, with variable quantities of aconine and pseud- 
aconine, and of the amorphous unnamed alkaloids above alluded 
to. A process for its analy.sis will be found on page 4G4 of this 
volume, as part of the report. 

Prof. DragendorfTs statement that Tanret's ergotinine was not a 
chemically distinct substance, but a mixture owing its activity to 
the presence of sclererythrin, is conti-adicted by ]\I. Tanret, who 
supplies analytical evidence to show that his alkaloid does not 
contain even a trace of this body. Sclerotic acid, claimed to be the 
active principle of ergot, is dealt with by its discoverers, Prof. 
Dragondorff and M. Podwissotzky, in a second report containing 
detailed information respecting the process employed for its extrac- 
tion. Prof. Buchheim, on the other hand, is still of opinion that no- 
alkaloid or glucoside fully representing the active properties Ou 


ero-ot has as yet been, or is ever likely to be, isolated from the drug, 
nnd that the freshly prepared extract alone can be depended upon 
for medicinal purposes. 

There can be no longer any reasonable doubt that the reported 
conversion of brucine into strychnine by the action of dilute nitric 
acid was an illusion ; for as such it must appear in the absence of 
evidence to the contrary from the results of experiments on this 
subject conducted by Mr. A. J. Cownley, and more recently by Mr. 
W. A. Shenstone. In both reports attention is drawn to the facility 
with which traces of strychnine and brucine are destroyed by dilute 
nitric acid, an important point in forensic investigations. A new 
process for the detection of these and other poisonous alkaloids in 
analyses of this kind is recommended by Prof. Dragendorff; its chief 
feature consisting in the application of benzol and petroleum ether 
as solvents. 

Dr. Paul criticises the official test of the purity of quinine sul- 
phate, showing that it fails to indicate the presence of less than ten 
per cent, of sulphate of cinchonidine, this failure being due to an 
increased solubility of cinchonidine in ether in the presence of 
quinine. He prefers to i-ely on the process of fractional crystalliza- 
tion, whereby the cinchonidine sulphate, as the more soluble salt of 
the two, remains in the uaother-liquor, in which it may then be 
readily detected by the official test. In an examination of nine 
samples of commercial quinine sulphate, he found cinchonidine in all 
cases, varying in amount from one to ten per cent. Equally import- 
ant to pharmacists is the same author's observation that some of 
the citrate of iron and quinine sold as the preparation of the British 
Pharmacopoeia is lamentably deficient in alkaloid, and still more so 
in actual quinine. The amount of water of crystallization in freshly 
prepared quinine sulphate has been variously stated as 7, 7^, and 8 
molecules. According to a recent determination by Mr. Cownley, it 
amounts to 7^ molecules, of which 5 molecules are rapidly lost by 
efflorescence; the salt becomes anhydrous at 100° C, but re-absorbs 
2 molecules of water upon exposure to the air. Aricine, it seems, 
must be erased from the list of cinchona alkaloids, since Dr. 0. 
Hesse's examination of this substance and the so-called cinchovatinc 
affijrds the strongest ground for regarding both as impure cinchoni- 

The alteration which acetate of mor})hinc is known to undergo on 
keeping is attributed by ]\Ir. E. Merck to a continual thoixgh slow 
elimination of acetic acid, resulting in the formation of a basic salt 
less soluble in water but unimpaired in its active properties. So 


long US the preparation does not assume a very distinct yellow- 
coloration, indicating a further and more complicated decomposition, 
it remains fit for medicinal use. Analyses of veratrine performed 
by ^lessrs. E. Schmidt and R. Koppen show that the composition 
of the crystallized alkaloid in its purest form is represented by the 
formula C^., H.,- N O9, and that the commercial preparation is toler- 
ably pure. Of the various salts of conine, the hydrobromate is the 
one most easily obtainable in a crystallized state. A convenient 
mode of preparation, together with a description of its properties, 
and suggestions respecting its medicinal application, form the 
subject of a paper by ]M. Mourrut. The results of an analysis of 
the platinum salt of pilocarpine have convinced Mr. Kingzett of the 
identity of this alkaloid with that to which he has previously 
assigned the formula Cog Ho^ X^ 0^. 

Dr. Schmidt's researches on the aloin of Barhadoes aloes confirm 
the correctness of the formula Cjq Hjg Orr previously established by 
Dr. Tilden, and show that this aloin, like that of Zanzibar aloes, may 
ciTstallize with either one, two, or three molecules of water. Re- 
garding the oxidation products of barbaloin and socaloin. Dr. Tilden 
reports that, whereas the action of nitric acid on these substances 
yields chrysammic acid, their treatment with bichromate results 
in the formation of a peculiar yellow compound of the formula 
Cj^HigOg, named by him aloxantJiin. When heated with zinc 
dust this body fui-nishes methylanthracene, the same product as 
obtained by Messrs. Graebe and Liebermann, and subsequently by 
Dr. Schmidt, in the same way direct from aloin. As a point of special 
interest. Dr. Tilden calls attention to the relation between aloxanthin 
and the two yellow constituents of rhubarb, chrysophanic acid and 
emodin, as becoming evident ou comparison of their f ormulije : — 

Chrysophanic Acid, Cy Hi,j 0.^- C^H- •' (O H).-, 

Emodin. . . . Ci5Hi,0,--.Ci,H,J (0H)3 



Aloxanthin . . Cj^ B^^^ 0^ - Cj^ H3 < (0 H)^ 


from which cumpounds appear as di-, tri-, and tetra-oxyderi- 
vatives of methylanthraquinone. 


Amyriii, tlie principal constituent of olemi, has been I'O investigated 
by Dr. E. Buri, who gives the formula G,-^ H^o 0, or (G- Hy); H.O, 
as the proper representation of its composition. According to Prof. 
Fliickiger it is associated in elemi with icacin, (C5 Hg)g H^ 0, 
bryoidin, (Cg Hg)^^ Ho 0, and a volatile oil, (C- H^),. Dr. Buri's 
analysis of capsaicin, the pungent principle isolated from capsicum 
fruit by Mr. Thresh, leads to the formula Cg H^^ Oo, the correctness 
of which is now confirmed by Mr. Thresh's own determinations. 
Kosin, a crystalline body prepared by Dr. Merck, and described by 
Professor Fliickiger (see Year-Booh of Pharmacy, 1875, p. 19), is 
now asserted by Professor Buchheim to be, not merely a definite 
chemical constituent of cusso, but also its real active principle, and 
as such it is recommended by him to the notice of the medical 

Artificially jDrepared oil of mtistard is generally regarded as 
identical with the natural product, and so it unquestionably would 
be if it were prepared from allyl iodide and potassium sulphocyanide ; 
but as such a preparation would be more costly than the oil obtained 
from black mustard seeds, the artificial oil of commerce is probably 
the unpurified product of the dry distillation of a mixture of 
potassium allyl-sulphate and sulphocyanide, and as such it is hardly 
fit for therapeutic purposes. Dr. E. Mylius, who reports on this 
subject, finds that the best artificial oil met with in German com- 
merce contains about eight per cent, of impurities. In a valuable 
contribution to the chemistry of essential oils presented to the 
British Pharmaceutical Conference, Dr. Tilden records the results of 
a further study of the action of nitroxyl chloride (N CI) on 
various terpenes of the formula C^, H^g. The results of this re- 
action enable him not only to distinguish true terpenes from the 
polymeric hydrocarbons of the formulae C^jH,^, Cgo Hgo, etc., but 
also to distinguish between various true terpenes obtained from 
different sources. He ari'ives at the conclusion that the terpenes 
from several diff'erent plants are really indentical and not simply 
isomeric. This he believes to be the case with the terpenes fi^om 
French turpentine, juniper, and sage ; also with those from orange 
peel, bergamot, and lemon. Thus he divides the natural terpenes 
into two groups, viz., the turpentine group and the orange group, 
differing from each other by their boiling point, the melting points 
of their nitroso- derivatives, and other features. The difference in 
odour which the members of either group exhibit is attributed by 
him to the presence of small quantities of the heavier constituents 
of the oils, which it is almost impossible to separate completely by 


distillation. The oils of lavender and savin do not appear to be 
terpenes, as even their most volatile fractions contain oxygen. The 
oils of caraway and sage, however, contain terpenes besides oxygen 
compounds. The latter forms the subject of an elaborate report by 
Messrs. ^I. ^I. Pattison Muir and S. Sugiura, which was also read 
at the Plymouth meeting of the Conference. A reinvestigation of 
the stearoptcn of oil of cubebs, by Dr. E. Schmidt, confirms the 
correctness of the formula C^- Hoj^. Ho 0, which had been called in 
question by Messrs. J. Jobst and 0. Hesse. 

!Mr. E. F. Teschemacher recommends a process for the assay of 
opium, the main points of which consist in the avoidance of the 
use of alcohol for extracting the morphine, and the separation of 
the meconic acid at an early stage, thus preventing the formation of 
a basic meconate on px'ecipitation of the morphine. The same sub- 
ject is treated in a supplementary note to his previous report by 
Mr. B. S. Proctor, in which he suggests some further improvements 
respecting the exhaustion of opium by percolation. 

The manufacture of sodium carbonate from common salt by the 
so-called ammonia process is already undergoing important modifi- 
cations. Hitherto, the main step in the process was the formation 
of sodium bicarbonate (see Year-Boole of Pharmacy , 1874, p. 171). 
The improvement now introduced is based upon the comparative 
insolubility of monohydrated sodium carbonate (Na^ C O3. Hn 0) in 
a concentrated solution of sodium chloride. This carbonate crystal- 
lizes at 60°-70° C. from a mixed saturated solution of ammoniura 
carbonate and common salt containing the latter in excess. It is 
converted into the ordinary carbonate, Xa^ C O3. 10 Ho 0, by simple 

The question, whether two different salts, when dissolved together 
in water, exist in the solution in the same condition in which they 
were introduced, or whether they suffer a mutual decomposition, is 
difficult to decide in cases in which such a decomposition does not 
result in the foi-mation of an insoluble or difficultly soluble combina- 
tion. Some light is thrown on this subject by Dr. H. C. Dibbits, 
who bases his conclusions on the different quantities of ammonia lost 
by solutions of different ammonium salts upon boiling. By dissolv- 
ing equivalent proportions of ammonium sulphate and potassium 
chloride, and determining the loss of ammonia on boiling, so as to 
ascertain whether this loss is equal to that ocurring with ammonium 
sulphate, or to that ocurring with ammonium chloride, he finds the 
boiled solution to contain ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, 
potassium chloride, and potassium sulphate. With other salts of 


potassium and ammonium, the results are the same, proving in each 
case a partial decomposition of the salts employed. 

The chemical constitution of chlorinated lime seems to afford an 
unlimited scope for the exercise of chemical ingenuity, for year after 
year brings fresh contributions to its literature. The most recent re- 
port on this subject is one by Mr. C. Stahlschmidt, in whose opinion 
bleaching powder contains no free calcium hydrate whatever, 
but has a composition represented by the formula 2 Ca H CI Oo + 
Ca Clo + 2 Ho 0, its main constituent being a calcium hydro-oxy- 

chloride, CaH CI 0^, or Ca<^-. p,, which he believes to be formed 

by the replacement of an atom of hydrogen in calcium hydrate 
by an atom of chlorine. The calcium chloride he regards as stand- 
ing outside the constitution of chlorinated lime. 

Turning now to that branch of chemical literature more 
particularly devoted to the methods of analysis, we have again to 
record a number of processes more or less directly valuable to 
pharmacists. Mr. J\I. M. Pattison Muir estimates bismuth volu- 
metrically, by adding a titrated solution of potassium dichromate 
to a nearly neutral solution of bismuth nitrate until the whole of 
the metal is precipitated as chromate. The final point of the reaction 
is determined by bringing a drop of the supernatant liquid into con- 
tact with a drop of solution of silver nitrate, when the slightest 
excess of the test will be indicated by the formation of red silver 
chromate. The titration of nitric acid by indigo requires certain 
precautious and conditions, the details of which form the subject of 
;i paper by Mr. R. Warington. Professor F. Stolba has rendered 
good service to analysts by showing that the estimation of phos- 
phoric acid and magnesium by precipitation as ammonio magnesium 
phosphate, etc., may be effected volumetrically. Instead of igniting 
the washed precipitate and weighing it as pyrophosphate, it is only 
necessary to determine its alkalinity by means of deci-normal hydro- 
chloric acid, using cochineal as an indicator. Arsenic acid may be 
estimated in the same manner. The action of the acid on the pre- 
cipitate is explained by the following equation : — 

Mg. N Hj. P 0^ + 2 H CI = N H^. H... P 0^ + Mg CU ■ 
Mg. N H^. As 0^ + 2 H CI = :^^ H^. Ho" As O^ + Mg clg. 

If magnesium is to be estimated in the presence of calcium, the 
latter need only be precipitated by ammonium oxalate in the presence 
of ammonium chloride, and the magnesium then thrown down by 
sodium phosphate and ammonium hydrate, without removing the 


calcium oxalate by filtration, for the oxalate does not interfere in tlie 
least with the titration of the magnesium precipitate. We have 
had occasion to try his process and are much pleased with the 
results. It is evident that the officinal sodium phosphate, Na,. H. P 0^, 
may thus be directly titrated -without being first converted into 
ammonio magnesium phosphate : — 

Na.. H. P.Oj + H CI - Na. H.. P 0^ + Ka Cl ; 

or after ignition : — 

Na^. P. 0; + H. + 2 H Cl - 2 Na Ho P 0^ + 2 Na Cl. 

Mr. H. Pellet points out that chlorides can be readily titrated in 
the presence of phosphates by acidifying the solution with nitric 
acid, then neutralizing with calcium carbonate, and afterwards de- 
termining the chlorine by means of standard silver nitrate and 
potassium chromate in the usual manner. The same chemist, in 
conjunction with M. F. Jean, suggests the application of baryta 
water and a titrated acid for the volumetric estimation of oxalates. 
Tannin is recommended by !Mr. H. Kiimmerer as a reagent in water 
analysis on account of its power of precipitating gelatinous and 
albuminoid matters. A handy process for estimating magnesia in 
potable waters is proposed by Mr. L. Legler, and consists mainly 
in the precipitation of the magnesium as hydrate by a known 
quantity of sodium or potassium hydrate, and the titration of the 
excess of alkali by standard sulphuric acid. In estimating potas- 
sium and sodium in a mixture of their carbonates by the so-called 
indirect method, it was hitherto the rule first to convert the carbon- 
ates into chlorides or sulphates. This Dr. Wittstein shows to be 
unnecessary, as the relative proportions of the two carbonates may 
be equally well calculated from the quantity of carbonic acid the 
mixture is found to contain. Mr. W. F. Koppeschaar bases a volu- 
metric process for the estimation of phenol on its well-known re- 
action with bromine water. The latter is added in excess to ensure 
complete precipitation of the phenol as Cg Ho Brg H, and the 
excess of the reagent determined by potassium iodide and standard 
solution of sodium hyposulphide. The separation and detection of 
arsenic in forensic analyses is best effected, according to ^Mr. J. A. 
Kaiser, by heating the suspected organic matter with sulphuric acid 
and sodium chloride, and converting the chloride of arsenic now 
contained in the distillate into arsenic acid by means of potassium 
chlorate. The product is then in a suitable condition for examin- 
ation by ]Mar.-^h's test or any of the usual methods. For the quanti- 


tative defcerminatiou of traces of this poison in mineral and organic 
substances, M. Crommydes strongly recommends Gautior's process, 
which consists in the evolution of the ai'sonic from a i\Iarsh's appa- 
ratus in the form of arseniuretted hydrogen, and the direct weighing 
of the metallic arsenic deposited in the combustion tube. On theo- 
retical grounds we cannot but doubt the accuracy of this method, 
for it is well known that an appreciable portion of the arsenic in- 
troduced into Marsh's apparatus remains in it as such with the 
zinc. The results of M. Crommydes' experiments, however, exhibit 
nevertheless a high degree of accuracy, and such being the case, we 
beg to recommend this apparently very handy and expeditious pro- 
cess to the further notice of critical investigators. 

The analysis of food and drugs, or rather the detection of adulter- 
ation therein, is a subject which during the last six years has re- 
ceived so many contributions that it may almost be said to have a 
literature of its own. This is no doubt a direct consequence and, we 
venture to say, one of the best results of the Adulteration Act, a 
result which, we trust, may long continue to accrue from its operation. 
During the current year the published researches bearing on this 
subject have been fewer in number than heretofore, but this is pro- 
bably to be regarded merely as a temporary lull to be followed by 
an increased activity. One of the most difficult tasks a public 
analyst may be called upon to perform, and one which but a few 
years ago would have been wholly beyond his power, is the detection 
and estimation of admixtures of foreign fats in butter. Even now 
the processes employed for this purpose can hardly be said to be 
entirely satisfactory, but they have unquestionably been much 
advanced by the researches of Messrs. Angell and Hehner, and more 
recently by the reports of Dr. Muter and Dr. Dupre, from which it 
appears that the specific gravity of the butter fat, together with its 
percentages of soluble and insoluble fatty acids, afford a fairly reli- 
able indication of the presence or absence of adulteration. An 
excellent and withal very simple mode of detecting mineral acids 
in vinegar is recommended by Mr. Hehner, who relies for this pur- 
pose on the reaction of the ash. The traces of alkaline acetates and 
tartrates invariably occurring in vinegar are converted into car- 
bonates by incineration, and thus impart an alkaline reaction to 
the ash. An admixture of sulphuric or hydrochloric acid would 
convert these acetates and tartrates into sulphates or chlorides ; 
thus causing the ash of such vinegar to be neutral to test paper. 
The quantity of the adulterant is ascertained by mixing the vinegar 
with a measured volume of deci-normal solution of soda, evaporating 


the mixture to dryness, incinerating the residue, and determining 
the loss of alkalinity by titration with deci-normal sulphuric acid. 
This process is likewise applicable for the estimation of mineral 
acids in adulterated lime or lemon jnice. Sulphuric acid may also 
be detected in vinegar by means of a reaction of colchicine described 
by Prof. Fliickiger. The same chemist reports on the characters of 
gurjun oil, and its detection in copaiba by means of carbon bisul- 
phide and a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids. For the deter- 
mination of fatty oils in adulterated copaiba, Dr. Muter makes use of 
a process based on the different degrees of solubility of the sodium 
salts of oleic and copaivic acids in a mixture of ether and alcohol. 
Mr. Greenish supplies pharmacists with some further valuable 
information concerning the use of the microscope for the detection 
of adulteration, by drawing attention to the distinctive character of 
cassava starch, the pi'oduce of ManiJwt utlUsstma, which has been 
repeatedly observed as an adulterant of arrowroot. The same 
instrument is shown by j\lr. W. J. Clark to afford a ready means 
for the recognition of an admixture of seed or rind with the pow- 
dered pulp of colocynth. An unusual amount of attention has been 
devoted to the testing of wines, and the detection therein of fuchsine 
and other artificial colouring matters. Abstracts of the most im- 
portant papers bearing on this subject will be found in this volume. 
The influence of desiccation and other modes of preservation of 
various vegetable articles of food forms the subject of a chemical 
study by Prof. Attfield, the results of which are embodied in an 
interesting report read at the Plymouth meeting of the British 
Pharmaceutical Conference. 

The question whether or not copper is to be considered a poison 
has been much discussed of late, without leading to anything like 
unanimity of opinion. It appeal's to be generally conceded, how- 
ever, that this metal is not a poison in the same sense in which 
arsenic, lead, and mercury are termed poisons ; it does not directly 
produce fatal effects, and workmen engaged in its production and in 
the manufacture of its salts do not seem to suffer in health from 
their occupation. Messrs. Paul and Kingzett believe that preserved 
peas coloured with small quantities of copper salts, such as those 
largely imported from France, are pei-fectly harmless, basing their 
opinion on the observation that the greater part of this metal thus 
introduced into the stomach is eliminated Avith the fajccs. All that 
is positively known respecting the action of copper, is that in large 
or even in moderate doses it produces vomiting and other violent 
symptoms, and that in smaller doses it produces asti-ingent effects ; 


but Avhether the regular and long continued introduction of minute 
quantities, such as occur in coloured vegetables, may or may not be 
detrimental to health, is at preset, we think, an open question, the 
final solution of which lies outside the sphere of chemical research. 

MM. Dujardin Beaumetz and Audige have studied the effects 
on dogs of liyjiodermic injections of glycerin, and arrive at the con- 
clusion that, when administered in large doses, this substance 
possesses decided toxic properties, producing symptoms analogous 
to those of acute alcoholism. This fact, apart from its thei-apeutic 
value, cannot fail to be interesting to chemists who regard glycerin 
as an alcohol of the formula Cg Hj 3 H O. 

Among the vegetable drugs which during the present year have 
formed the objects of chemical and medical research, there are not 
many that can be classed as new remedies, the majority of them 
having met with previous notices. Xanthinm spinosimi is introduced 
as a remedy for hydrophobia, and strongly recommended as such by 
Dr. Grzymala. M. Guichard, who deals with the chemistry and 
pharmacy of this drug, considers an alcoholic extract as the best 
form for its administration, and states that he has obtained indica- 
tions therein of the presence of an alkaloid which he soon hopes to 
isolate. Olive-tree bark is spoken of as a valuable febrifuge, owing 
its therapeutic properties to a principle similar in its action to 
quinine, to which the name oliverine has been given. The same 
properties are attributed to the so-called quinine flower, a drug 
derived from a gentianaceous plant growing in Florida. The root 
of Smvi latifolium, a Californian plant belonging to the order 
Umhelliferce, is reported to possess toxic properties, resembling 
those of digitalis and due to a resinous constituent. Mate, or Para- 
guayan tea, is said to be obtained from the leaves and young 
branches of Hex mate paraguayensis, and to contain a considerable 
amount of caffeine ; its prolonged use as a beverage appears to prove 
injurious to the heart and digestive organs. The root of Mer/arrhiza 
Californica is described as a strong di'astic and hydragogue purga- 
tive, owing its action to a glucoside named megarrhizin, which 
agrees in many of its chemical and physical properties with colo- 
cynthin and bryonin, but is not identical with either. The alcoholic 
extract of the root may be administered in doses varying from an 
eighth of a grain to half a grain, and will probably prove very 
useful in dropsical conditions, as it also augments the urinary dis- 
charges ; in large doses it is a powerful irritant, causing gastro- 
enteritis and death. An alkaloid named timbonine has been isolated 
by M. Martin from the root bark of timbo (PaidUnia 2^innaia), a 


Bi-azilian dnig which is used in the form of poultices as an irritant. 
Mr. A. Kopj) gives a description of an odorous resin, called rcsiiia 
iiuaiaci jH'riuu'iina aromatlca, the origin of which is as yet unknown. 
It is stated to be entirely different from true guaiacum resin, and to 
yield ujiou distiUation with v/atcr a volatile oil the odour of which 
resembles a mixture of peppermint and lemon. Hoang-Nan is the 
name of a bark which is said to be much esteemed in Toug-King 
(in Eastern Asia) as a remedy for hydrophobia. Specimens of this 
drug received and examined by M. Planchon correspond in every 
])articular with the bark of Sfrijchnos nux vomica. The description 
of a large number of Indian drugs, their botanical sources, and the 
uses to which they are applied, forms the subject of an interesting 
and very extensive report by Prof. Dymock, published in the Phar- 
maceutical Society's Journal. 

^Ir. J. Jobst reports that his attempts to prepare cotoiu from 
recent importations of cota bark have failed in their immediate 
object, but have led to the isolation, by the same process which pre- 
viously yielded cotoin (see Year-Booh of Fharmacy, 1876, p. 150), 
of a body similar to and possessing the same therapeutic proper- 
ties as cotoin. This he proposes to call 2^'^^^'<^''(^otoin. The bark 
itself differs from that previously operated upon in its external 
appearance as well as in its odour and taste. A subsequent examin- 
ation of the recently imported bark shows the presence therein of 
four distinct crystalhue principles, viz. paracotoin. Cjg Hj^ Og ; leu- 
cotin, Coi HoQ Og ; oxyleiicotin, Coj Hoq O7 ; and hijdrocotoin, Cno Hoq Og. 
Cotoin is now found to have a composition corresponding to the 
formula Coo Hjg Og, from which paracotoin appears to be a homo- 
logue differing by C3 Hg. The latter, notwithstanding its high price, 
is finding much favour as a remedy against all forms of diarrhoea. 

MM. Gallois and Hardy publish the details of a chemical 
investigation of mancona bark, the produce of ErijthrojjJdoeurn 
ffiiiiieoise, resulting in the isolation of a strongly poisonous alkaloid, 
to which they give the name cri/throjJdeine. It resembles strych- 
nine in its reaction with ])otassium permanganate and sulphuric 
acid, but the coloration thus produced is less intense, and soon 
changes to a dirty brown. The bark of Galipea Casparia, commonly 
known as angostura bark, has also furnished a new alkaloid, which 
Me.s.srs. Oberlin and Schlagdcnhauffen find to be soluble in ether, 
chloroform, and benzoline, and to differ entii-ely from Saladin's 
cusparme. On the other hand, the asserted existence of an alkaloid 
iu scammony root is dis])uted by Messrs. Kingzett and Parries. 
Resin of si-ammony, according to the same authors, is a glucoside. 


differing but little from jalapin. The toxic properties of Persian 
insect powder (the flowers of P^retlinoni caucasicuvi) also appear to be 
due to a glucoside, for such the body named persicin, prepared and 
described by Mr. R. Rotlier, proves to be. 

The active properties of Indian hemp have hitherto been ascribed 
to its resinous constituents. Dr. Preobraschensky, however, shows 
that commercial hashish, as well as the flowering tops of the plant, 
and the pure extract prepared therefrom, all contain a volatile 
alkaloid which, in odour, taste, the crystalline forms of its salts, 
and its reactions with platinic chloride and other tests, corresponds 
exactly with nicotine. Two grams of the extract distilled with lime 
and potash furnished 63'5 milligrams of nicotine. 

Professor Buchheim's research on the constituents of black pepper 
establishes the fact that the amorphous substance pi-eviously denoted 
as " resin," is a distinct principle, which, like piperin, yields piperi- 
din when treated with alcoholic solution of potash. While piperin 
may be regarded as piperidin, C5 H -^o H I^, in which one atom of 
hydrogen is replaced by pipericacid, C5 H^q (C^oHg O3) N, chavicin, 
the body referred to, is to be considered as piperidin in which an 
atom of hydrogen is replaced in a similar manner by chavicic acid. 
A part of Mr. Thi'esh's report on cayenne pepper deals with the 
fatty matter obtained from it, proving free palmitic acid to be its 
predominating constituent. 

Pumpkin seeds, according to Mr. E. Heckel, owe their anthelmin- 
tic action to a resinous substance contained in the outer layer of the 
fourth or innermost coat of the seed, and not, as was formerly sup- 
posed, to the fatty oil residing in the cotyledons. Owing to the 
absence of this papyraceous membrane, which alone contains the 
resin, in other cucurbitaceons seeds, the latter are said to be inert. 
At the same time it is shown that even active seeds become inert by 
being blanched in a fresh state, as all the coats are thereby removed. 
The seeds of Uicinus communis form the subject of an examination 
by Mr. E. L.Boerner, showing them to contain, in addition to the fatty 
oil, emulsin, sugar, and a crystallizable body possessing none of the 
characters of an alkaloid. 

In a paper read before the Pharmaceutical Society, Mr. H. Senier 
supplies some interesting information respecting the nature of the 
colouring matter contained in the petals of Eosa gallica. This sub- 
stance appears to be an acid capable of forming well-defined crystal- 
lized salts with the alkali metals. The numbers obtained in an 
analysis of the lead salt lead to the formula Pb^ Co^ H^g Oo^. 

Emodin, one of the constituents of rhubarb, is now known to be 


also a constituent oE the bark of Bhamnus frangula. Messrs. 
Liebermaim and "Waldstein, who have isolated this substance from 
a parcel of old bark, admit that it is not quite identical with the 
frangulic acid, or frangulin, obtained bj Faust, and consider it 
probable that the latter may exist in the recent bark and become 
gradually converted into emodin by oxidation. Such a change, if 
confirmed, would throw light on the hitherto unexplained fact that 
this bark requires to be ke2)t for at least twelve months before it 
is suitable for medicinal use (see Year-Book of Pharmao/, 1876, 
p. 162). 

The presence of tannic acid in gentian root, first asserted by Mr. 
E. L. Patch, and subsequently disputed by Professor Maisch, is now 
confirmed by M. Ville, who finds that the colouring matter of gen- 
tian, known as gentianin, gives unmistakable reactions with ferric 
chloride, albumen, and gelatine. Gelsemiuic acid, one of the prin- 
ciples isolated from the root of Gelsemium scmpervirens is proved by 
Professor Sonnenschein to be identical with sesculin, a substance 
contained in the bark of the horse chestnut. Benzoic and cinnamic 
acids are now stated to occur in balsam of tolu in the free state as 
well as in that of their benzylic ethers. 

Pi'ofessorBentley draws attention to the distinguishing chai'acters 
of valerian and the rhizome and rootlets of Vei-atmm album, on 
account of an admixture of the latter he has recently detected in a . 
parcel of valerian. In a like manner, Mr. Holmes deals with the 
features of distinction between aconite root and the root of master- 
wort, Imperatoria odrutlimm, which he has observed to occur as an 
adulterant or admixture in the former. Considering the cheapness 
of aconite root, !Mr. Holmes attributes this adulteration to care- 
lessness in collecting the drug, an opinion which receives much 
support from an article on masterwort published in the Pharma- 
ceutische Zeitunrj, an abstract of which will be found on page '100 of 
this volume. 

Notwithstanding all that has been said and written with reference 
to the syrups of phosphates of iron, this subject still continues to 
engage attention, as may be seen from the further contributions it 
has received during the cui-rent year. A ferric citrophosphate, of the 
formula Fcj. P 0^. Cg Hj 0^, is described and recommended by Mr. 
Rother as superior, both as regards flavour and the stability of its 
solution, to all similar combinations now in use. Among the modern 
ferric preparations employed as therapeutic agents, a solution of a 
very basic oxychloride, known as "J'crrum dialysatum," deserves to 
be mentioned here as one rapidly gaining favour with the medical 


profession on account of its non-astringenej and ready assimilation 
in the system. Its history, mode of preparation, and properties form 
the subject of several papers contained in this vohime. The process 
of dialysis will probably before long find a more extensive applica- 
tion in pharmacy than has hitherto been the case ; for not only does 
it afford an easy and very simple means of separating crystallizable 
substances from gummy, extractive, colouring, and other colloid 
matters, but it may also serve, as Mr. Rother shows, for the concen- 
tration of solutions of crystalloids without the aid of heat, an 
important point considering the injurious influence of the latter on 
many vegetable alkaloids and other active principles. 

The pharmacy of sugar receives able treatment at the hands of 
Dr. Symes in a paper read before the British Pharmaceutical Con- 
ference, in which he deals with the various objects for which sugar 
is used in pharmaceutical preparations, the condition in which it 
should be used, its inversion by acids, and other points of interest. 
Mr. E. Gregory criticises the various modes of preparing emulsions, 
and arrives at the conclusion that the use of mucilage in these 
processes should be abandoned in favour of powdered gum. For 
the preparation of extracts known to suffer in quality from the- 
application of heat, Mr. A. Herrara suggests the abstraction of the 
greater part of the water from the expressed juice or cold infusion by 
repeated freezing, and the subsequent evaporation of the mother- 
liquor at a temperature not exceeding oO° C. Extract of couium 
thus prepared has the characteristic odour of conine, and when 
treated with water yields a solution possessing the appearance and 
all the properties of the fresh juice. A cold process of preparing 
essential oils, consisting mainly in their extraction by means of 
petroleum benzin, is described by Mr. L. Wolff, who states that oils 
obtained in this manner have an ai'oma superior in many cases to 
that of the same oils obtained by distillation. 

Mr. B. Squire points out the ready solubility of crystallized 
nitrate of bismuth in glycerin, and recommends such a solution 
both for internal and external application. The chemical reactions 
of this glycerole induce jNIr. J. Williams to regai-d it as a chemical 
combination, whereas Mr. W. Willmott, who has likewise studied its 
behaviour with reagents, believes it to be a mere solution. An obate 
of bismuth containing twenty per cent of the oxide is suggested by 
Mr. S. C. Betty as a suitable external remedy. Mr. Squire also pro- 
poses the use of chrysophauic acid, one of the principles of rhubarb, 
in the place of goa powder, of which it forms the chief constituent. 
It is best applied in the form of ointments, formulse for the prepar- 


atiou of which are given hotli by ~Mr. Squire and Mr. Gerrard. Mr. 
W. W. Urwick reports the interesting observation that an albumin- 
atecl sohition of phosphorus in a mixture of absolute alcohol and 
glycerin instantly loses its odour and taste on the addition of a 
few drops of oil of neroli, thus producing a pleasant and palatable 

We cannot, in our opinion, more fitly conclude this introductory 
chapter than by drawing the attention of our readers to Mr. 
Schacht's account of his experience in the equipment and working 
of a small pharmaceutical laboratory. His lucid description, 
c-oupled as it is with excellent drawings by Mr. J. Thompson, will 
serve as a valuable guide to many a pharmacist engaged in the 
construction or improvement of a laboratory of his own, and as an 
inducement to many others, who previously might not have thought 
of so doing, to combine the work of the laboratory with the duties 
of the counter ; a combination which, if judiciously carried out, can 
only result to their advantage. There are among the numerous 
preparations used in pharmacy many, the purity and strength of 
which cannot be ascertained by reliable tests ; and with regard to 
those the pharmacist's best, if not his only, safeguard consists in their 
production by himself or under his own supervision. Nor can the 
education of the modern student of pharmacy be deemed suflficient 
unless his knowledge of dispensing and retail business be supple- 
mented by a fair amount of practical experience concerning the 
processes of the pharmacopoeia, and this, it need hardly be said, can 
only be acquired in the laboratory. In many respects Mr. Schacht's 
report appears to us a most valuable item in the pharmaceutical 
literature of the year, and as such we most heartily commend it ic 
our readers. 





The Detection of Arsenic in Poisoning Cases. J. A. Kaiser. 

(Zeitschr. flir Aiialijl.-Ckem., xiv., 250-281.) The conversion of ar- 
senic into chloride, and its separation as such from organic sub- 
stances by distillation, is known as one of the best processes for the 
isolation and detection of tliis poison in forensic investigations. 
The author's method is a modification of this process, and consists 
mainly in the conversion of the distilling chloride into arsenic acid 
by means of fi-ee chlorine. The suspected Substances are introduced 
into a large flaslc and mixed with a sufficient quantity of sulphuric 
acid previously diluted with one-third of its weight of water, to 
render the mixture fluid. The whole is allowed to stand for at 
least twelve hours, in order to effect the complete disintegration of 
the animal tissues. A quantity of fased sodium chloride is then 
added in large fragments, the flask connected with a smaller one in 
which are placed a few crystals of potassium chloi'ate, and this 
second flask in its turn connected with an absorption bulb contain- 
ing water. Upon gently heating the contents of the large flask and 
continuing the application of heat until the fragments of sodium 
chloride have quite disappeared, chloride of arsenic distils over ; 
and this, by the action of the chlorine evolved from the potassium 
chlorate, is converted into arsenic acid, which collects in the ab- 
sorption bulb. The distillate may then be examined by ^Marsh's 
test or any of the usual methods. The author's report is a lengthy 
one, embodying minute details of all the operations involved. A 
blank experiment with the same quantities of the reagents to be 
employed is recommended, for ascertaining their absolute freedom 
from arsenic. 

Determination of Phosphorus in Forensic Analyses. 0. Schif f er- 
decker. (Zeitschr. des cesterr. Aiioth.-Ver., 1876, 299.) The author 


has made a series of espcriments with the view of ascertaining to 
"U-hat extent Mitscherlich's process for the detection of free phos- 
phorus may be available for its quantitative estimation. He found 
that if the distillation be carried on to the complete termination of 
laminosity, about three-fourths of the phosphorus present will be 
found in the distillate. The contents of the receiver are treated 
with chlorine to convert the phosphorus into phosphoric acid, which 
is then pi'ecipitated by a mixture of magnesium sulphate, ammo- 
nium chloride, and ammonium hydrate. The precipitate, when 
washed, dried, and ignited, contains in 100 parts 46"2 parts of 

Ergotinuie. M. Tanret. (Journal cle P}iarm.,Seipt., 1870.) Pro- 
fessor Dragendorff's statement that Tanret's ergotinine was not a 
chemically distinct substance, but a mixture owing its activity to 
the presence of sclerei'ythrin (see Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1876, 
98, 250), is contradicted by the author, who supplies the following 
evidence to show that his ergotinine cannot contain even a trace 
of sclererythrin. Sclererythrin is a red substance, forming with 
alcohol and ether solutions an intense reddish yellow colour. The 
least trace of it is sufficient to give, with dilute akalies, " a beautiful 
murexid colour.-' Ergotinine, however, is nearly coloxirless, and does 
not produce any coloration with alkalies. If an alkaline solution of 
sclererythrin is treated with an acid, and shaken with ether, the 
colouring matter passes into the ether. The contrary takes place with 
ergotinine ; acids remove it from its solution in ether. The violet 
colour Avhich sulphuric acid produces with scleroiodin cannot be 
confounded with that characteristic of ergotinine. Sulphuric acid 
alone strikes with the latter only a gi'eenish blue. In order to 
develop the reddish yellow colour, followed by an intense violet blue 
(see Ycar-Boolc of I'liarmacy, 1876, 98), it is necessary that the acid 
should not be too concentrated, but diluted with about one-eighth 
of water. Ergotinine is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether, 
in which scleroiodin is insoluble. 

The author regrets that Prof. Dragendorff has not given more 
explicit details as to the preparation and properties of the bodies re- 
presented by him as being the active principles of ergot, scleromucin, 
and sclerotic acid. 

Ergotine. Prof Buchheim. (From the KUnisclie Wochen- 
schrift; Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, vi., 4.) Like other investi- 
gators, the author has failed in his attempts to isolate the active 
principles of ergot. He has arrived at the conclusion that such 
an isolation is impossible, and that for practical medical purposes 


the infusion of ergot, or the freshly prepared cxti-act, will alone 
remain available. The organization of the ergot fungus seems 
to him so low that its myceUiim cannot build up organic matter, 
so as to constitute an alkaloid or glucoside substance, from water, 
carbonic acid, and ammonia, but feeds, so to speak, more directly 
on the vegetable material of the mother plant. He believes that 
less elementary compounds are taken np by it from the rye 
grain, and thinks the gluten the most likely material from 
which to form the gelatine-like substance which he isolated partly 
from ergotine. On this modified albuminous constituent of the 
rye, at a certain stage of its metamorphosis, he infers, depends the 
peculiar action of the fresh infusion or extract. Any further com- 
plex chemical processes and reactions for the isolation of the active 
substance must necessarily have changed it so much in its natural 
course of decomposition, that it has lost it efficacy; in the same 
manner, for instance, as the decomposing albuminous substances of 
putrid blood lose their poisonous effects when decomposition has 
reached a certain jDoint. The freshly prepared ergotine seems 
therefore to give alone a guarantee of success. For subcutaneous 
application it ought to be carefully neutralized by carbonate of soda, 
as it contains much acid, especially lactic acid, as Buchheim found, 
besides quantities of leucine. 

Amyrin, the Principal Constituent of Elemi. E. Buri. 
(Neues Bc2:)ert. Pharm., x:s.v., liyo-204:.) In his last reports on the 
chemisti-y of elemi, Prof. Flilckiger mentioned that bryiodin of the 
formula (C^q 1^16)2 + '^ -^2 ^' constituted only a very small propor- 
tion of the crystallizable matter present in the resin, and assumed 
that the greater part consisted of amyrin of the formula 
(CiQH^g)2 + Ho 0, which body the author has more fully investi- 

Amyrin is contained in elemi in the form of microscopic prisms, 
which can be separated from the other ingredients by treatment 
with cold alcohol, the former being insoluble in that liquid. By re- 
peatedly recrystallizing the residue from hot alcohol, amyrin is 
obtained in colourless needles, joined together as globular aggregates 
of silky lustre. It melts at 177°, but resolidifies at a much lower 
temperature. Water does not dissolve it, but ether, chloroform, 
and carbon bisulphide dissolve it easily. Experiments have shown 
that 100 parts of alcohol dissolve 3"627 parts of amyrin at 10°. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves amyrin with a reddish 
colour. It is not attacked by melting potash. An alcoholic 
solution of amyrin rotates the plane of polarized light to the right. 


The rotation in a layer 200 mm. long was equal to + 4'5°at IC. 
Sp. gr. of the solution at 1G° = 0-8255. 

Amyrin is not volatilized in the vapour of water at the ordinary 
atmospheric pressure. When heated in a retort, it melts and de- 
composes, giving at 200° a yellow, thin, oily distillate, which becomes 
thicker as the temperature rises. The distillate afterwards solidifies; 
and at the end yellow clouds ascend, which condense in the neck of 
the retort to a yellow powder, leaving behind a shiny blistered cake. 
On heating a thin layer very carefully, amyrin sublimes in long thin 
needles ; but the yield is only very small. Amyrin dried at 100° 
gave, by analysis, 81'31 to SS'TT per cent, carbon, and ll'oO to ll'Sl 
hydrogen, agreeing nearly with the formula Cj Hj^ 0, which re- 
quires 63-80 C, 11-73 H, and 4-47 0. 

An atom of hydrogen in the molecule of amyrin can be replaced 
by the radical of acetic acid. One part of amyrin was heated with 
about four parts of acetic anhydride in a sealed tube to 150° for 
several hours, and the residue dissolved in hot alcohol and recrystal- 
lized, when acetyl-amyrin Avas obtained in white micaceous laminge. 
It melts at lt'8', and solidifies a few degrees lower. It is more 
difficultly soluble in alcohol then amyrin. At 18°, lOU parts of 
alcohol dissolve 0-473 part of acetyl-amyrin. Analysis gave 80-71 
to 81-23 per cent. C, and 10-90 to 10-97 H,. agreeing with the 
formula C,; H^ 0,, or C.- H^^ (C. H. 0) O, which requires 81 C, 
11 H, and 8 0. 

Bromine acts energetically on solid amyrin, forming a blackish 
green mass with strong evolution of hydrobromic acid. A cold 
saturated alcoholic solution of amyrin was treated with an excess of 
bromine, a yellow precipitate being deposited after several hours, 
which was recrystallized from hot alcohol. The purified product 
forms a colourless, indistinctly crystalline powder, which melts at 130° 
with decomposition. The analysis of this body gave 2982 to 30-10 
percent, bromine, 59-58 to 59-67 carbon, and 795 to 8-17 hydrogen, 
numbers which may be represented approximately by either of the 
formulae, C^q Hj, Br3 and C,o Hgj Brg ; the former requiring 
60-07 per cent. C, 7-89 H, 30-04 Br, and 200 0; the latter 5963 
C, 8-11 H, 29-96 Br, and 200 0. The formation of these com- 
pounds may be represented by the equations: — 

8 (0,5 H,. 0) + 30 Br - 5 (C,,, H^g Br.5 0) + 15 H Br + 3 H. ; 
8 (€,, H,, 0) ~ 20 Br = 5 (C,o H,, Br, 0) + 5 H Br + 3 H, 0. 

Boiling nitric acid forms with amyrin a clear yellow solution, which 



after evaporation leaves a yellow mass. This mass gives an acid solu- 
tion in water, as it contains oxalic acid. It reduces Feliling's solution 
when warmed. The greater part, however, is not soluble in water; 
it forms a resiu acid, which when boiled with alcohol deposits, after 
cooling, a yellow powder. Dry hydrochloric gas does not act on 
amyrin alone, or dissolved in chloroform. 

The destructive distillation of amyrin, yielded the following pro- 
ducts : — 

1. A fraction distilling at 60° - 70^. This formed a colourless 
liquid, lighter than water, almost tasteless, and with pleasant smell, 
and giving by analysis So'lo, and (2) 83-47 per cent, carbon, and 
14'.50 to 14-75 hydrogen. 

•2. A fraction distilling at 185'' - 200° was a yellow thin liquid, 
sparingly soluble in water, with pleasant smell and aromatic taste, 
and giving by anyalsis 81'65 per cent., 11*47 H, and 658 0. 

3. A fraction distilling at 260° - 280° was a golden yellow thick 
liquid, with slight smell and sharp taste, insoluble in water, and 
giving 84-40 C, 11-56 H, and 4-04 0. 

4. Above 300°, a thick liquid with brown colour distilled over. 
The yellow powder observed at the end of the distilling operation 
consisted of three different bodies, which could not be separated and 

The comparison of amyrin with icacin, recently described by Sten- 
bouse and Groves {Lieb. Ann., clsxx., 253) as a body contained in 
the incense-tree, is worthy of notice, as Fliickiger assumes it to be 
an clemi resin. It melts at 175°. Stenhouse and Groves give the 
foi-mula C^g H-Q ; bnt Fliickiger thinks it probable that this body 
is similar to amyrin, and accordingly deduces from his analyses the 
formula C^- F-^ = (C5 H3) g + H^ O. Icacin seems to replace amyrin 
in some kinds of elemi. 

If Prof. Fliickiger's formula be adopted, we obtain the following 
series of elemi constituents : — 

Volatile Oil (C^ Hg;. 

Icaciu (C5H8)9^-IL,6 

Amyrin (CjHgjj + HjO 

Bryoidiii (CjHs)4 + 3HoO 

The Action of Dilute Nitric Acid on Brucine. W. A. Sheustonc. 
(From a paper read before the Pharmaceutical Society, Febi-uary 7th, 
1877 ; Pharm. Jotirn., 3rd series, vii., 652, 653.) The results of the 
author's experiments fully confirm those published last year by 
Mr. Cownley (Year-Booh of PJiarmacij, 1876, 28), and disprove Prof. 


Sonnensclieiu's allegation that bruciiic can be converted into strycli- 
nino by the action of dilute nitric acid (Year-Boole ofPharmacij, 1875, 
-2). It further appears from Shenstone's research that traces of 
strychnine are readily destroyed by the action of even very dilute 
nitric acid, and this fact probably explains why Prof. Sonnenschein 
■failed to detect strychnine in the brucinc experimented Avith. The 
desti'uction of strychnine by niti'ic acid, moreover, is an imj^ortant 
point in forensic investigations. 

^Ir. Shenstone also gives a method of purifying brucine, "svhich 
depends upon the fact that strychnine precipitates brucine from its 
salts, and consists in partially precipitating the brucine from its 
salts with an alkali, standing aside for a few houi-s, collecting, wash- 
ing, and redissolving the precipitate in a dilute acid, then again 
partially precipitating, etc. The author found that the bruicne tested 
gave no indication of strychnine after four precipitations. The cost 
of this purification need be but slight, as the unprecipitated brucine 
can be recovered. 

Note on Acetate of Morphine. M. Merck. (PharuK Zeitinuj, 
1870.) When freshly prepared acetate of morphine is easily and 
completely soluble in water ; but it soon becomes less soluble, owing 
to a continual though slow elimination of acetic acid, which leads to 
the formation of a basic salt and eventually of pure morphine. It is 
further altered by long keeping, becoming yellow and even brown. 
The property of forming a colourless solution in cold, concentrated 
Rulpburic acid belongs to the recently prepared salt only. After 
it has been kept for a few weeks it yields a faintly coloured solution, 
although the salt itself may still be perfectly white; aud the longer 
it is kept the darker will be its solution in the acid. The best 
sample of commercial acetate of morphine will not dissolve without 
coloration in sulphuric acid. 

Experience has shown that acetate of morphine undergoes no loss 
of its medicinal properties through the decomposition referred to, 
unless an intense yellow colour shows that the decomposition has 
proceeded too far. The author thinks that the test by means of 
sulphuric acid may be abandoned without disadvantage, and the 
more so as it may sometimes lead to the impression that narcotiue is 

Note on Capsaicin. J. C. Thresh. (From a paper read at the 
Pharmaceutical Society's meeting, December G, 187G.) The author 
has succeeded in obtaining the active principle of capsicum fruit in 
a suflSciently pure state for an ultimate analysis. The process of 
purification consisted in dissolving the crude capsaicin in solution of 


potash (official strength), and prcclpitatiDg by carbonic acid ; col- 
lecting the precipitate, washing, drying, and dissolving in hot 
petroleum. After several days the principle crystallized out, and 
was washed, dissolved in alcohol, diluted with water, and left ex- 
posed to the air but excluded from dust until most of the alcohol 
had disappeared and the capsaicin had crystallized. This was col- 
lected, washed, and placed on the water bath until the weight was 
constant. The combustion of the substance thus purified was 
undertaken by Dr. Buri, in Professor Flilckiger's laboratory, and 
gave the following results : — 

1. Of the capsaicin dried over concentrated sulphuric acid, 0'2987 
gram gave — 

CO. . . 0-7713 
R, 6 . . 0-248G 

2. 0-2860 gram yielded— 

COo . . 0-7363 
H. 6 . . 0-2347 

From these results are calculated the following percentages : — 

I. II. 

C . . 70-42 . . 70-21 

H . 9-25 , . 9-12 

. . 20-33 . . 20-67 

100- 100- 

The simplest expression of the constitution of capsaicin is there- 
fore most probably CjH^^Oo, which formvila agrees very well with 
the above results. 


. 108 


14 H . 







Having since received a large supply of alcoholic extract of cayenne, 
Mr. Thresh hopes soon to have a sufficient quantity of the pure 
capsaicin to attempt the discovery of its relationship to other 
organic principles, and its structural formula. 

Reports of the author's previous researches on capsaicin will be 
found in the Year-Booh of Pharmacy, 1876, 250, 543. 

Processes for the Detection of Alkaloids. Prof. G. Dragen- 
dorff. (From the American Chonitst, April, 1876.) 


The Stryclmlne and Bruchie Process. 

The substance to be analysed should be first cut into small pieces, 
and treated with water and a little sulphuric acid, enough to give 
a decidedly acid reaction to the mixture. To about 100 c.c. of the 
mixture of finely-cut substance and water, add 10 c.c. of diluted 
sulphuric acid (1"5). Digest at 50° C. for several hours, and then 
filter. Treat the undissolved material again with 100 c.c. of water 
and 10 c.c. of the dilute sulphuric acid in the same manner, and 

Pat both filtrates together, and add sufiicient calcined magnesia 
to neutralize most of the free acid ; but the solution must retain 
a decidedly acid reaction. Evaporate on the water bath to the con- 
sistency of thin syrup, but not to dryness. 

Mix this concentrated solution with three or four times its volume 
of alcohol, of from ninety to nine-five per cent., add a few drops of 
dilute sulphuric acid, digest at from 30° to 40° for twenty-four 
hours, and then filter off the insoluble matters. Evaporate the 
filtrate until all the alcohol has passed off", dilute the remaining 
solution to -50 c.c. in a flask, and shake it thoroughly with from 20 
to .30 c.c. of pure benzol. Remove this benzol, and shake again 
with a fresh portion. 

After the second portion of benzol has been removed, the watery 
solution is to be made decidedly alkaline with ammonia, wai'med to 
40° or 50°, when the alkaloid set free is taken up by shaking again 
thoroughly with from 20 to 30 c.c. of benzol. This is then re- 
moved, and the shaking is repeated with another portion of benzol. 

The benzol solutions obtained in this way are generally colour- 
less, and contain the alkaloids so nearly pure that, after shaking 
with distilled water and clearing by immersion in warm water, 
filtering and evaporating, a residue is obtained in which the alka- 
loids may be proved directly. But it is better, after the washing 
with distilled water, to take up the alkaloids again by shaking with 
water acidulated with sulphuric acid, treating twice with 20 or 30 
c.c. of the acidulated water and removing the benzol, then saturate 
the watery solution obtained in this way with ammonia, and make 
a new solution of the alkaloids in benzol. Wash with pure water, 
filter, and evaporate ; and if all the watery solution has been re- 
moved from the benzol, the alkaloids remain, in most cases, so 
pure and colourless that the identifying reactions may bo obtained 
directly. It is best to divide the benzol solutions among several 
watch glasses, and evaporate at about 40° C. 



The Go'.iqjlde Alkaloid Process. 

1. Tlie substance is digested as above, witli water containing sul- 
phuric acid, at a temperature between 40° and 50°, two or three 
times, and the filtrates are put together after all the liquid has been 
pressed out of the solid matter. Most of the alkaloids are not 
injured by this treatment, even when too much acid has been used. 
Solanine, colchicine, and digitalin are the only ones that might be 
injured by a large excess of acid. If there is abundance of time, 
the macerations may be made at common temperatures. 

Bei'berine is less soluble in acidulated water than in pure water, 
but it is completely dissolved by the large quantity of liquid used. 
Piperine also dissolves with difficulty in acidulated water, and part 
of this alkaloid may remain in the undissolved residuum, where it 
should be sought for afterwards. 

2. Evaporate the filtrates, after the free acid has been partially 
neutralized with magnesia, until the liquid reaches the consistency 
of syrup ; mix this with three or four times its volume of alcohol 
and a little dilute sulphuric acid, allow it to digest for about twenty- 
four hours at about 30°, let it become quite cold, and filter from the 
solid matters that have been separated by the alcohol. Wash the 
solid residue with spirits of wine of about seventy per cent. The 
remarks made at 1 concerning solanine, colchicine, and digitalin, 
apply equally to this digestion. 

3. The alcohol must be separated from the filtrate by distilla- 
tion (evaporation), and the watery residue, after the addition of a 
little more water, if necessary, is filtered into a flask, and in its 
acid condition is treated with freshly rectified petroleum naphtha (see 
note at the end of this translation) by continued and repeated 
shaking together at a temperature of about 40°. After the liquids 
have separated, the naphtha, sometimes containing colouring matter 
and such impurities as may be removed by this treatment, is drawn 
off from the aqueous solution. The naphtha may also take up piper- 
ine, and if a considerable quantity has been used, and there is not 
much impurity present, the alkaloid will be left upon evaporating 
thenaphthain well-defined crystals belonging to the rhombic system. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves it gradually, with the produc- 
tion of a handsome brown colour. 

4. Shake the aqueous solution with benzol, in. the same way, at 
from 40° to 50°, and evaporate the benzol after removing it. If 
there are traces of any alkaloid in the residue from this evaporation, 
it indicates caffeine. In this case, neutralize the greater part of the 


acid iu the aqueous solution witli magnesia or ammonia, but still 
leave it decidedly acid, and treat it again with fresb portions of 
benzol, until the latter leaves no residue upon evaporation. Wasli 
the benzol solution by shaking it vrith distilled water ; separate from 
the water, and filter it. Distil off the greater part of the benzol 
from this filtrate, and evaporate the remainder upon several watch 
glasses. Care must bo exercised that in case a drop of the aqueous 
fluid passed through the filter it is not evaporated with the benzol. 

The residue from this evaporation may contain caffeine, delphine, 
colchicine, cubebine, digitalin, and traces of veratrine, physostig- 
mine, and berberine. Caffeine forms definite crystals, as colourless, 
glossy needles ; it is known by its reaction with chlorine water and 
ammonia. Sulphuric acid does not colour it. Cubebine also forms 
small crystals, which may be known by their behaviour with sul- 
phuric acid, and the same may be said of colocynthine, elateriue, and 
syringine. A yellow coloured residue indicates colchicine and ber- 
berine. Sulphuric acid dissolves and colours colchicine an intense 
and durable dark yellow ; bei'berine olive green, becoming clear 
afterwards. Berberine may be distinguished from colchicine by the 
behaviour of its alcoholic solution with tincture of iodine. Del- 
phine, digitalin, veratrine, and physostigmine arc left as amorphous 
nearly colourless residues. Delphine is coloured light brown by 
sulphuric acid ; digitalin yields with it, in less than fifteen hours, a 
number of colours, changing from amber, through red and brown, 
to dark cherry red, and its presence may be confirmed by the sul- 
phuric acid and bromine reaction. Veratrine, with pure sulphuric 
acid, becomes yellow orange, and in less than half an hour beautiful 
orange red, and this test may be confirmed by boiling with fuming 
hydrochloric acid. Physostigmine is not coloured by sulphuric 
acid. It may be known by its action on the eyes of cats. 

5. The acid watery liquid is shaken with amylic alcohol in the 
same way as in 3 and 4, if the presence of theobromine is suspected. 

There are also taken up by the amylic acid some of the above- 
named alkaloids remaining from 3 and 4; namely, veratrine and 
berberine, and traces of narcotine, aconitine, and atropine, and they 
are left in crystals after the evaporation of the solution. 

Theobromine is recognised by its reaction with chlorine water 
and ammonia, and also as it dissolves without colour in concentrated 
sulphuric acid. 

Narcotine is not readily soluble in acetic acid, and may be re- 
cognised by its reaction when warmed with concentrated sulphuric 


G. The acid watery liquid is shaken with chloroform only when 
the presence of the alkaloids of opium is suspected. 

Chloroform takes up papaverine, thebaine (slowly), together with 
small quantities of narceine, brucine, physostigmine, berberine, 
and, when the treatment given at 5, is omitted, veratrine and 

Crystals of papaverine and brucine ai-e left after the evaporation 
of the chloroform solution. Papaverine may be readily distinguished 
by testing with sulphuric acid (beautiful blue violet colour), and 
brucine by the red colour imparted to it by Erdmann's reagent, 
^lost of the narcotine, thebaine, narceine, veratrine, physostigmine, 
and berberine, are left as amorphous substances. 

IS^arcotine may be separated from the other alkaloids by dilute 
acetic acid, in which, it is not readily soluble, and it may be proved 
as in 5. Thebaine is characterized by its behaviour with cold sul- 
phuric acid. Veratrine and physostigmine as above. 

7. The watery liquid at about 43° is then covered with a layer 
of petroleum naphtha, made distinctly alkaline with ammonia, and 
immediately well shaken. After the first naphtha solution has been 
drawn off, other extractions should be made at the same temperature 
with fresh portions of petroleum naphtha. The warm naphtha 
solutions should be washed with distilled water and afterwards 
filtered and evaporated. If the solution is too highly coloured by 
foreign matter, it may be purified by taking up the alkaloids in acid- 
ulated water, adding ammonia and shaking with jsure naphtha 

The petroleum naphtha takes up strychnine, brucine, quinine, 
emetine, veratrine, conine, nicotine, and papaverine. 

(a) Of these, conine and nicotine are fluids, and have characteristic 
odours. They may be bi'ought into solution in distilled water, and 
nicotine is precipitated in minute crystals by potash-cadmium- 
iodide from the diluted solution after neutralizing with sulphuric 
acid, while conine is precipitated in amorphous form. 

(b) Upon cooling the warm naphtha solution, quinine separates, 
and traces of strychnine and papaverine also crystallize out. 

(c) After evaporation, the remainder of the quinine, strychnine, 
and papaverine are left in crystals, and brucine, emetine, and vera- 
ti-ine in amorphous form. 

The dry alkaloids are treated with anhydrous ether, which dis- 
solves quinine, emetine, papaverine, and veratrine ; and also conine 
and nicotine, if they have not been removed by water. 

Strychnine and brucine may be separated by absolute alcobol, in 


which strychnine is neai'ly insoluble. Bracine is recogaised after 
the evaporation of its solution, by its behaviour with Erdmann's re- 
agent. Strychnine may be determined by means of sulphuric acid 
and bichromate of potash. 

After evaporating the ether solution, quinine, emetine, veratrine, 
and papaverine are dissolved in the smallest possible quantity of 
vei'y dilute sulphuric acid; and the cold solution, which should not 
contain less than one per cent, of the alkaloids, is treated with car- 
bonate of soda, when quinine, emetine, and papaverine are precipi- 

Quinine may be determined by its behaviour with chlorine water 
and ammonia. Emetine by pi'oducing an emetic effect, and by the 
absence of the veratrine reaction with hydrochloric acid. Papa- 
verine by its behaviour with sulphuric acid. Veratrine, after its 
watery filtrate has been treated with chloroform and the latter 
evaporated by boiling, with hydrochloric acid. 

8. The alkaline watery liquid is shaken with benzol at 40° or 50°, 
purifying as in 7. This removes quinidine, cinchonine, atropine, 
hyoscyamine, aconitine, physostigmine, and codeine. 

Crystals of cinchonine, sometimes accompanied by a little atropine 
and quinidine, separate from the solution on cooling. 

After evaporating the solution there remain with those just 
named, crystallized codeine (very distinct), aconitine, hyoscyamine, 
and physostigmine (mostly amorphous). 

(a) The residue left by evaporation is treated with ether, which 
dissolves all the above-named alkaloids except cinchonine. 

(b) The residue from the evaporation of this ether solution must 
be dissolved in the smallest possible quantity of water containing 
sulphuric acid, and treated with ammonia slightly in excess, which 
separates quinidine and aconitine, leaving atropine, hyosc^'amine, 
and codeine in solution. 

The precipitate, which may contain quinidine and aconitine, is 
collected on a very small filter and dissolved in the least quantity of 
hydrochloric acid. Upon the addition of chloride of platinum the 
whole of the quinidine is precipitated. 

The solution of aconitine is fx'eed from platinum by a current of 
sulphuretted hydrogen ; then it is made alkaline and shaken with 
chloroform. In the residue left by evaporating this chloroform 
solution, the aconitine may be recognised by means of sulphuric or 
phosphoric acid. 

(c) Atropine dissolves with diflBculty in cold benzol, and codeine 
dissolves readily. The former is not coloured by concentrated sul- 


phuric acid ; tlio latter is gradually coloured blue. Atropine, when 
warmed witH concentrated sulphuric acid, gives the characteristic 
odour pi'eviously described ; codeine does not. Atropine (hyoscja- 
mine) distends the pupil of the eye ; codeine does not. For physos- 
tigmine, see 4. 

9. The watery liquid is now acidulated with sulphuric acid and 
heated to 50° or G0°, covered with amyhc alcohol, purifying as in 
7 and 8. By shaking with amylic alcohol at the temperature 
just given, the morphine, solanine, and part of the narceine are ob- 
tained. The latter should be dissolved in lukewarm water, and put 
with the watery liquid at 10. 

The solution of solanine in amylic alcohol gelatinizes upon cooling, 
that of morphine forms the best of alkaloid crystals. Morphine is 
proved by Frohde's reaction (with raolybdate of soda) and by 
Hersemann's test (concentrated sulphuric acid solution and nitric 

Solanine is characterized by its decomposition in hydrochloric acid, 
and the retention of the products of this decomposition by ether ; 
and also by its behaviour with iodine water and sulphuric acid. 

10. The watery liquid may still contain curarine and traces of 
berberine, narceine (and digitalin). 

Evaporate it to dryness with powdered glass ; digest the pulver- 
ized residue for a day in alcohol ; filter, and evaporate the filtrate. 
If the residue is very impure, it may be repeatedly recrystallized 
from water and alcohol. 

Berberine remains as a yellow coloured residue, and is known by 
the behaviour of its alcoholic solution with iodine water. 

Narceine is left in colourless crystals. It is recognised by its 
reaction with sulphuric acid, or by the behaviour of its aqueous 
solution with iodine water. 

Curarine is left mostly amorphous, and is distinguished by its 
reaction with sulphuric acid alone, and with sulphuric acid and 
chromate of potash. 

Note. — Petroleum naphtha has a boiling point between 30' and 80°. It 
should be purified by shaking with an ammoniacal solution of acetate of lead, 
and distilling. That which is sold in Kussia as an illuminating fluid, under the 
name of " chandoiiue," may be rectified for use in this way. Petroleum naphtha 
does not dissolve asphalt, which is soluble in benzol. Benzol boils at 80° or 81°. 
Petroleum naphtha begins to boil at a much lower temperature. 

Preparation of Pure Caustic Potash. M. Pollacci. {Zeltsclu-. 
des oesterr. Aj^oth.-Ver., 1876, 299.) TVohler's process (heating one 
part of pure nitre with two parts of metallic copper) yields a pre- 


paration containing potassium nitrite as "well as copper. The 
author obtains a pnrer preparation by using iron filings in place 
of the copper. The products of the decomposition are potassium 
oxide, ferric oxide, and nitrogen. The operation is conducted in an 
iron crucible. 

The Pharmacopoeia Test of Guinine Sulphate. Dr. B. H. Paul. 
(From a paper read before thePliarm. Soc, February 7, 1877.) The 
official test depends upon the fact that ether is capable of dissolving 
quinine freely, but cinchonidine and chinchoninc sparingly. The 
proportion of ether in the Pharmacopoeia is half a fluid ounce to 
10 grains of the quinine sulphate, and the absence of any separation 
of alkaloid crystals after the addition of ammonia and ether is stated 
to be evidence of purity. This, however, is not the case. Upon 
mixing one decigram (O'l gram) of cinchonidine sulphate with 
about 2 c.c. of ether, and adding ammonia sufficient to separate the 
base, the presence of the insoluble alkaloid becomes sufficiently 
distinct. But when the same quantity of cinchonidine salt is mixed 
with a lai'ge proportion of quinia, the result is diflferent, and it 
appears that the presence of quinine increases the solubility of cin- 
chonidine in ether^ or at any rate prevents the latter from separa- 
ting in a crystalline state. The author has applied the Pharma- 
copoeia test to quinine sulphate, which he ascertained by other 
means to contain 10 per cent, of cinchonidine sulphate ; but the 
mixture remained perfectly limpid, and any one ajiplying the test 
would say that the salt was absolutely pure. The limit within 
which cinchonidine cannot be detected by this process in quinine 
is therefore much higher than has been heretofore supposed. Some 
authorities give this limit as h percent., others as 2 and 3 per cent., 
but the writer is inclined to think that less than 10 per cent, cannot 
be detected. A mixture consisting of 0"5 gram of quinine sulphate 
and O'Oo gram (10 per cent.) of cinchonidine sulphate does not show 
a particle of crystallization. The quantity of ether recommended to 
be used in the B. P. is much in excess of what is needed. The 
author states that he has made many mixtures of the two salts, and. 
that even the presence of 30 per cent, of cinchonidine might pass 
unnoticed. But even with much smaller quantities of ether it is 
impossible to rely on its use. 

The plan which he has adopted for detecting the presence of 
cinchonidine is that of fractional crystallization, which he finds to 
give a speedy indication of its presence. About 30 gi'ains of the 
alkaloid salt are put into a capsule, a fluid ounce and a half of water 
is added, and heat is applied until the salt is nearly dissolved. 


The water is insufficient to dissolve it entirely ; but "when heated up 
to the boiling point, the greater part of th.e quinine sulphate is dis- 
solved. Upon cooling, most of the latter is deposited, and the more 
soluble cinchonidine sulphate remains in solution. The liquid 
portion is then a saturated solution of quinine sulphate, together 
with any cinchonidine that may be present. By applying the test 
to that liquid, an indication may be got of cinchonidine, if present. 
This is a modification of the test which has been very much used 
on the Continent, known as Kerner's test, and the one adopted in the 
G. P. The latter consists in adding 20 c.c. of distilled water at 
15° C, to 2 grams of the salt, briskly .shaking, and filtering after 
thirty minutes at 15° C. Five c.c. of the filtrate are put into a test 
tube, and 7 c.c. of ammonia are poured carefully on the top. The 
tube is closed -with the finger and gently reversed, when either 
immediately, or in a short time, the contents of the tube will form a 
perfectly limpid solution, if the salt was pure. This test is very 
reliable, and founded on very sound principles, which are these : — 
Quinine sulphate is sparingly, but cinchonidine sulphate readily, 
soluble in water, of which the former requires 750, the latter 100 
parts ; so that, putting these two facts together, a very good indica- 
tion is obtained as to the presence or absence of cinchonidine. The 
defect attaching to this test lies in its application. If, for instance, 
a sample of quinine sulphate, or a mixture containing 1 per cent, of 
cinchonidine sulphate, be treated with cold water, and the cold 
filtrate be treated with an equal volume of ammonia (sp. gr. 0"920), 
the result is a perfectly clear solution. But when the same salt is 
boiled with water, and even when treating the cold liquid with ether, 
the cinchonidine will separate. 

In an examination of nine samples of quinine sulphate, the author 
found cinchonidine present in all cases ; varying in amount from 
1 to 10 per cent. 

Between these two extremes of 1 and 10 per cent, there is a very 
wide margin ; and the author thinks that the circumstance that such 
quantities may be overlooked in testing quinine, is important both 
to manufacturers and to pharmacists, who are liable to be placed in 
circumstances of difficulty on account of this impurity. In the first 
place, a manufacturer who produced a pure article might be pre- 
judiced, in tendering for contracts, by being placed in disadvan- 
tageous competition with other persons who offered quinine of the 
character mentioned, containing 10 per cent, of cinchonidine, a 
proportion amounting, at the present prices, to a difference of ten- 
pence on the ounce, which is a large extra profit on the quinine. 




The process employed by the author for the analysis of the nine 
samples was as follows : — Four or five grams of the dried salt 
were dissolved in 80 to 150 c.c. of boiling water ; when cold the 
clear liquid was removed from the crystallized quinine sulphate, and 
shaken with ether so as to leave a distinct layer undissolved. On 
the addition of ammonia in excess, the alkaloid separated was in 
most cases only partially soluble in the ether ; with the samples 
containing least cinchonidine, the whole of the alkaloid was at first 
dissolved by the ether, but after the lapse of a few hours the cin- 
chonidine was deposited in the form of crystals, which were col- 
lected on a filter and weighed. The quinine sulphate, which 
separated on cooling the hot solution, was again treated as at first, 
and the mother-liquor again mixed with ether and ammonia. In 
this way a further quantity of alkaloid insoluble in a moderate 
proportion of ether was obtained ; and by repeating the process a 
third time another small quantity was extracted. The samples were 
all dried at 212° F. in a weighing glass capable of being perfectly 
closed immediately on being removed from the steam bath. The 
results in all cases indicate the minimum quantity of cinchonidine 
which the process could indicate. 

Water of 

Cinchonidine Sulphate. 




Equal to Crystallized. 





































Examination of Some Commercial Samples of Citrate of Iron and 
Cluinine. Dr. B. H. Paul. (P^arm. Jowra., 3rd series, vii., 829.) 
The British Pharmacopoeia requires this preparation to contain IG 
per cent, of dry quinine, and the application of the test, as generally 
performed, is more apt to yield figures in excess than below the true 
per centago, owing to the reluctance with which the precipitated 
quinine parts with its water. Dr. Paul examined three samples of 
the salt. The first was contained in a 1 oz. bottle, bearing the label 
of a wholesale druggist in London, with the name and address of 


Mie firm, and describing the preparation as " Citrate of Iron and 
Quinine, Britisli Pharmacopoeia." On testing this sample accord- 
ing to the oflBcial directions, it gave a precipitate amounting to 9"3 
per cent., instead of 16 per cent., or a little more than one half of 
what it should have been. Oa testing this sample by another 
method, and carefully extracting the alkaloid by ether, the total 
amount of the dry alkaloid was 8"96 per cent. A further examin- 
ation of this alkaloid showed that it was not entirely quinine, but 
that nearly one-fourth of it consisted of cinchonidine, with some 
amorphous alkaloid and cinchonine. The actual proportions were 
as follows : — 

Qvxinine 6-80 

Other alkaloids 2-16 


Sample No. 2 was also in a 1 oz. bottle, and bore a similar label 
and seal to No. 1. By the Pharmacopoeia test this sample assayed 
11" 7 per cent. When tested with ether, the dry alkaloid extracted 
in this way amounted to 9"7 per cent., and on further examination 
of this alkaloid it proved to contain, as in the previous instance, 
other alkaloids besides quinine; the actual figures being as 
follows: — ■ 

Qumine 7-08 

Other alkaloids 2-62 


Sample No. 3 was received in a paper package, and had already 
become somewhat damp. When tested by the Pharmcopoeia me- 
thod it gave a precipitate which in drying gave indications that it 
was not quinine. This precipitate amounted to 8"87 per cent. 
The alkaloids extracted from this sample by treatment with ether 
and thorough drying amounted to 6'96 per cent., and this consisted 
chiefly of amorphous alkaloids, namely : — 

Quinine 1'60 

Other alkaloids 5*36 


The fact that in two cases the preparations here refei'red to pro- 
fessed to be in accord with the requirements of the Pharmacopceia, 
rendei's these results especially noteworthy. 

The Water of Crystallization in duinine Sulphate. A. J. 
Cownley. (Pharm. Joum., 3rd series, vii., 189.) Whilst the 
quantity of water of crystallization existing in freshly prepared 


and uneflBoresced quinine sulphate is enveloped in some doubt, 
owing to the efflorescent character of this salt of quinine, and the 
question whether it contains 7 molecules of water according to 
Reynault, 7h as given by Jobst and Hesse, or 8 molecules as 
stated by Schorlemmer, has still to be determined, it seems to be 
very generally stated that the anhydrous sulphate in only obtained 
at a temperature exceeding 120° C. 

Jobst and Hesse, as quoted by Watts, state that at 110° to 
120° C. the salt loses the whole of its water of crystallization ; and 
the same temperature by Millon and Coumaille, as well as in Huse- 
n-'ann's " PflanzenstofFe " for 1870, with the additional statement 
that at 100° C. the sulphate contains 2 molecules of water. This 
latter view, and the opinion that the salt is then identical with the 
air-dried salt as regards hydration, seem to have been adopted as 
correctly representing the condition of quinine sulphate at that 

The author's experiments show that quinine sulphate really be- 
comes anhydrous at 100° C, and when freely exposed to the air in 
this condition it rapidly absorbs water until it has the composition 
of a sulphate with 2 molecules of water ; but when the access of air 
is retarded, the water of crystallization is of a varying quantity, and 
bears no constant relation to the salt until 2 molecules have been 
absorbed ; also that freshly prepared quinine sulphate probably does 
contain, as stated by Jobst and Hesse, 7| molecules of water, and 
that the salt in this condition, when freely exposed to air, rapidly 
effloresces until it attains the composition of a sulphate with 2 HoO. 

Aricine and Allied Substances. 0. Hesse. {Journ. Chem. 
Soc; from Lichig's An7ialen, clxxxi., o8.) The author reviews the 
experiments made by Pelletier and Coriol, in 1829, on a bark of 
doubtful cinchona nature, from which these chemists obtained a 
base crystallizing in white transparent crystals, soluble in alcohol 
and ether, insoluble in water, and capable of forming an acid and a 
neutral sulphate ; also those by Leverkohn, who obtained from false 
cali.saja bark (cinchona from Cusco) a gelatinous, apparently non- 
crystalline, sulphate of a base termed by Buchner cusconine ; those 
by Manzini, who extracted from pale tenchina bark an alkaloid which 
he called cinchovatine, but which the author subsequently found to 
contain also cinchonine, and which was subsequently found by H. 
Bourchardat and Winckler to be identical with aricine; and finally 
those byDavid Howard, whose results the author considers to be due 
to his having obtained an impure jiar/ci'«e (containing cinchonine?). 

The alkaloids of a Cusco bark obtained from De Vrij were ex- 


tracted by the author in the ordinary way ; the concentrated neutral 
sulphuric acid solution yielded crystals of cinchonidine suljihate, 
and then gelatinized to a mass of microscopic prisms of the same, 
containing a little quinine sulphate; the filtrate from these contained 
cinchonine and amorphous bases, from which nothing characteristic 
could be isolated. Other samples of Cusco bark yielded only cin- 
chonidine and traces of amorphous bases ; the author considers De 
Vrij's bark not to have been genuine Cusco bark. Another Cusco 
bark {China de Cusco vera of Wiggers), identical with that employed 
by Pelletier and Coriol, yielded cinchonine, a little cinchonidine, 
and amorphous bases, but no other crystallizable alkaloid. 

Commercial "pale tenchina" bark, carefully examined and selected 
by Wiggers, yields no cinchovatine or aricine, but only cinchonine 
and traces of quinidine (the conchinine of the author) and amor- 
phous bases. Other pale tenchina barks from France yielded 
cinchonidine also ; but this bark appeared to contain an admixture 
of other varieties, although specimens could be readily picked out 
agreeing in all respects with the sample obtained from Wiggers. 

Cinchovatine, prepared by Winckler and examined by the author, 
gave no blue fluorescence when dissolved in sulphuric acid ; it 
formed fine white prisms, which gave numbers agreeing with those 
required for cinchonidine; it melted at 208° (not corrected), and 
gave the rotation (a)^ — - 107'25, whilst pure cinchonidine melts 
at 205° (not corrected), and gives the rotation (a.)^ = 106 89 under 
the same conditions. It gave a hydrochloride indicated by Cog Ho^ 
N'a O. H CI. Hg ; a platinum salt, Coq H^^ N. 0. 2 H CI. Pt Cl.^; a 
sulphate (C20 H^^ NoO)^ H3 S 0,j, anhydrous after drying in the air, 
and giving the rotation (a)^ = - 172'20, whilst pure cinchonidine 
sulphate gave (a)^ - -172"37 ; and finally, the hydrochloride and 
the sulphate gave with phenol water compounds precisely resembling 
those obtained with cinchonidine. 

Aricine sulphate of commerce consisted mainly of a sulphate 
forming, on recrystallization, a gelatinous mass of minute needles, 
together with some cinchonine and quinine sulphates and a trace of 
resinous matter insoluble in water. The base in these small crystals 
gave on analysis numbers agreeing with cinchonidine ; it melted at 
205°, and gave the rotation (ffl)d = - 107-25 ; the sulphate crys- 
tallized from a large bulk of water formed ciystals containing 
(C20 HojNj 0)3 H, S 0^. 3 H2 ; with phenol water and Seignette 
salt it formed difiicultly soluble compounds precisely agreeing in 
all respects with those from cinchonidine. 

Hence the author concludes that the bodies described as aricine 


and ciiicliOTatine are simply more or less pure cinchonidine, as is 
also a la^vo-rotatorj crystalline base extracted in 1873, by De Vrij, 
from Jamaica bark. 

Oil of Parsley. E. von Gericliten. (Ber. der deutsch. Ghem.- 
Ges., ix., 258-2G0.) The oil examined by the author was supplied 
by Dr. TrommsdorfF, who obtained from 15 kilos, of parsley fruit 
90 grams by distillation, and 10 grams more by shaking the distillate 
with benzol. It commenced to boil at 160° C, nearly all the terpene 
having come over below 210^. Between 270° and 290° a heavy 
yellowish green, very refractive, nncrystallizable liqaid was obtained, 
and above 300° C. several brown decomposition products. By re- 
peated rectification of the first portion, the pure, colourless terpene 
was obtained, boiling between 160° and 164° C, and having an 
intense odour of parsley. Its specific gravity at 12° C. is '865, and 
its rotation power for yellow light and a column of 100 mm. = — 
30"8°. Muriatic acid colours it gradually brown, and destroys the 
parsley odour. Terpin and solid chlorhydrates could not be 

Apiol. E. von. Gerichten. (Ber. der deutsch. Chem.-Ges., ix., 
1477-1479.) Pure apiol, or parsley-camphor, forms long, white, 
brittle needles, melting at 30° and boiling at about 300°. On boiling 
it with alcoholic potash, it is converted into a body crystallizing in 
pearly, rhombic plates, melting at 53"5°, and containing, as a mean 
of three combustions, C = 65 4, H = 5*5. On boiling it with dilute 
nitric acid, it yields oxalic acid and a body crystallizing from alcohol 
in long, brilliant, 3-ellow needles, melting at 114° and dissolving 
gradually in boiling potash with an intensely purple colour. 

The Aloin of Barbadoes Aloes. Dr. E. Schmidt. (Abstracted 
from the Archiv der Pharmacie, v.. No. 6, 1876 ; Pharm. Journ., 3rd 
series, vii., 70.) Of the difierent processess which have been recom- 
mended for the preparation of aloin, the method proposed by Tilden 
(Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1870) was found to give the most satis- 
factory results. According to this method, the aloes crushed small 
is dissolved in nine or ten times its weight of boiling water acidified 
with sulphuric acid. After cooling and standing for a few hours, 
the clear liquid is decanted from the resin, and evaporated. The 
concentrated solution deposits a mass of yellow crystals, which can 
be purified by washing, pressure, and recrystallization from hot 
spirit. After several recrystallizations the aloiri is obtained in the 
form of beautiful yellow needles, which are pretty soluble in water 
and in alcohol, but .soluble with difficulty in ether. 

The melting point was found to vary, according as the crystals 


contain Wcafcer or not. The crystals melt between 70° and 80°, and 
the anhydrous sJubstance at 146°-148° (Stenhouse 150°). 

Aloin contains water of crystallization which it loses completely 
when left over sulphuric acid, or when dried at 100°. The quantity 
of water present, however, is by no means constant ; for not only 
do different preparations differ from one another, but even the same 
material, according to the concentration and temperature of the 
solution, from which it is deposited. 

The air-dried substance heated to 100° lost in three experi- 
ments, — 

I. II. HI. 

5-89 6-77 7-01 per cent, of water. 

Another product lost under similar circumstances, — 

11-93 per cent, of water. 

In anotber case the first crop of crystals dried in the air, then at 
100° lost,— 

V. , VI. VII. VIII. 

11-56 11-89 11-79 11-60; 

whilst a subsequent deposit of crystals gave the following percent- 
ages : — 


13-76 14-04 14-29 13-90 14-01 

Some aloin exposed for a long time over sulphuric acid lost 13"4i 
per cent, of water, a loss which was not increased by afterwards 
heating it to 100°. 

It appears from these results tbat aloin is capable of uniting with 
water of crystallization in several proportions, which depend upon 
the temperature and state of concentration of the solution from 
whicb it is obtained. 

According to the formula C^^ H^g 0^ — 

Oue moleciile of water requires 
Two molecules 
Three molecules 

With the formula C^g H^g Oy — 

One molecule of water requires 
Two molecules 
Three molecules . 

It seems, therefore, that aloin may crystallize with either one, two, or 
three molecules of water. 
















This vamtion of the water agrees with the observations of Fliick- 
iger upon the aloin of Zanzibar aloes, a substance which, accord- 
ing to Tildeu, is isomeric with the aloin of Barbadoes. 

Liebelt made numerous combustions of the aloin dried at 100°, 
and the percentages of carbon and hydrogen obtained by him are as 
follows : — 











































With these data there is a choice between two empirical formulaj : 
0^5 Hjg 0-, which requires — 

C 58-44 
H 5-50, 

and 0^5 Hj7 0^, for which the percentages must be — 

C 58-25 
H 5-50. 

Various considerations seem to indicate that the former of these 
two expressions should be adopted, especially as Von Sommaruga 
and Egger had obtained similar results with the aloin of Socotime 

Nevertheless this formula cannot be accepted. Soon after the 
publication of Liebelt's analytical results in the Berichte der 
deutsch. Ges. zu Berlin (November, 1875), the author became ac- 
quainted with the paper read by Dr. Tilden before the British 
Pharmaceutical Conference in August, 1875. In that paper the 
formula C^q Hjg Oy is proposed, on the basis of analytical results 
obtained with the aloin and with its chloro, bromo, and acetyl substi- 
tution derivatives. These results led the author to recrystallize tlie 
aloin in his possession, and to submit it again to analysis, this time 
drying it in a vacuum. The results showed that Liebelt's analyses 
had furnished somewhat too little carbon. The following numbers 
were obtained : — 




















The formula C^q H^g 0^ requires — 

C 59G2 per cent. 
H 559 

This formula, therefore, seems to be established. 

The author's results with the bromo and chloro derivatives, how- 
ever, do not entirely agree with those described by Tilden. Wben 
an aqueous solution of aloin is mixed with excess of bromine water, 
a copious yellow precipitate is obtained, as long ago shown by 
Stenhouse. This yellow precipitate, dried and crystallized from 
alcohol, yields beautiful yellow needles. This compound, however, is 
not a homogeneous substance, for it seems to contain not only tri- 
bromaloin, which is the chief product, but also small quantities of 
compounds richer as well as poorer in bromine, which are very 
difficult to separate on account of their almost equal solubility. 
Although several preparations were made, especially by the intro- 
duction of aloin solution into excess of bromine water, and the com- 
position of these specimens was not altered by repeated crystalliza- 
tion, the analytical results were found to agree sometimes with the 


formula C.- -p,^^ O7, sometimes with the formula C^^g -n^" O7. 
nv^ i^rg 

All these brominated compounds exhibit much greater stability 
than pure aloin. They crystallize readily from alcohol in golden 
needles, which are almost insoluble in water and ether. The melting 
point appears to be 190° to 191°. Bromaloin also contains water of 

The air-dried substance lost at 100° the following quantities per 
cent. : — 

I. II. III. rv. V. 

9-00 9-22 9-06 11-93 10-oG 

A variation in the amount of water is exhibited here, as in the case 

of pure aloin. The formula C^gra^'O^, with oHoO, requires 881 

per cent, of water ; with 4 H^ 11*41 per cent. 

The substance dried at 100^ gave when burnt with chromate of 
lead the following percentages of carbon and hydrogen. The 
bromine was determined by the method of Carius : — 






C 33-36 





H 317 





Br 48-31 






n. YIT. Tin. IX. X. XT. 

C 33-47 33-84 33-71 35-15 34-27 34-24 

H 2-69 2-70 3-02 2-97 3-11 2-01 

Br 43-47 4322 — 41-44 43-08 — 

The following percentages ai'e required for the two formuloe re- 
ferred to : — 

C.sH^Br.O, C,„H,5Br,0, 

C 33-08 34-34 

H 2-39 . 2-68 

Br 44-03 42-93 

The author has not been successful in pi'oducing from aloin a 
definite chlorinated product by the action of chlorine either in the 
gaseous form or in aqueous solution. But by the action of potassic 
chlorate and hydi-ochloric acid, according to Tilden's process, a 
yellow substance was obtained which crystallizes in beautiful 
needles. The analysis of this compound, however, led to numbers 
which vary still more than those obtained in the analysis of the 
corresponding brominated derivative. The percentages of chlorine 
obtained were as follows : — 

I. II. III. IV. V. 

23-02 24-47 25-67 25-55 26-83 

The formula C^g H^j CI3 0- requires 2r)'03 per cent. 

The author finds that barbaloin when digested with nitric acid 
yields chrysammic, picric, oxalic, and carbonic acids. 

The action of zinc dust when heated with aloin has already been 
observed by Graebe and Liebermann, who obtained a hydrocarbon 
which they believed to be anthracene. As, however, it is not clear 
which kind of aloin these chemists operated upon, the author has 
repeated the experiment with Barbadoes aloin, and finds that the 
hydrocarbon derived from this source is principally methyl-anthra- 

The melting point was 210°-212°. By oxidation with chromic 
acid dis.solved in acetic acid it furnished anthracene mono-carbonic 
acid (melting point 281°) soluble in ammonia, also a small quantity 
of a body having the properties of anthraquinone. The melting 
point of this latter was, however, not constant (210° to 240°); and 
it may, therefore, be assumed that it consisted of a mixture of 
anthraquinone and methyl-anthraquinone. Whether this anthra- 
quinone is a product of the decomposition of methyl-anthracene, or 
is formed by the direct oxidation of a small quantity of anthracene, 
cannot be at present determined. The quantity of methyi-anthra- 



cene obtainable from barbaloin is exceedingly small (about 1 part 
of the hydrocarbon from 200 of the 'aloin) ; so that the aloin can 
scarcely be regarded as a dii'ect derivative of methyl-anthracene. 

The Camphor of Inula Helenium. J. Kallen. {Ber.der deutscli. 
Chem.-Ge^., ix., IS-i-lo?.) The author has continued his researches 
on this subject. The inula camphor was obtained in the form of 
white crystals by distilling elecampane root with steam. On press- 
ing the crystals between bibulous paper, and distilling the latter with 
water, a yellowish liquid, alantol, is obtained, having an aromatic 
taste and the odour of peppermint, and boiling near 200° C. Its 
composition is C^^qH^qO. 

The crystals remaining after pressing are repeatedly crystallized 
from dilute alcohol, when they form colourless prismatic needles, of 
a faint odour and taste, fusing at 66° C, and sublimate ; readily 
soluble in alcohol and ether, but slightly in water. It is the anhy- 
drid of a new acid (alantsaure), of the formula C]^^ Hjq Oj ; the acid 
is Ci5 Ho2 Og, crystallizes in fine needles, fuses at 90°-91° C, and 
yields i-ather unstable crystallizable salts. 

Tannin as a Test for the Purity of Water. H. Kammerer. 
(Journ. filr Pract.-Ghem., 1876, 322.) The application of tannin is 
recommended by the author for the detection of albuminoid and 
other animal organic matter in water. Any sample of water form- 
ing a precipitate or turbidity with a solution of tannin should be 
condemned as unfit for drinking. As some saline constituents of 
potable waters retard the precipitation of organic impurities by 
tannin, the mixture should be allowed to stand for twenty-four 
hours before a negative result is to be regarded as an indication of 

Creasote and Carbolic Acid. A. Griitzel. (Archiv der Pharm., 
Feb., 1877; New Beinedies,'Meij, 1877.) Pure beechwood-tar creasote 
must have the following properties : — It is a colourless, at most 
light straw yellow oily liquid of sp. gr. I'OSO, distilling unaltered 
between 200°-225° C. Exposure to light and air, even for months, 
should impart to it at most only a dark wine yellow, but never a red 
colour, which would be indicative of foreign matters. It must be 
entirely soluble in caustic alkali, and on adding water no oily 
hydi'ocarbons must be set free. These latter, if present, are very 
difficultly removable, and possess a very disagreeable odour. It is 
soluble in 80 parts of cold water, and in less of boiling water, but 
the excess separates on cooling. It is miscible with 50 per cent, of 
its volume of glycerin of sp. gr. 1'250. 

44 year-book of pharmacy. 

Reactions of Creasotes and Carbolic Acids. 

A. Li Aqiieoiis Solution. 
To 15 ili-ops of the solution to be tested is added 1 drop of the reagent. 


Beechwood-Tar Crea- 

Carbolic Acui. 

Ferric chloride j Blue on first con- I Permanently 
(cryst.), dissolved tact, then brown ; violet. 
in 10 parts water. 

On further addition 
of same. 

Ferric acetate, dry, 
in 10 parts of 

Ferric sulphate, 
dry, in 20 parts of 

Plumbic nitrate in 
10 parts of water. 

Stannous chloride 
in 10 parts water. 

Plumbic acetate, 
neutral, in lOparts 

tact, then brown ; 
on standing, 


Dark brown i^re- 

Brown, then with a 
shade of violet ; 
lastly brown pre- 

Blue, then with a 
shade of violet ; 
lastly brown 


Clear ; no reac- 

"White precipitate, 
soluble in excess 
of reagent. 

"WTiite precipitate, 
soluble in excess. 


Brown and clear 


Opalescence ; on 
standing, small 

Small precipitate, 
insoluble in ex- 
cess of reagent. 

Small precipi- 
tate, soluble in 

English Creasote. 

Blue on first con- 
tact, then olive 
green ; finally 
dirty yellow. 

Light brown pre- 

Brown and clear 

Grass green on 
first contact ; 
then yellow pre- 

Opalescence ; on 
stantling, small 

Small precipitate, 
insoluble in ex- 
cess of reagent. 

White precipitate, 
only partially so- 
luble in excess. 

B. 1 Part Dissolved in 10 Parts of 92 pe7' cent. Alcohol. 

Aqueous solution 
of ferric chloride 
with one drop of 
alcoholic solution. 

Blue on first con- 
tact, then green. 

Violet on first 
contact, then 

Green on first con- 
tact, then fine 
azure blue. 

C. Carbolic Acid and Creasotes unmixed loith any Solvents. 

Saturated alcoholic 
ferric solution 
with one drop. 

With several drops. 

Dirty violet. 

At once green. 

Greenish yellow 
on first contact, 
then brown. 

At once green. 

Green on first con- 
tact, then a light 
mud brown. 

At once green. 


Decomposition of Ammonium Salts in Aqueous Solutions by- 
Salts of Potassium and Sodium. Dr. H. C. Dibbits. {Zuitschr. 
far Anah/t.-Chein., 1S7G, 245.) In a previous report (see Year-Book 
of rharmacy, 1876, 112) the author has shown that aqueous solu- 
tions of the crystallized salts of ammonium part with ammonia upon 
boiling, and that the quantity of ammonia thus liberated varies con- 
siderably with the different ammonium compounds. He has now 
examined this behaviour of ammonium salts in solutions containing 
also various quantities of a potassium or sodium salt, in order to solve 
the problem whether or not a mutual decomposition takes place 
between the two. By dissolving, for instance, equivalent propor- 
tions of ammonium sulphate and potassium chloride, and determin- 
ing the loss of ammonia during the boiling of this solution, he wished 
to ascertain whether this loss is equal to that occurring vpith am- 
monium sulphate, or to that occurring -with ammonium chloride ; 
or in other words, whether the two salts introduced continue to 
exist as such, in the boiling solution, or whether they form am- 
monium chloride and potassium sulphate. The results prove that 
a decomposition takes place, but only a partial one ; so that in 
the instance named, the boiling solution contains four salts, viz., 
ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, potassium chloride, 
and potassium sulphate. The salts experimented with were the 
sulphate, oxalate, and acetate of ammonium on the one hand, and 
the chlorides and nitrates of potassium and sodium on the other. 
The mutual decomposition increases with the quantity of chloride 
or nitrate (of K or Na) employed, but is never complete. In every 
case the boiling solution was found to contain four salts. 

The Detection and Quantitative Determination of Free Sulphuric 
and Hydrochloric Acids in Vinegar, Lime and Lemon Juices, and 
Similar Liquids. 0. Hehner. (From the Analyst.) As vinegar 
consists, except in the case of its being distilled, not merely of acetic 
acid and water, but always contains acetates or tartrates of potash 
and soda and chloride of sodium, it is obvious that sulphuric or hydro- 
chloric acid, if added in small quantity, can no longer be considered 
to exist as such in vinegar, but that they decompose an equivalent 
quantity of acetate or tartrate. Whenever there is any undecomposed 
acetate or tartrate present in vinegar, no trace of any mineral acid 
can be pi'esent in the free state. As the organic salts of the alkalies 
are converted by incineration into the corresponding carbonates, it 
can safely be asserted that -whenever the ash of a vinegar exhibits an 
alkaline reaction, free mineral acid cannot be present in the vinegar. 
A trace of mineral acid may have been added, but it then has become 


neutralized by the decomposition of the acetates or tartrates. We 
have thus the simplest possible qualitative test for free mineral 
acids in vinegar. 

But whenever the ash is neutral, free mineral acid is most likely 
present. The quantity of this may be ascertained with accuracy by 
following the same principle. The process is as follows : — 50 c.c. of 
the vinegar are mixed with 25 c.c. of decinormal soda solution, or 
with a sufficient quantity so that on evaporation and incineration 
;m ash having an alkaline reaction is left ; the residue is dissolved 
in decinormal sulphuric acid corresponding to the soda solution, 
boiled to expel carbonic acid, filtered, the filter washed with water, 
the liquid reddened by litmus and neutralized by decinormal soda 
solution, the volume of which indicates directly the proportion of 
free mineral acid present, — 100 cc. of the standard solution corre- 
sponding to 0*49 gram of Ho S 0^^. 

The same process is likewise applicable for the determination of 
free mineral acid in lime and lemon juice. 

A Method of Detecting and Estimating Castor and other Fixed 
Oils in Copaiba. Dr. Muter. ( From a paper read before the Society 
of Public Analysts, November 15th, 1876 ; the Analyst, November 
30th, 1S76.) Observing the close affinity between copaivic and 
pinic acids, the, author suggests a process of analysis based upon 
the difference of solubility of the sodium soaps in a mixture of ether 
and alcohol. A mixture of five volumes of absolute ether and one 
volume of absolute alcohol has been recommended as a very good 
solvent for sodium pinate by M. Barfocd, who states that sodium 
oleate is soluble in this menstruum only to the extent of 1 in 1000 
(calculated for oleic acid). 

The process employed by Dr. Muter is as follows : — 3 to 4 grams 
of the sample are weighed into a clean di-y flask, and saponified on 
the water bath with 50 c.c. of alcohol and a lump of caustic soda, 
weighing not less than 5 grams. When all is dissolved water is 
added, and the whole washed into a half-pint basin so as to nearly 
fill it, and evaporated to lOO c.c. over a low gas flame. Dilute sul- 
phuric acid is then added till the whole just becomes permanently 
turbid, and then solution of caustic soda is dropped in till it just 
clears again. By this m.eans a solution is obtained with the least 
possible excess of alkali, and with a good amount of sodium sulphate. 
The whole is now evaporated to perfect dryness on the water bath, 
stirring towards the end, so that the sulphate may mix with the 
soaps and produce an easily pulverulent residue. The residue 
is removed from the basin into a small, wide mouthed, stoppered 


bottle, treated with 70 e.c. of ether-alcohol, and well shaken up. As 
soon as it is fairly settled, the fluid is filtered off through a quick 
filter; and this is repeated with two successive quantities of 70 c.c, 
making 210 c.c. in all of the solvent used. The residue in the bottle 
and on the filter now consists of sodium oleate and sulphate if the 
balsam be impure, and of the latter only if pure, with a little trace 
of the insoluble resin soap already referred to. The contents of 
the bottle and filter are then dissolved in warm water, and after 
heating until all smell of ether is gone, the whole is boiled, freely 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and set to cool. If, when cold, 
nothing but a few specks of brown resin should rise to the surface, 
the balsam is pure ; but if an oily layer be formed, it is adulter- 
ated, and the smell of the separated oleic acid will at once deter- 
mine whether it is actually castor oil or not. In the case of the 
presence of oil, two grams of pure and dry white wax are added, 
and the whole heated till the wax melts with the oleic acid. On 
cooling, a solid cake is formed, which is detached from the side of 
the beaker, and the fluid below passed through a filter. The cake 
is once more melted in boiling water, cooled, detached, dried by 
gentle pressure in blotting paper, put into the water oven in a 
weighed platinum dish till dry, and then weighed, and the weight 
of the wax used deducted. The beaker, filter, rod, etc., used are 
if at all dirty dried, extracted with ether, and the residue left after 
evaporation weighed and added to the total. 

The calculation is then performed as follows : — 

1. To the weight in grams found, add "20 for loss of oleic acid in 
solvent, and then say as 95 : 100 : : total oleic acid. 

2. Calculate the percentage from the quantity taken, and from 
this deduct six per cent, for possible altered resin in the balsam. 
The error, owing to the correction, of course increases with the 
amount of oil present ; but it is stated to be always an error in 
the direction of under-estimation, which is the great point for 
public analysts. When working on three to four grams, with an 
admixture of not over 25 per cent., the errors due to loss of oleic 
acid and insoluble resin soap are said to so nearly balance each 
other that any correction is unnecessary, and the actual amount of 
oleic acid found may be taken as correct within a per cent. 

The Oil of Orris Root. Prof. F. A. Fliickiger. {Abstract of 
a paper in the Arcliiv tier Pharmacie, June, 1876 ; Pharm. Joiirn., 3rd 
series, vii., 130.) Orris root owes its use during more than two thou- 
sand years chiefly to its fragrance, which curiously enough does not 
belong to the living root. Its slight and by no means aromatic 


smell is first developed into the agreeable perfume after drying, with- 
out doubt in consequence of changes of a chemical nature, concerning 
which at present our knowledge is deficient. When the dried root- 
stock is submitted to distillation with water, eventually there appears 
upon the water a crystalline, odorous matter which is justly prized in 
perfumery and is specially prepared by some of the larger distillers. 
But the yield is very small, only about 1 part per 1000 of the orris 
root used. The product is of a yellowish brown colour, of the con- 
sistency of a firm ointment, and possesses the characteristic odour of 
orris root. 

Oil of oitIs has hitherto been studied by H. A. Vogel, and by 
Dumas. The latter in 1835 assigned to it the formula Cg Hg (Cg 
HjgO according to the modern notation). 

By repeated recrystallizations from alcohol of a specimen of oil 
of orris prepared by Messrs. Herring & Co., the author obtained it, 
with the help of animal charcoal, in colourless crystalline scales, the 
form of which could not be decided. By this purification of the oil, 
or presumed stearoptene, the odour was concentrated in the mother- 
liquid, the crystals becoming more and more odourless, until finally 
they perfectly lost all aroma. An alcoholic solution of the crystals 
possessed no rotatory power, and enei'getically reddened litmus paper 
ruoistened with alcohol. After repeated recrystallizations the melting 
point reached 5!2° C. ; a less pure preparation melted at some degrees 
lower temperature. Carbon bisulphide appears to be unsuitable for 
the removal of the perfume from orris root ; the quantity of essential 
oil is exceedingly small, and this solvent removes with it a very soft 
resin, tannin, and probably also fatty matter. 

The numbers obtained in the combustion of the crystals, viz., 
C = 7396, H = 1226, taken in conjunction with the previous obser- 
vations, leave no doubt as to the nature of the presumed orris stear- 
optene : it is myristic acid, C-^ H^g 0^. 

After this point had been established it was easy to remove the fat 
acid from the crude product by digesting the alcoholic solution with 
anhydrous sodium carbonate or bicarbonate, and thus obtaining a soap 
solution from which the myri.stic acid is precipitated upon addition of 
a stronger acid and dilution with water. Upon heating the liquid to 
60° C. it rises as an oily layer, which solidifies in a crystalline form 
at a temperature some degrees below 50° C. By repetition of this 
treatment the product may be easily brought to approximate and 
finally to attain the melting point of pure myristic acid, 54° C. The 
effect of the presence of the smallest quantity of the obstinately ad- 
hering volatile oil, or of a trace of lauric acid (CjjHo^Oo), melting 


at about 44" C, which may easily accompany the myristic acid, must 
be to lower the melting point. 

The above observations upon the London oil were so far repeated 
with a sample of oil from Messrs. Schimmel & Co., of Leipzig, as 
was necessary to show the identity of the perfumes. 

After these experiments upon the perfectly odourless myristic 
acid, the preparation remains saturated with a somewhat volatile oil. 
Upon digesting the crude product in a closed flask with lead oxide, 
the oil separates as a rather thick brownish fluid, which remains 
fluid at 10° C. 

As the oil containing myristic acid is only obtained by tlie 
most careful distillation, in the proportion of about 1 in 1000, the 
quantity occurring in the root itself may be estimated as being much 
smaller still, possibly not amounting to 1 in 10,000. It may pro- 
bably be included in the as yet uninvestigated class of so-called fer- 
ment oils, in that so far as is indicated by the smell it does not occur 
in the living root. The question arises, how the myristic acid, which 
can only with difficulty be distilled without decomposition, passes 
over with the oil. The explanation of this is to be sought in the 
phenomenon of difl'usion. Rose oil is similarly accompanied by a 
stearoptene that it is difficult to volatilize by itself. 

The occurrence of myristic acid in oil of orris is probably to be 
attributed to a fat which is present in the root, and is split up by 
the vapour of water. The quantity of this fat must be very small, 
since 300 grams of orris root powder exhausted with carbon bisul- 
phide gave a soft perfumed resin, but neither free myristic acid nor 
neutral fat could be detected. The author also sought to ascertain 
whether free myristic acid was already present in the root. The 
carbon bisulphide extract was digested with sodium carbonate and 
alcohol, in order to obtain a solution of sodium resinate and myris- 
tate, from which the acid sought could be precipitated by acetic acid. 
If myristic acid were present, it would on prolonged digestion of 
the turbid acid liquid gradually rise to the top as an oily layer. This, 
however, did not take place even after several days ; the brown 
resinate slowly sank to the bottom as a pulverulent mass, and the 
liquid became clear without yielding an oily layer. 

Alkaliinetric Titration of Magnesia, Phosphoric Acid, and 
Arsenic Acid. Prof. F. Stolba. (Ber. der Bohm.-Ges. cler Wis- 
sensch., 1876, v.) Magnesia, as well as phosphoric and arsenic acids, 
are frequently estimated by precipitation as phosphate or arseniate 
of ammonium and magnesium, and weighing the arseniat^ as such 
and the phosphate after iguition as pyrophosphate of magnesium. 




In the place of this gravimetric process, the author recommends a 
volumetric one, requiring less time. 

Freshly precipitated and properly washed phosphate, or arseniate 
of ammonium and magnesium, when suspended in water, imparts 
to the latter an alkaline reaction, as may be seen by the violet 
coloration produced on the addition of a few drops of tincture of 
cochineal. The degree of alkalinity maybe determined by standard 
hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, as will be seen from the following 
equations : — 

Mg. N H^. P 0^ + 2 H CI - N H^ H.. P O.^ + Mg Clo ; 
Mg. N H^. As O4 + 2 H CI = N H^ H.. As O4 + Mg Clg. 
As 1 c.c. of normal acid thus corresponds to 
0-020 gram of Mg 0, 
0-0355 „ „ PjOj, and 
0-0575 „ „ AS2O5, 

the author recommends the application of deci-normal acid, especi- 
ally as the reaction with carmine is sufficiently delicate for this 
purpose. Tincture of brazil wood can also be used as an indicator. 
The modus operandi is as follows : — 

The precipitate, after being well washed with solution of ammonia 
and then with rectified spirit, until the alcoholic washings cease to 
be alkaline, is introduced, together with the filter, into a flask con- 
taining 100-200 c.c. of hot water, and well mixed with the latter by 
means of a glass rod or thick platinum wire. Decinormal hydro- 
chloric acid is now slowly added from a burette in moderate excess, 
the mixture being continually stirred during the addition, and the 
excess of acid titrated with decinormal Ka H 0. The results are 
stated to be very satisfactory. 

From a solution containing calcium as well as magnesium, the 
former is first precipitated by oxalate of ammonium in the presence 
of chloride of ammonium, and then the magnesium by phosphate of 
sodium and hydrate of ammonium, without previously removing 
the calcium precipitate by filtration. As the presence of oxalate of 
calcium does not interfere with the process, the mixed precipitates 
are treated in the same manner as already described. 

Po.«sib]y lithium may be estimated by the same method. 

Preparation of Platinum Black by means of Glycerin. R. 
Zdrawkowitch. (Bull. Sac. Chim. [2], xxv., ll>8.) Platinum 
black in a highly active condition can be obtained, according to the 
author, by adding 3 to 5 c.c. of solution of perchloride of platinum, 
drop by drop, to a boiling mixture of 15 c.c. of glycerin and 10 c.c. 
of solution of caustic potash of 1*08 sp. gr. 



Note on Carvol. Prof. F. A. Flilckiger. (Abstract of a paper 
read before the Berlin Chemical Society : Pharm. Journ., from Ber. 
der deutsch. Chem.-Ges., ix., 468.) Volckel, in 1840, pointed out that 
oil of cumin consisted of a hydrocarbon and a portion containing 
oxygen, to which Berzelius afterwards gave the name of carvol. 

This body was more minutely examined by Schweizer, in 1841. 
He found that upon treatment with caustic potash, glacial acetic 
acid, or iodine, it undergoes a remarkable change ; that it is specially 
soluble in potash, acquiring a very acrid taste, for which reason 
Schweizer designated the product carvacrol. When, in 1842, Claus 
prepared camphor creasote by boiling camphor with iodine, Schweizer 
at once recognised its analogy with carvacrol. In 1844 he also 
obtained this compound by similar treatment of oil of Thuja occlderi,- 
tcdis. Since then the methods of obtaining this body — at present 
looked upon as oxycymol, but probably more correctly oxycymene 
— have been multiplied. Pott obtained it by melting potassium 
cymensulphonate with potassium hydrate, the cymene employed 
being prepared by the action of phosphorsulphide upon camphor. 
H. Miiller melted caustic soda with sodium cymensulphonate with 
the same result, the cymene (cymol) having been obtained from the 
oil of ajowan fruit (Amini copticum, L. = PtycJwsis ajotaan and P. 
coptica, D. C). It now appears probable that cymene can be obtained 
by suitable treatment from any of the essential oils having the com- 
position CjQ Hjg, as well as from many, if not all, that differ, by the 
addition of O or Hg, and the chemical identity of cymene from 
the most diverse sources may now be accepted ; but the optical pro- 
perties of this substance have hitherto only attracted the attention 
of Schiff and Guareschi. It remained to be seen whether cymene 
from other sources possessed, for instance, the same rotatory property 
as that prepared from cumin oil by Guareschi. The author thinks 
that this property will generally be found wanting in artificial 
cymenes, whether prepared synthetically or by reduction of C^q H^g, 
Cjo Hjg 0, or C^o His O- Probably oxycymene is always without 
optic action ; carvacrol prepared by the author from oil of cumin 
being without rotatory power. The author points out that oxycy- 
mene differs from carvol in being permanently coloured green by 
alcoholic perchloride of iron, refracting light strongly, not penetrat- 
ing the cork so readily, and not giving the creaking noise peculiar 
to carvol and other thin volatile oils when rubbed against the side of 
a glass vessel. 

Carvol is the only oil that, as noticed by Yarrentrapp in 1849, 
combines directly with S Hg. The author has used a slight modifica- 


tion of Varrenfcrapp's method in testing whether carvol is as limited 
in its distribution in nature as the corresponding hydrocarbon, 
cymene or cymol. The oil to be tested is diluted with one-fourth 
its volume of alcohol ( '830), and then saturated with sulphu- 
retted hydrogen. Upon the addition of only a little concentrated 
ammonia, or better still, absolute alcohol saturated with ammonia, 
it solidifies to a crystalline paste of carvol sulphydrate (C^q ^^it ^)-2 
S Ho, or C20H3QO2 S. Pure carvol is not necessary to the obtain- 
ing of this product ; it is yielded by both the crude and rectified 
cumin oil of commerce. If the crystallization does not take place 
immediately, it can be rapidly induced by the passage of a few bub- 
bles of sulphuretted hydrogen. The crystals can be washed with 
cold alcohol, and after further purification by recrystallization, they 
have neither smell nor taste. They can be decomposed by gentle 
heating with alcoholic soda ; and upon dilution with hot water pure 
carvol separates. 

Carvol from cumin oil rotates the polarized beam strongly to the 
right, giving with a column of liquid 25 mm. long, in a Wild's 
polariscope, and with the sodium light, a deviation of not less than 
15"6°. The hydrocarbon of cumin oil, carvene, is very strongly 
dextrogyre, to the extent of 26'8°, under the same conditions. 

Bolley has -stated, that in distilling oil of curcuma, he had found 
the portion passing over beetwen 230° and 250° C. to give the formula 
CjQ H|j 0, whilst its behaviour with sulphide of ammonicum pointed 
to its being an isomer with carvol. The author, however, failed to 
get from curcuma oil a product corresponding, either in boiling 
point or composition, with carvol ; and four different portions, equally 
with the crude oil, failed to give the crystals C.-,o Hg^ Oo S. 

The author next examined oil of myrrh, which according to Rin- 
koldt's analysis agi-eed in composition with carvol. An oil prepared 
by him from good myrrh, under the conditions above-mentioned, 
rotated 15° to the left, and yielded no sulphuretted hydrogen com- 
pound. Further, its elementary analysis did not correspond with 
carvol. Herr Buri found in the crude oil, C = 8470, H - 9*98 per 
cent. ; and in the principal portion, distilling between 262° and 263°, 
C = 8470, H = 10-26. The formula Co.. H30 O would requii-e C = 84-62, 
H 10-25, = 513. 

Oils of the composition of Cjq Hj^ have been reported with 
more or less probability as present in oil of nutmeg and eucalyptus 
oil. Gladstone has already shown that the elements of the first 
formed no combination with oil of nutmeg ; and this the author con- 
firms, and gives the same report of oil of mace, his experiments 


having been made with samples distilled by himself. Neither did 
he obtain carvol sulphydrate from, a commercial eucalyptus oil. 

Oil of dill fruit (Anethum graveoleiis) yielded to Gladstone a portion 
behaving like the carvol of cumin oil, and the chemical identity of 
the two oils has been established by Nietzki. The author finds it 
unnecessai'y to separate the carvol, as the crude oil gives an abundant 
yield of crystals, C^o H30 Oo S. The carvols from the two oils also cor- 
x-espond in their optical properties. They do not differ more in smell 
than many sorts of turpentine oil, or oil of citron and oil of lemon. 

The author examined a sample of oil of Meutha crispn, and found 
it to rotate 9-3° to the left. Treated with sulphuretted hydrogen, it 
gave the crystals Coq H3Q O^ S. The liquid portion, after separation 
of the alcohol and sulphuretted hydrogen by a gentle heat, amounted 
to about 70 per cent, of the crude oil, and showed a diminished 
rotatory power (7-0° to the left). The portion not acted upon by 
sulphuretted hydrogen gradually deposited crystals in the cold ; and 
upon continuing the passage of sulphuretted hydrogen, adding a 
little ammonia, a thick oil separated, which, after washing, formed 
a vitreous mass (Coq H3Q S3, or (C^q H^^ S)o S Ho), the hydrothion sul- 
pho-carvol or thiocarvum first obtained by Varrentrapp from cumin 
oil carvol. This compound, so very rich in sulphur, has at first an 
agreeable spicy smell, but when purified is odourless. As the oil of 
Meutha crlspa rotated the plane of polarization to the left, it would 
result that the carvol it contained would also have algevogyre action, 
although chemically it was perfectly identical with carvol from cumin 
oil. The author had supposed that the rotatory powers of the two 
carvols might be equal, but exercised in opposite directions. Ex- 
amined, however, under the same conditions as those before men- 
tioned for cumin carvol, the crisped mint carvol showed a deviation 
to the left of about 9° only. It would be interesting to compai'e 
these two carvols still more closely, as the author thinks that that 
from crisped mint would probably also yield an oxycymene (carva- 
crol) without optical action, as well as other derivatives identical 
with those from cumin carvol. 

The author has not met with carvol in any other case, although 
he has examined a large number of essential oils. 

Hesperidin. E. Paterno and Gr. Briosi. {Ber. cler deutsch. 
Chem.-Ges., ix., 250-252.) From four thousand ripe oranges the 
authors obtained 180 grams of pure hesperidin. Their process for 
the pi'eparation of this substance deviates but little from the one 
described in the Year-Booh of Pharmacy, 1876, 153. It can also be 
obtained from the ripe fruit of Citrus llinunum and Citrus media. 


Pare hesperidin fuses at 243°-245°. It is nearly insoluble in water, 
dilute acids, and ether ; but freely soluble in alkalies and in aniline. 
From its alkaline solutions it is precipitated by acids, and from solu- 
tions in aniline by ether. 

HesperidilL E. Hoffmann. (Ber. der deutsch. Chem.-Ges., ix., 
685.) The composition of this glucoside is represented by the 
formula C^, H^g O^^. When treated with dilute acids it yields glucose 
and a substance named hesperetin, Cig Hjj Og, which is split up by 
caustic potash into phloroglucin, CgHgOg, and hesperitic acid, 
Cjo HjQ O4. The latter fuses at 225°, but begins to sublime before 
the fusing point is reached ; when fused with caustic potash it 
yields protocatechuic and acetic acids. During its sublimation it 
is partially decomjjosed, with the formation of a body resembling 
vanilhn. Neutral solutions of its salts, but not solutions of the free 
acid, produce a cinnamon brown precipitate with ferric chloride. 

Hesperetin fuses at 223°. It forms white crystals, having a 
sweet taste and being insoluble in cold water, but soluble in alcohol 
and ether. 

The Manufacture of Nitric Acid. H. Gobel. (Dingl. pohjt. 
Journ., ccxx., 238-245; Journ. Chem. tSoc, Sept., 1876, 332.) 
Proposals have been made and methods devised for the decomposi- 
tion of the sodium nitrate (Chili saltpetre) ; so that instead of sul- 
phuric acid, some other decomposing substance should be used, such 
as — besides leaving behind a valuable residue — shall afford a good 
yield of acid. The best of these are the following : — 

(R. Wagner.) — Heating a mixture of alumina hydrate with 
sodium nitrate. 

(J. Walz.) — Heating sodium nitrate with calcium carbonate and 
steam in retorts. 

(Kiihlman.) — Heating sodium nitrate with manganese chloride, etc. 

All these proposed methods have simply remained proposals, none 
being found of sufficient merit as yet to replace the method by 
which nitre is decomposed with sulphuric acid. 

However, the plant and apparatus used in the above universal 
method, have undergone from time to time considerable improve- 
ments. Thus the old deep, elliptical pans, with stoneware lids, etc.. 
have been replaced by cast-iron cylinders, which are set up on their 
sides. These have been found to pos.sess many advantages, as they 
require comparatively little fuel, are easily managed, and do not per- 
mit loss of gas at the joints, these being reduced to minimum (they 
are lined inside with fire-clay tiles, cemented with acid-proof cement) . 

Another improvement, now an old one, is the fractional distilla- 


tion of the acid, by which means the production of a colourless con- 
centrated acid was made possible. 

Then the old-fashioned earthenware head-piece and pipes were 
replaced by glass tubes ; so that the reaction, and procedui*e of the 
distillation could be observed, and the danger of frothing or boiling 
over reduced or removed. 

In earlier times, the receivers, consisting of earthenware or stone- 
ware vessels, were frequently cracked or broken, with loss of vapours 
or acid, or both. It was necessary to moderate the action very 
considerably to prevent overheating of these condensers ; and this 
meant loss of time, labour, and a reduced yield. To avoid these 
evils, R. Wagner proposed the employment of a series of funnel- 
shaped earthenware bottles, through which system the acid vapours 
circulate, accompanied by a stream of water. The author considers 
it questionable if the cooling of the distillate was sufficiently at- 
tained by these means. Another plan to avoid the cracking of the 
receivers, was to allow the heated gases from the firing-up apparatus 
attached to the decomposing vessel to pass under the condensers, 
and so to warm them before escaping to the chimney. 

In England a still greater improvement was made, viz., the ad- 
dition of a stoneware worm and condenser, through which the gases 
passed from the decomposer before entering the receivers. This 
precaution prevented the breaking of the receivers, or at least 
greatly reduced it. The apparatus used by the author with great 
success for cooling the gases, consists simply of a straight glass tube, 
bent at both ends, which lies in constantly renewed water. One end 
of the tube is connected with the tube of the decomposition appara- 
tus ; the other with the first receiver. This simple arrangement has 
enabled the author to decompose (with fractional distillation) 250 
kilos, of saltpetre in 36 houi's ; and with no fractional distillation, 
300 kilos, in 36 hours. 

Besides this, the receivers could be diminished in number from 9 
to 3, most of the acid collecting in the first receiver. Also, it is 
thus easy to obtain very concentrated acid. Experiments showed 
that in a cylinder apparatus there were obtained in th.e first receiver 
140 kilos, of acid of sp. gr. 1-53, temperature about 60°. In the 
second, 55 kilos, of acid of sp. gr. 1-49. In the last receiver, the 
acid had a sp. gr. of 1'32. 

In six months only one cooling tube was broken. It is shown by 
numerical data given, that by this careful method of cooling, an in- 
creased production is obtained of 6"8 kilos, of acid of sp. gr. 1'33, 
per 100 kilos, of sodium nitrate. 



At the end of the apparatus, i.e., in connection with the last re- 
ceiver, is placed a tower of earthenwai-e tubes filled with coke soaked 
in concentrated sulphuric acid, by which means the nitrous gases, 
otherwise lost, are absorbed. In fact, the arrangement is simply a 
small Gay-Lussac's tower. 

A useful table is given, showing the increase of density of nitric 
acid on cooling from any likely temperature to 155°C. 







Increase on 

Increase on 

Increase on 


cooling to 15° 


cooling to 1.5° 


cooling to 15° 

in deg. Banm^. 

in deg. Baumd. 

in deg. Baumd. 


















































3 00 







































































Suppose, for example, an acid is examined and found to be of a 
specific gravity of 36° Baume, and its temperature is 40° ; if this be 
cooled to 15°, it will naturally become denser, and to the extent of 
2-85° B., its density at 15° being 36 + 2-85 = 38-85° Baume. 

Determination of Nitric Acid by Indigo. R. Warington. 
(Chem. News, xxxv., 45-47, 57-59.) The author first describes the 
method employed by Boussingault, in which the nitrate is boiled 
with hydrochloric acid, and solution of indigo added till a sap-green 
colour is permanently obtained. Boussingault destroj's organic 
matter, when present, by a preliminary distillation with peroxide of 
manganese and sulphuric acid. The experiments made by the 
author with the method introduced by Marx, and since improved 
by Trommsdorff, Goppelsroeder, Bemmelen, and Sutton, are next 
detailed. In this method the reaction is brought about by mixture 
with oil of vitriol, without the use of artificial heat. The indigo 


employed was a solution of " indigo-carmine " (sulphiudigotate of 
sodium) ; the solution of pure nitre contained O'OlOll gram in 
10 c.c; the oil of vitriol was distilled acid. 
The author found : — 

1. That the maximum amount of indigo is consumed only when 
a sufficiency of indigo is present with the niti'ate before the addition 
of oil of vitriol. The plan adopted by Marx of mixing the nitrate 
solution with twice its volume of oil of vitriol, and then im- 
mediately running in the indigo, always consumes less indigo than 
the nitrate is capable of oxidising. The full amount of indigo can 
only be ascertained by a series of approximating experiments, in 
which the oil of vitriol is suddenly added to the previously mixed 
nitrate and indigo. 

2. The amount of indigo required depends greatly on the propor- 
tion of sulphuric acid present, and within certain wide limits the 
amount of indigo is less as the proportion of sulphuric acid is 
greater. With 10 c.c. of nitre solution, 11'3 c.c. of indigo were 
required when the indigo and nitre were mixed with their own 
volume of oil of vitriol; but 8'9 c.c. of indigo were sufficient when 
two volumes of oil of vitriol wei-e employed. 

3. The full amount of indigo is consumed only when the tempera- 
ture of the mixture remains sufficiently high during the reaction : 
100°, 110°, and 120°, are given by various writers as the minimum 
temperature. When the reaction was immediate, artificial heat was 
found necessary ; but when — through dilution of the nitrate, small 
volume of the liquid, weakness of the vitriol, etc. — the reaction was 
tardy, the temperature of the flask containing the mixture must be 
maintained by a paraffin or chluride of calcium bath, or the results 
will be too low. 

4. The true tint of final reaction is a dull brown, which precede 
the commencement of green ; the brown tint becomes green when 
suddenly diluted with water. If a solution of sublimed indigotine 
in sulphuric acid is employed, the tint passes at once from gold to 
green without an intermediate brown stage. 

5. When a nitrate solution is diluted, it apparently requires dis- 
tinctly less indigo per unit of nitrate if a double volume of oil of 
vitriol be employed ; but if a single volume is used, the ditference is 
very slight, and in the contrary direction. If two volumes of sul- 
phuric acid are employed, the indigo must therefore be standardized 
with nitre solutions of several dilutions, to ascertain the value of 
different parts of the scale. 

6. The influence of chlorides is slightly to diminish the indigo 



required. AVith '03 to lO gram of chloride of sodium in 10 c.c. of 
nitre solution, the reducing effect of 100 chloride of sodium was 
equiil to 1"1G nitre. With much chloride the final tint is a bright 

7. Some kinds of organic matter have a powerful reducing action. 
Cane-sugar had a greater etiect the larger the proportion of sulphuric 
acid and the more dilute the nitrate; with a one-tenth nitre solution, 
and a double volume of oil of vitriol, 100 of sugar had a reducing 
effect equal to G2 3 nitre. The soluble humic matter of soils was 
apparently without influence, — determinations of nitrate in a kitchen 
garden soil by the mercury method, and by the indigo method, 
giving accordant results. Only one volume of sulphuric acid was 
used in this experiment. 

Volumetric Estimation of Bismuth. M. M. Pat ti son Muir. 
(Abstract of a paper read before the Chemical Society: Journ. Ghent. 
Soc, 1876, 483.) The process described by the author depends upon 
the facts concerning the formation of chromate of bismuth made 
known by Lowe (Journ. PraJd.-Chem., Ixvii., 288 and 463). Potassium 
chromate or potassium dichromate solution is ran into a nearly 
neutral solution of bismuth nitrate until the whole of the metal is 
precipitated in the form of chromate. The final point of the re- 
action is determined by bringing a drop of the supernatant yellow 
liquid into contact with a drop of the silver nitrate solution upon a 
white slab, when red silver chromate is produced. 

On account of the uncertainty which still exists in reference to 
the exact composition of the chromates of bismuth, and also on 
account of the fact that a slight excess of either of the potassium 
chromates appears necessary in order to cause the complete precipi- 
tation of the bismuth salts, no attempt was made to calculate the 
exact quantity of chromate needed to precipitate a known weight of 
bismuth, and upon such a c.ilculation to base the composition of 
a standard liquid ; but the plan was adopted of titrating a dilute 
chromate solution against a standard bismuth solution, and from 
these results calculating the strength of the chromate in terms of 
bismuth precipitated. 

The author first describes the results of the experiments made 
with a solution of potassium chromate. The chromate was purified 
by recrystallization from aqueous solution. About 10 grams were 
dissolved in 1000 c.c of water. A solution of bismuth nitrate was 
prepared by dissolving a known weight of pure bismntliic trioxide 
(Bi|, O3) in dilute nitric acid, and making up the liquid to 1 litre. 
The chromate solution was run into a measured quantity of the 



bismuth containing liquid (made nearly neutral with ammonia and 
maintained at the boiling point) until a faint reddish colour was 
produced on bringing a drop of the supernatant liquid in contact 
with a drop of an aqueous solution of silver nitrate spotted upon a 
glass plate which rested upon a sheet of white paper. 

Partial neutrahzation of tlie acid liquid containing bismuth was 
effected by dropping in ammonia until a very faint precipitate was 
formed, then boiling the liquid, and continuing to add ammonia very 
carefully until the solution was but slightly acid. Before this point was 
reached, a precipitate invariably formed ; but it was found that this 
did not interfere with the results. If an excess of ammonia were 
inadvertently added it was found better to add nitric acid in quantity 
sufficient to dissolve the precipitate, and again to nearly neutralize 
with ammonia, rather than to add merely such a quantity of nitric 
acid as should cause but a faint acid reaction in the liquid. The 
chromate was run in from a burette graduated in tenths of a cubic 
centimetre and furnished with a glass stop-cock. After the addition 
of a few drops of chromate solution, the liquid was boiled for some 
minutes and the precipitate was then allowed to settle ; which it 
did very rapidly and completely. In order to bring a drop of silver 
nitrate solution on to the glass plate and at the same time to pre- 
vent the continued exposure of this solution to the air of the 
laboratory, — an exposure which always resulted sooner or later in 
the production of silver sulphide in the solution, — a special apparatus 
was made use of, by which the formation of silver sulphide was 
reduced to a minimum. The formation of silver chromate only 
became apparent after a few moments, and when an excess of silver 
nitrate was used relatively to the quantity of potassium chromate in 
the drop of liquid. 

Two series of experiments were performed: one with potassium 
chromate, the other with the dichromate. The dichromate method 
proved to be the better one of the two, and yielded very satisfactory 
results. The dichromate, moreover, is more easily purified by re- 
crystallization than the chromate. The reaction with silver nitrate 
is more marked than in the case of the chromate, but a slight excess 
of silver nitrate should here also be added, and a little time should 
be allowed to elapse before a conclusion is di'awu as to the comple- 
tion of the process. The difference between the quantities of 
bismuth taken and the quantities found are smaller in the results 
obtained by the dichromate than in those obtained by the chromate 
method. It is necessary to neutralize the greater part of the free 
nitric acid before running in the dichromate liquid. 


Xo definite results could be obtained in the presence of chlorides, 
as the precipitate then t'oriued was totally unlike the chrouiate of 
bismuth usually obtained ; it was white or light yellow, heavy, and 
granular, and consisted probably to a large extent of oxychloride. 
As this process is not applicable in the presence of other metals, 
such as copper, arsenic, and calcium, such metals — if existing in 
solution along with bismuth — must first be removed by the ordinary 
method. This being done, the bismuth may then be titrated with 
perfect accuracy. 

Preparation of Lithium Carbonate from Lepidolite. F. Fil- 
singer. (^Arcliiv der PJiarin., v., 198.) The lepidolite, reduced to 
fine powder, is treated with strong sulphuric acid, containing 
some nitric acid, in a large brick trough, at a gentle heat. It is 
heated "with constant stirring till it gains consistency enough to be 
made into balls, which can be easily introduced into a reverbe- 
ratory furnace. The slight excess of sulphuric acid is driven off 
at a gentle heat; the temperature then raised, and the pieces 
vv-hilst still hot are treated with water in vessels lined with lead. 
The residue consists of almost pure silica, for which a market is 
easily found. As lithium does not replace potassium in alum, a 
sufficient quantity of potash is added to transform all the sulphate 
of aluminium present into alum. On evaporation the alum separates 
in powder. It "is removed, dried in a centrifugal machine, and on 
recrystallization is obtained in fine crystals. The excess of alumina 
is precipitated from the mother-liquor by milk of lime, and the 
excess of sulphuric acid by barium chloride. The barium sulphate 
obtained is a marketable article. The liquid is then evaporated, 
and the mixed chlorides of lithium, potassium, sodium, calcium 
and sometimes barium, exhausted with absolute alcohol. The 
lithium and calcium chlorides are dissolved. The calcium is sepa- 
rated as oxalate, and the lithium chloride evaporated and crystal- 
lized. It is precipitated with ammonium carbonate and ammonia, 
and brought into the market in the form of carbonate. The advan- 
tages of this pi'ocess are, complete consumption of the crude material, 
cheap reagents, common plant, precipitates which are easily washed, 
and a number of marketable chemicals, e.g., silica, alumina, potash, 
alum, and lithium carbonate. 

Constituents of Black Pepper. Prof. R. Buchheim. (Mew 
liemedies, !Sei)tember, 18 7G.) Several years ago the author has 
shown that black pepper contains two substances which are of 
analogous chemical constitution, and have a similar action. (ArcMv 
fur Pathul.-AHutoinie, Ivi., 9.) One of these is piperin, which was 


discovered by Oersfcedt in 1819, and was first supposed to be the acrid 
principle, until Pelletier (1821) showed that it was tasteless when 
quite pui'e, and that the biting taste resided in the accompanying resin. 
To settle this question, Professor Buchheim lately exhausted 2000 
grams of black pepper with alcohol, removed the alcohol from the 
percolate by distillation, and treated the residue with water, which 
dissolved only traces thereof, without assuming any sharp taste. 
The extract was now shaken with ether as long as the latter became 
coloured thereby. The residuary part of the extract consisted 
almost wholly of impure piperin, which was deprived of a little 
adhering resin by potassa solution, then dissolved in hot alcohol, 
decolorized by animal charcoal, and recrystallized from hot alcohol 
and petroleum ether. The pure piperin thus obtained consists of 
almost colourless rhombic cylinders, with a faint yellowish tint, 
which could not be removed. They were tasteless when merely 
placed upon the tongue, being entirely insoluble in aqueous fluids ; 
but exhibited the sharp taste of pepper when chewed, or when 
introduced in alcoholic solution. 

The ethereal solution obtained above was then shaken with solu- 
tion of potassa, which removed chlorophyll, fatty acids, and an acid 
resin. On distilling off the ether a residue of an intense yellow 
colour was left behind, which was dissolved in alcohol and treated 
with animal charcoal. It was, however, impossible to decolorize it 
entirely ; and, besides, a little piperin accompanied it, from which 
it was exceedingly diflicult to separate it. In this condition the 
residue appeared as a yellowish brown mass of the consistence of 
thick turpentine, and of extremely biting taste. The yield was 
about two-thirds that of piperin. Treatment with alcoholic potassa 
and supersaturation with sulphuric acid, produced from it a sub- 
stance which was recognised as piperidin sulphate. 

There exist, therefore, in black pepper, two bodies, which yield 
piperidin with alcoholic potassa ; namely, piperin, and the new 
body here obtained, for which the name chavicin is proposed, from 
Chavica nfficinarum, Mign., or long pepper. On account of its 
amorphous condition, this substance has heretofore been denoted 
merely as " resin," and had not been investigated. While piperin may 
be regarded as piperidin, C5 H^q H N, in which one H is replaced by 
piperic acid — C5 H^q (^inHg 0.,) N" — we may consider chavicin in a 
similar manner as piperidin, in which one H is replaced by chavicic 

These piperidin compounds exist in nature, also, in other plants. 
Pellitory {^radix pyrethi'i) contains a body which Professor Buch- 


heim has named pyrethrin, and whicli he ascertained to bo decom- 
posable into piperidin and pyrethric acid. Herha spilanthis (from 
Spilanthes oleracea, Jacq., paracress) also contains a body which 
may be split np into an acid and piperidin. 

Peptone. (Fi'ora New Bemedirs, August, 187G.) The terra " Pep- 
tone " is used to denote those albumen or protein-bodies which have 
been altered by the gasti'ic juice, or in other words, the result of the 
action of pepsin upon fibrin or albumen. Peptones introduced into 
the digestive organs are directly absorbed iuto tlie blood, without 
having to undergo previous digestion, and are converted into 
albumen-bodies. As there are various diseases in which the secre- 
tion of normal gastric juice is more or less diminished, or entirely 
suppressed, — preventing, therefore, the assimilation of the protein 
compounds, — the nutrition of the system may still be accomplished 
by introducing peptones into the digestive canal. The importance 
of this mode of administering nourishment in typhous and gastric 
diseases is fully recognised by physicians. 

The German peptone is sold in round tin cans weighing 340 grams 
(12 oz. avoird.), and containing 250 grams (9 oz. avoird.) of material. 
Dr. Hermann Hager suggests the following method of examining it : 
10 volumes of the peptone are slightly warmed, mixed in a large test 
tube with GO volumes of a concentrated solution of sodium chloride, 
and the mixture set aside. After the lapse of thirty minutes the pep- 
tone has collected at the bottom of the liquid, and occupies 8 to 9 
volumes ; after thirty minutes more 7 to 8 volumes; and after twelve 
hours not less than 3 "3 volumes. Peptone in a thin layer is a clear 
liquid of the consistence of thin syrup, and has a faintly bitter taste, 
somewhat resembling that of extract of beef or of mushrooms. A 
peptone-chocolate is also manufactured; this is of dark brown colour, 
has the consistence of a soft extract, and is sold in the same kind of 
tin boxes as the peptone itself, 

Hager quotes the following extract from a report of Dr. H. San- 
ders, in Amsterdam (who is also a manufacturer of peptone) : " It 
is well known that the albuminoid substances are the most import- 
ant nourishing agents of the animal body. From them the muscles 
and nerves draw the necessary material for their constant rccon- 
stmction during the process of life. But before these albuminoids 
can become of any use to the body, they must be digested ; and this 
is done by being converted into peptone in the stomach and intes- 
tinal canal. As peptone it is taken up by the blood, and there 
reconverted into albumen. As soon as any peptone has been formed 
it is very rapidly absorbed. Whenever digestion is defective, or the 


gastric juice is of abnormal character, it is readily understood tbat 
the conversion of albumen or fibrin into peptone, and hence nutrition 
in general, must become impaired. 

" This defect may be removed by introducing ready-made peptone, 
which is rapidly and completely absorbed by the body, and which 
requires no further digestion. For this reason it is just as effective 
if administered by the rectum as if introduced into the stomach; and 
in many cases the former way is alone practicable. 

"The only disngreeable point about peptone is its taste, and if 
given by the mouth this may require correction. In the case of 
nursing infants, it is sufficient to add it to the milk, about one or two 
tablespoonfuls to the quart. By beginning with small quantities, 
say one teaspoonful, they become easily accustomed to it. Adults 
may take it in milk, or diluted with water, or beef tea ; or it may be 
mixed with equal parts of sherry, madeira, or some other generous 
wine. Tlie most agreeable mode of administration, however, is the 
following : — 

^'Peptone Chocolate. — 250 grams (9 oz.avoird.) of peptone are gently 
heated, and 200 grams (7 oz.) of white sugar dissolved in it ; to the 
warm, solution are added, under constant stirring, 100 to 125 grams 
(S^ to 4 J oz.) of pure pulverized chocolate (free from oil), until 
there is produced a homogeneous syrupy mass, which may be fla- 
voured with vanilla, essence of orangfe or of lemons. On coolino- this 
mixture may be kept for a long time without spoiling, and a portion 
may be dissolved in hot water or milk. When administering it per 
rectum it should be diluted with four to six parts of warm water." 

Expulsion of Sulphuretted Hydrogen from its Solutions by Boiling. 
J. Volhard. {Zeitschr. fur Anahjt.-Ghem., 1876, 341.) It appears 
from the author's experiments that sulphuretted hydrogen cannot 
be completely expelled from its aqueous solution, even by long con- 
tinued boiling. After boiling the solution in a flask for five hours, 
during which the water lost by evaporation was gradually replaced, 
the resulting liquid still contained 0"003 per mille of H., S. Solu- 
tions which were boiled down to one-tenth of their original volumes 
yielded residues containing 0'0015-0'0016 per mille of the gas. 

The Colouring Matter in the Petals of Eosa Gallica. H. Senier. 
(From a paper read at the Pharmaceutical Society's meeting, Feb- 
ruary 1st, 1877.) 

Extraction. — The dried petals of commerce were first digested with 
ether, and the ethereal solution removed by filtration. By this 
treatment quercitrin — the yellow colouring matter — and solid fat were 
removed (Pilhol). Experiments were next made to ascertain the 


relative value, as solvents of the colouring' matter, of chloroform, 
water, and alcohol. No colouring matter was dissolved by the chlo- 
roform. Hot water dissolved it freely, but dissolved also much 
albuminous matter. Alcohol was found decidedly the best, yielding 
a solution comp;iratively free from other substances. But while the 
solution in water is of a bright red colour, that in alcohol is at first 
colourless — due most likely to some reducing action of the alcohol — 
but acquires in time a red tint, which brightens with age. From this 
alcoholic solution the colouring matter was precipitated in a green 
amorphous state by acetate of lead. This precipitate, after washing 
and drying (100° C), was treated in two ways : — Firstly, the precipi- 
tate, suspended in rectified spirit, was decomposed by sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and the mixture filtered (Eisner). Secondly, the precipi- 
tate, suspended in rectified spirit, was decomposed by dilute sulphuric 
acid, — taking care to have the precipitate in excess, — and the mix- 
ture filtered. Both these latter solutions have a bright red colour. 
The solution obtained by means of dilute sulphuric acid was found 
to be the purer, though most of the reactions detailed below may 
be obtained from either, or even from the original alcoholic solution. 

Action of Reagents. — Dilute acids deepen the colour ; but concen- 
trated they decompose it, concentrated nitric yielding a yellow solu- 
tion. Alkalies change the colour from bright red to a deep red with 
a bright green fluorescence, and when added in excess give a yellow 
solution. A drop of solution of soda and a drop of the solution of 
colouring matter, placed on a glass slide and slowly evaporated by a 
gentle heat, yield under the microscope a mass of well-defined crys- 
tals. yields crystals when treated in the same manner. Am- 
monia itself does not give crystals, but combined with soda it does. 
With potash, ammonia gives with the colouring matter perfect octa- 
hedra. These crystals under the microscope, if treated with an 
acid, yield the colouring matter in the red form, which evidently 
arises from the crystals not from the solution, thus showing that 
they are actual combinations of the colouring matter. 

Alkaline carbonates act in the same manner as alkalies, except 
that the change of colour is accompanied with effervescence. Chlo- 
rine entirely destroys the red colour, leaving a yellow solution. 
Sulphuretted hydrogen changes the red to brown, but does not alter 
the chemical character of the solution. Stannic chloride changes 
the red to a beautiful dark magenta colour. On boiling with metal- 
lic mercury the red colour is changed to a dark violet or purple. 

Mercuric nitrate and chloride both give a slight white or pinkish 
precipitate, soluble in water. 


Hydrate of bainum yields a yellowish green precipitate, as does 
also hydrate of calcium, both becoming brown when deprived of 
moistare. No precipitates ai'e given by chloride of platinum, nitrate 
of silver, or the usual alkaloidal reagents, except very slight ones by 
iodohydrargyrate and trinitrophenic acid. 

Carbonic acid does not redden the colourless or green modification, 
but though possessing this property, esteemed in cochineal, it does 
not appear to be practically useful as an indicator in alkalimetry. 

Peroxide of hydrogen appeared to give no reaction. 

Sulphurous acid leaves the colour of a brown shade. 

To test paper all the solutions have an acid reaction. 

Neutral and basic acetates of lead give precipitates of a colour 
varying from a green to a bluish green. These precipitates, decom- 
posed by sulphuric acid, yield the colouring matter to the solution, 
as already mentioned, and deposit sulphate of lead. The action of 
reasrents leads to the conclusion that the colourinof matter is an 
acid, and that as such it forms salts — the crystals and precipitates 

The analysis of the lead salt led to the formula Pbo Coj Hgg O30. 

The author's report in the Pliarmaceutlcal Journal (p. 651) is 
illustrated by diagrams of crystals of the sodium salt, the ammonio- 
sodium, and the ammonio-potassium salts. It also contains diagrams 
of the principal spectra of the colouring matter. 

Estimation of the Alkaloids of Sabadilla and Physostigma. 
E. Masing. (Archiv der Pharm., October, 310-317.) The authoi* 
has found that pure veratrine, dissolved with the requisite quantity 
of acid in 14,670 parts of water, still yields with Mayer's solution a 
faint turbidity ; while on the addition of 1 per cent. Hg S 0^, the 
limit of the reaction is reached with a dilution of 1 in 11,400. 

The sabadilline double iodide dissolves in 17,630 parts of pure water, 
and in 10,300 parts of water containiug 1 per cent, sulphuric acid. 

Tho solubility of the hydrargyro-iodide of sabatrine is greater 
than that of the preceding alkaloids : in pure and in acidulated 
water, containing 1 per cent. Ho S Op it appears to be 1 in 2450. 

Commercial veratrine gives, with Mayer's solution, a more dis- 
tinct indication of alkaloid than that employed (in one case 0*8645, 
instead of 0'7772 gram used); the cause for this variation, which 
in the presence of sabadilline and sabatrine should be the reverse, 
has not been ascertained. Air- dried sabadilla seeds indicated an 
amount of alkaloids, which, if calculated as veratrine, w^as equal to 
3' 61 per cent. 

Physostigmine, prepared by Vee and Leven's process (Amer. Journ. 




Pharm, 18G5, 204), ceases to react with Mayer's solution -when 
dissolved in 9500 parts of pure water, or in 8800 parts of acidulated 
water, containing 1 per cent. Ho S O4. One kilogram of Calabar 
beans treated in this manner yielded only 0-7482 gram of alkaloid ; 
while Mayer's test solution indicated, in two experiments, 0'309 
and (.••433 per cent, respectively. 

Action of Hydrogen Sulphide on Alkaloids. E. Schmidt. (Lie- 
big's Amialcn, clxxx., 287; Jonrii. Chcm. Soc, July, 187G.) Almost 
all the known vegetable bases are acted upon by hydrogen sulphide. 
The substances thereby formed, though in some cases definite com- 
pounds, appear for the most part to be mixtures which cannot be 
separated, owing to the facility with which they are decomposed. 
The author has examined more particularly the compounds formed 
with strychnine and brucinc. 

Strychnine. — When an alcoholic solution of strychnine is saturated 
with hydrogen sulphide, and left at rest for some time, it gradually 
deposits fine orange red needles of a substance to which Schmidt 
attributes the formula 2 Coj Ho. No Oo, 3 H, So. This substance 
differs in colour and crystalline form from that which Hofmann ob- 
tained by the action of ammonium sulphide on strychnine, but can- 
not be distinguished therefrom by analysis. When kept for a day 
or two, it gives off hydrogen sulphide, and slowly changes colour ; 
whereas Hofmann's compound keeps for months without alteration. 
It was ascertained by direct experiment that this compound is formed 
only in presence of oxygen, not when air is completely excluded. 
Its formation may be represented by the equation : — 

2 Coi H.,o No Oo + 6 H, S + 30 = ^'' ^" !!' ?: \ nl s', + 3 Ho O. 


The compound is decomposed by mineral acids, with separation of 
oily drops of hydrogen bisulphide and formation of strychnine 

Brucine. — When hydrogen sulphide is passed into a strong solu- 
tion of brucine in alcohol, freely exposed to the air, the liquid im- 
mediately assumes a yellow colour, and after a time deposits yellow 
needles, which, on prolonged standing, become covered with a 
yellowish red layer of another sulphur compound. The yellow 
needles gave on analysis numbers agreeing with the formula 
C03 Hog No O4 Ho So + 2 Ho 0, which is that of a compound of 1 mole- 
cule of brucine with 1 molecule of hydrogen bisulphide. This for- 
mula, however, is of no value; for the substance after drying pos- 
sesses altered properties, and its composition is not represented by 


the formula Coj H.,, No O4 Ho So. The crystals are prismatic, insoluble 
in the ordinary solvents, and undergo partial decomposition wlien 
kept. They are decomposed by mineral acids, with separation of 
hydrogen bisulphide and formation of brucine salts. The melting 
point is about 125^. 

A second derivative of brucine is easily obtained by passing hydi'O- 
gen sulphide into a dilute alcoholic solution of the alkaloid (1 in 
100), till the liquid assumes a deep yellow colour, and allowing it 
to stand in loosely-covered vessels. In the course of twenty-four 
hours there is formed a deposit of ruby red crystals, which after 
washing with, alcohol and ether have the composition represented 

by the formula C03 Hog No 0^ - -. The ciystals belong to the tri- 

xdo ou 

clinic system. In their behaviour they closely resemble the foi'e- 
going yellow compound. 

The formation of these brucine compounds is dependent, like that 
of the strychnine compound, on the presence of oxygen; for if the 
air be perfectly excluded not a trace of them is produced. The fol- 
lowing equations may perhaps represent their formation : — 
a. Hog No O4 + 2 Ho S + = Ho + C, Ho^ N, O4 H^ So ; 

Datermination of Mmnte Q,uantities of Arsenic Present in Mineral 
and Organic Substances. M. Crommydes. \{BidL Soc. Chini. [2], 
XXV., 34S; Journ. Cheiii. Soc, July, 1876.) The author considers all 
the methods usually employed in the determination of small amounts 
of arsenic to be inconvenient or inaccurate ; and gives the prefer- 
ence to the method first proposed by Gautier, which consists in 
evolving the arsenic from a Marsh's apparatus in the form of 
arseniuretted hydrogen, and weighing the metallic arsenic obtained 
in the combustion-tube. As evidence of the extreme accuracy of 
this method, the following results are given. Orpiment of absolute 
purity was taken : — 

C. H,« N, O4 + 4 H, S + 0. = 2 Ho O + Co. Ho„ No _ . . ,_ 

Weight of Orpimeut 

Metallic Arsenic 

iletallic Arsenic 




0-0108 . 



0-0052 . 



On determining the arsenic in a portion of the same sample of 
orpiment, by the ammonium-magnesium arsenate method, inaccurate 
results were obtained, as will be seen from the following : — 






Arsenate obtained. 









Gautier's method is equally accurate M-ben applied to the determi- 
nation of arsenic contained in large quantities of organic matter. 
Known vohimes of a standard orpiment solution (05 gram of orpi- 
ment dissolved in 1 litre of water) were introduced into 100 grams 
of meat, and the amount of arsenic determined. The results are 
criven below : — 

Weight of Meat 


of Solution 

Weicrht of 


prht of Arsenic 


100 grams 

5 . 





100 „ 






100 „ 







It is necessary, however, to abstain from carrying on the carboni- 
zation of the organic matter too far, as it is found that the greater 
part of the arsenic remains in the charcoal as sulphide. In order 
to be quite certain that all the arsenic is in solution, the organic 
matter which has been successively treated with nitric acid, sul- 
phuric acid, and again with nitric acid, is calcined ; the residue again 
treated with a small quantity of nitric acid ; and the solution evapo- 
rated down, but not calcined. By this process all the arsenic is 
obtained, and no sulphide remains in the charcoal. 

Crystallized Hydrobromate of Conine. M. M our rut. (Bi'per- 
tolre lie Fhrnn., 1871.5, 3G9.) Of the various salts of conine the 
hydrobromate is the one most easily obtainable in a crystallized 
state. The salts prepared from the ordinaiy brown conine are 
generally contaminated with a brownish black substance, which 
cannot be completely removed without great difficulty and loss. 
The German conine, which is nearly colourless, presents no such 
difficulties, and yields crystals of the pure hydrobromate on being 
mixed with dilute hydrobromic acid. The latter is added to the 
alkaloid drop by drop until the mixture has a slight acid reaction, 
when the salt begins to crystallize out in the foi-m of colourless 
prismatic needles, which are very soluble in water but less readily 
so in ether and chloroform. They fuse at 100° C., but at a higher 
temperature they are decomposed, giving off the odour of conine. 
By the careful evaporation of the liquor at a gentle heat, a large 
yield of crystals can be obtained. 

Hydrobromate of conine has been administered with success to 
children suffering from whooping cough, in frequently repeated 
iloses of two to five milligrams each. The subcutaneous injection of 
five milligrams of the salt is recommended by Dr. Rcgnault for the 
relief of sciatica. 

Test for Sperm Oil. W. Gilmour. (PJiarm. Jourv., 3rd series. 



vii., 321).) The process recommended is as follows : — Take one part 
by weight of sulphuric acid, sp. gr. 1"84, to four parts of oil, and mix 
thoroughly. Let it stand for about twenty minutes, shaking once or 
twice in the interval, and then add about three ounces of distilled 
water. On now shaking the mixture a very thick saponaceous-like 
compound will be formed, which should be throughout of uniform 
colour, showing that the mixture is complete. After letting this stand 
for about eight hours, it will be found to have separated into two lay- 
ers, the one underneath being clear and colourless, and the one above 
a dark brown viscous mass, in which the cetin, if present, will be 
found floating, giving it a mottled appearance. It should now bo 
set aside for a further interval of eight or twelve hours, so that all 
cetin may separate ; on which it should be transfex'red to a larger 
vessel containing three or four times its volume of water, and the 
whole thoroughly shaken. The cetin will now be found floating on 
the surface of the liquid, and should be filtered out and thorougly 
washed until the filtrate ceases to have a milky appearance, and then 
dried spontaneously. As thus obtained, the cetin is light, ci'ystalline, 
pearl-white, not unlike quinine in appearance, but more glistening, 
and has neither taste nor smell. According to Christison, it is a 
pure proximate principle, intermediate between wax and the con- 
crete oils, and presenting all the leading properties of spermaceti, 
but less greasy, and fusible only at the higher temperature of 120°. 
It undergoes partial saponification when boiled with caustic potash 
solution, forming a brittle soap only in pai-t soluble in water, and 
composed cbiefly of palmitate of potash, oleate of potash, and a 
crystalline principle called ethal. 

The following table gives the amount recovered from one ounce 
by weight of ten different samples, with, the specific gravity of each 
oil respectively : — 


Sp. Gr. 60' F. 

Cetin in grains 









7 1 

















£ • 

1 . 1. 

1 J 

J -1 




All the foregoing oils have been tested in the manner indicated 


more than once (in most instances repeatedly) Avith nearly uniform 
results, so that it appeal's reasonable to assume the utility of tliis 
mode of determining their purity. 

The author has endeavoured to extract the spermaceti, previously 
known by this means to be present in some of these oils, by boiling 
in rectified spirit and subsequent crystallization. Spermaceti, it is 
well known, is soluble in boiling rectified spirit, whilst sperm oil 
is not ; yet every attempt thus to extract the spermaceti failed ; but 
whether from some adulterations of these oils with other oils soluble 
in rectified spirit, or from other impurities still, or from some defect 
in the manipulation, the author has been unable to determine. It 
shows, however, not only how prevalent adulteration is in this valu- 
able oil, but also how defective the means are for its detection, when 
dealers in every case prudently refrain from giving any opinion on 
its purity, and when further, it is Jnioiun that the annual consumption 
is much in excess of the amount actualhj imported. In circumstances 
such as these the test may prove of much practical utility to those 
engaged in examinations of this hind. 

Cresotic Acid and Sodium Cresotate. Dr. C. F. Beiss. {New 
Remedies, from Pharm. Ceniralhalle, 1876, 273.) The fact that 
cresotic acid is homologous with salicylic acid leads the author to 
the supposition that its therapeutic action might likewise be similar. 
The results of his experiments, especially in cases of fever, leave 
no doubt that cresotic acid is a most efiective antipyretic remedy, 
cori'esponding in its actions to quina or to salicylic acid. Sodium 
cresotate was administered in doses of 6 to 8 grams. After its 
administration the patients sometimes complained of a bad taste, 
but never of disagreeable sensations ; sometimes it produced hum- 
ming in the ears, but very rarely hardness of hearing after a few 

Cresotic or carbocresylic acid, CgHgOa, is derived from cresol or 
cresyl-alcohol (CVHg^O), inthesame way as salicylic acid (C7H6 0a) 
is from phenol or phenyl-alcohol (C,jH^ 0), by passing carbonic acid 
gas into cresol (or phenol) containing metallic sodium. The cresotic 
acid crystallizes from its hot watery solution in colourless prisms. 
It is sparingly soluble in cold water, readily in ether, alcohol, and 
alkaline solutions. Ferric chloride produces the same violet color- 
ation as with salicylic acid. Comparative exjieriments will have 
to be made to determine which of these two acids has stronger 
antipyretic powers. 

Determination of the Impurities in[Nitre. Prof. R. Fresenius. 
(Zeitschr.fii.rAnuhjt.-Cherii., 187C, G8 ; Jmirn. Chem. Soc, 1870, 651.) 


As chemists are frequently required to determine the traces of 
foreign salts in different kinds of purified saltpetre, the author pub- 
lishes a method of procedure, which from long experience he has 
found to give the most accurate results. 

1. Deter mlnatw)i of the Water. — This is done in the usual way, by 
ascertaining the loss on heating a weighed portion in a platinum 
crucible. The temperatui'e may be gradually raised until the salt 
just begins to melt. 

2. Determination of the CJilorine and of the Residue insoluble in 
Water. — 100 grams ai-e dissolved in hot water, and the residue 
collected and weighed on a tared filter. The filtrate is acidified 
with pure nitric acid, mixed with silver nitrate, and kept for some 
time in the dark at a gentle heat. The precipitate is then collected 
on a small filter, and determined either directly as silver chloride, 
or by reduction to metallic silver. 

3. Determination of the Lime, Magnesia, and Soda. — 100 grams of 
salt are dissolved with 1'.5 gram of potassium chloride, in about 
100 c.c. of water ; the solution is then mixed with about 500 c.c. of 
pure alcohol of 9G per cent., well stirred, and the crystalline residue 
separated by filtration and washed with alcohol. The filtrate is 
then evaporated to dryness, the residue dissolved in a little water, 
and the solution treated as before with alcohol, and filtered. This 
having been again repeated, an alcoholic solution is obtained con- 
taining all the lime, magnesia, and soda, but only a small quantity 
of potassium. This solution is now evaporated to dryness, and the 
residual salts converted into chlorides by digestion with hydrochloric 
acid, after which the lime can be separated by ammonium oxalate, 
and the magnesia by ammonium phosphate. The filtrate, freed from 
lime and magnesia, is now heated in a platinum basin to expel 
ammonia, one or two drops of ferric chloride added, and afterwards 
ammonia or ammonium carbonate, to slight alkaline reaction ; the 
liquid is then warmed, the basic phosphate of iron filtered ofi", and 
the filtrate evaporated to dryness, and heated until the ammonium 
salts are expelled. From the residue the potassium is separated as 
potassio-platinic chloride, together with the excess of the platinum 
salt, decomposed by careful heating in a stream of hydrogen gas. 
Finally, the sodium chloride is extracted with water, the solution 
evaporated to dryness, and the sodium calculated from the weight 
of the residue. 

An actual analysis gave : — 

[v>'0, Xa>r03 Mg(X03)., CaCXOj); Na C! Insoluble. Moisture. 
yU-8r24 0-0207 0-0093" 0-0006 ' 0-0134 0-0210 0-1226 = 100 


Reactions of Carbolic, Benzoic, and Salicylic Acids. Dr. R. 
Godef froy. (Abstracted from the Zeitschr. des oesterr. AixAh. Fe>*., 
in Xev: li em edits.) 

Reactions of Carbolic Acid. 

1. Solutions of caustic alkalies dissolve phenol readily, with form- 
ation of pheuates (carbolates) of alkali metals. 

2. On treating phenol with an excess of fused caustic potassa, a 
copious disengagement of hydrogen gas occurs after a short time ; 
■while at the same time there are formed oxybenzoic and salicylic 
acids and diphenol. 

3. Potassium or sodium dissolves in melted phenol, with disen- 
gagement of hydrogen and formation of phenate of the alkali metal. 

4. On passing dry carbonic acid into phenol containing sodium 
in solution, sodium salicylate is formed, together with paraoxybenzoic 

5. Pieces of caustic potassa brought into a solution of phenol in 
chloroform became covered with a rose red shell, but the mixture 
soon became very hot, dark coloured, and thick. 

On adding to an aqueous solution of phenol a little, 
evaporating to dryness, and after the residue has become cold, pour- 
ing over it some chloroform, a magnificent purple colour makes its 
appearance, which is ascribed to the formation of rosolic acid. 
(J. Guareschi, Gaz. Cliim. Ifal, 3, 402.) 

6. A watery solution of jihenol immediately discolours potassium 
permanganate. If the latter be added until the colour ceases to 
disappear, the products of oxidation are only carbonic and oxalic 
acids ; if, however, the oxidation remains incomplete, the products 
are a resin, closely allied iu composition to phenol, a small quantity 
of oxalic acid, and a few other bodies. 

7. Strong hydrochloric acid is poured upon potassium chlorate in 
a test tube, so that the fluid stands a few centimetres over the salt ; 
after the subsidence of the first reaction, and the removal of the 
chlorine vapours from the upper portion of the test-tube by blowing, 
the liquid is diluted Avith 1^ volume of water; water of ammonia 
is now poured into the test-tube, so that the latter forms a separate 
layer over the other. On adding to this test liquid a watery solu- 
tion of phenol, the ammoniacal layer as.sumes a tint, varying with 
the quantity of phenol, from rose red, through blood red, reddish, 
or dark brown. One part of phenol may be easily recognised in 
12,000 parts of liquid. (Ch. Rice, Ainer. Journ. Pharm., 1873, 98.) 

8. On pas.sing the vapour of phenol over zinc in powder, benzol 
and zinc oxide are formed : 2 Ce. H., O H + Zn„ = 2 Zn -»• 2 d Ua. 


0. On adding an excess of bromine -svater to a dilute aqueous 
solution of phenol, there is immediately formed a yellowish white 
flocculent precipitate of tribromphenol, C^ H^ Br^ H. This reaction 
is said to be distinguishable in a dilution of 1 in 43,700, and by 
waiting a few hours, even in one of 1 in 54,600 pax'ts. 

10. On shaking a watery solution of phenol with aqueous ammonia, 
and exposing the liquid to the vapour of bromine, the liquid assumes 
a distinct blue colour, even in presence of only T7xr-Juxi^^i P^^'t of 
phenol. (F. A. Flilckiger, Arcliiv der Pliarm. [3], 3-30.) 

11. Ou mixing a solution of a hypochlorate with ammonia and a 
liquid containing phenol, an intense blue colour is developed. Very 
small quantities of phenol may be detected by this i-eaction. 

12. Dilute solutions of phenol are coloured violet by neutral 
aqueous ferric chloride solution. Alcoholic ferric chloride solution 
produces a blue colour with alcoholic phenol solution. Free acids 
prevent the reaction. 

13. A watery solution of phenol reduces metallic mercury from a 
solution of mercurous nitrate, and the liquid assumes a red colour, 
which is said to be visible still if only 7, ooooth part of phenol is 

14. By united action of iodine and mercuric oxide upon phenol, 
substitution products of the latter, containing iodine, are foi-med. 
(P. Weselsky, Wien. Ber., 09, ii., 832.) 

15. Albumen is immediately coagulated by phenol. 

16. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves phenol without colour, 
and produces phenol sulphuric (sulpho-carbolic, sulphophenic) acids. 
Warmed with fuming sulphuric acid, phenol yields pheno-disulphuric 
acid, which latter imparts a ruby colour to ferric chloride solution. 

17. On heating phenol with oxalic and sulphuric acids a beautifully 
red mass is obtained, which assumes a magnificent purple shade 
with alkalies. This is owing to the formation of coraline. 

18. On heating phenol with sublimed (and, therefore, dehydrated) 
oxalic acid to 110°-120° C, rosolic acid is formed. (" Prud'homme," 
Monit Sclent. [3], 3890.) 

19. Nitric acid acts upon phenol with more or less violence, 
depending upon its concentration, and produces mononitrophenol, 
C6H4(NO,)OH, or dinitrophenol, CeH,(N 0,), H, or trinitro- 
phenol, Cg Ho (N 0)3 H. This latter is commonly known as picric 

Reactions of Benzoic Acids. 
1. On passing the vapour of benzoic acid over faintly ignited zinc 
powder, essential oil of bitter almonds is formed. (Baeyer.) 


2. Benzoic acid, heated in a retort with coarsely ground pumice 
stone, splits into benzol and carbonic acid. If overheated, carbon is 
separated and naphthalin and pjrogcnic oils arc formed. (Barreswil 
and Bondault.) 

3. On heating benzoic acid with a mixture of acid .sodium sulphate 
and sodium chloride to 200" C, there arc formed benzyl chloride, 
hydrochloric acid, and normal sodium sulphate. (BeketoiF.) 

4. Benzoic acid is soluble in solution of sodium phosphates, which 
give up to it 1 or 2 atoms of sodium, producing thereby sodium 
benzoate. The solutions have an acid reaction, and give up benzoic 
acid on evaporation, or to ether. (J. Donath.) 

5. On mixing 3 molecules of benzoic acid with 1 molecule of glu- 
cose, and heating with a large excess of strong sulphuric acid, the 
liquid assumes a fine blood red colour, which disappeai's after a 
while ; finally the mass turns brown and black. 

6. Aqueous chromic acid, or potassium chromate and sulphuric 
acid, do not alter benzoic acid ; no odour of oil of bitter almonds is 
developed, and the chromic acid is not reduced (distinction from 
cinnamic acid). 

7. A neutral solution of ferric chloride produces in neutral solu- 
tions of benzoates a flesh coloured precipitate of ferric benzoate, 
insoluble in water and acetic acid, bat decomposed by hydrochloric 
acid, which produces free benzoic acid and ferric chloride. 

8. Silver nitrate produces no precipitate iu a solution of benzoic 
acid ; but on saturating the free acid with ammonia a white crystal- 
line precipitate of silver benzoate is immediately produced. This is 
soluble in ammonia, acetic acid, and hot water. 

9. Mercurous nitrate produces in a solution of benzoic acid a 
white crystalline precipitate of mercurous benzoate, veiy difficultly 
soluble in water. Alkaline benzoates produce a voluminous non- 
crystalline precipitate. 

Head ions of Salicylic Acid. 

1. Salicylic acid, heated above its melting point, splits into car- 
bon dioxide and phenol : — 

C7H«0:,-CO, + C«HcO. 

2. On distilling salicylic acid witli excess of lime, calcium car- 
bonate is formed and phenol distils over : — 

C, He O, + Ca = Ca 0^ + C« II« 0. 

3. If salicylic is heated with amylic alcohol (fusel oil) under 
pre.ssure at 2-50^ C, it .splits likewise into carbon dioxide and 


4. Sodium-amalgam, acting upon an acidulated solution of sali- 
cylic acid, which must bo coustautlj kept acid, transforms it into 
salicjlous acid : — 

C, Hs O3 + H, = C7 H,, 0, + H, 0. 

5. Sulphuric acid dissolves salicylic acid without colour, and forms 
from it two isomeric sulpho-salicylic acids. 

G. On heating salicylic acid with dilute sulphuric acid and man- 
ganic oxide, formic acid is produced which may be distilled off. 

7. Dilute sulphuric acid and potassium chromate likewise convert 
salicylic acid into formic and carbonic acids. (Kraut.) 

8. On heating a mixture of sulphuric acid, wood spirit (methyl 
alcohol), and salicylic acid, an agreeably aromatic liquid distils ovei% 
which is methylic salicylate. 

9. Concentrated nitric acid converts salicylic acid at the common 
temperatui'e into nitriosalicylic acid, C7 il^ (IST 0^) 0;; ; dilute nitric 
acid produces the same result by heating. 

10. Fuming nitric, or a mixture of concentrated nitric and sul- 
phuric acids, converts salicylic acid, under violent reaction, into 
picric acid, Cg H3 (N 0^)3 0, and carbonic acid. 

11. Chlorine and bromine produce substitution products. 

12. Iodine acts upon a watery solution of the acid only when 
heated ; if melted with dry salicylic acid it produces iodized substi- 
tution products and a red amorphous body. 

13. Warm hydrochloric acid dissolves considerable quantities of 
salicylic acid ; on cooling or on dilution with water it separates 
again in brilliant white fine needles. (Grodeffroy.) 

14. Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid convert it into 
chloranil (tetrachlorchinon), Cg C14 0^. 

15. On heating salicylic with aqueous hydriodic acid to 280'^ C, 
phenyl ic ether and carbonic acid are formed. 

16. On distilling it with phosphorus pentachloride, chloro- 
salicylchloride, C7 H4 CI.2 0, is formed. 

17. If phosphorus trichloride be added to a mixture of salicylic 
acid and aniliu, salicylanilide, Cg HgN H. (C7H5 0.,), is pi-oduced. 

IS. Iodine and mercuric oxide acting on salicylic acid produce 
iodized substitution products. (P. Weselsky, Wien. Ber. 69, ii., 

19. On mixing salicylic acid (3 molecules) with glucose (1 mole- 
cule), pouring over them a large excess of concentrated sulphuric 
acid, and gently warming, a fine blood red colour is produced ; this 
colour disappears after a while, and the mass turns brown, and 
finally black. (T. L. Phipson, Chem. Neius, 28, 13.) 


20. Caustic potassa solution dissolves salicylic acid readily ; the 
solution soon turns brown in the air. 

21. "Watery solution of salicylic acid and its salts is coloured 
intensely violet by ferric salts. This reaction is so delicate that 
Aug. Vogel. (Pharm. Zeit. f. Eussl, 187(3, 398, from Neii. Re}).f. 
Pharm.) has proposed it as a substitute for alkaline sulphocyanides 
as reagents for ferric compounds. In strongly acid solutions, how- 
ever, this reaction does not take place. H. ^V'eiakc employs it as 
an indicator in alkalimetry. (W. Weith, Ber. der deiUsch. Chem.- 
Ges., 18G6, 342 ; Neio liemedics v., 137.) 

On evaporating the intensely violet solution containing salicylic 
acid and ferric salt to dryness, the colour disappears entirely ; but 
the least quantity of water restores it. (Godeffroy.) 

22. Salicylic acid mixed with cupric sulphate and caustic soda 
solution produces a solution of an intensely bluish green colour, 
from which even a large excess of alkali fails to precipitate any 
cupric oxide. (Zeit.f. Anal.-Chcm.) 

23. Solution of sodium salicylate forms a grass green licj^uid with 
cupric sulphate solution (Hager, Pharm. Centralh.) 

24. Silver nitrate produces a white precipitate in solutions of 
alkaline salicylates, but no precipitate in solution of salicylic acid. 

25. Lead acetate behaves like the preceding. 

2G. On mixing a hot saccharated solution of simple calcium sali- 
cylate, Ca (Cr-Hj 03)0, obtained from calcium carbonate and aqueous 
solution of the acid, with a boiling solution of caustic lime in 
saccharine water, a heavy crystalline precipitate of so-called neutral 
calcium salicylate, Ca Cy H^ O.5, almost insoluble in water, is jiro- 
duced. (Limpricht, Organ. Ghem., 18G2, i.)04.) 

27. If a solution of salicylic acid is boiled with a solution of 
potassium ferrocyanide, hydrocyanic acid is produced, and the liquid 
becomes turbid. This reaction is very delicate, and permits the 
detection of very small quantities of salicylic by means of the re- 
agents for hydrocyanic acid. (Godeffroy.) 

28. On boiling a solution of salicylic acid with a solution of 
potassium permanganate, the characteristic colour of the latter is 
immediately destroyed, and carbonic acid, phenol, and brown liy- 
drated manganic oxide are produced. 

Betulin. U. Hausmann. (Licbir/'s Annalen, clxxxii., 308-380.) 
The author has obtained this substance from the light, corky layer 
of birch bark by exliausting it with boiling water, then boiling the 
e.xhausted bark with alcohol, precipitating the alcoholic decoction 
by an alcoholic solution of neuti'al acetate of lead, heating the 


mixture again to the boiling- point, filterino-, removing the lead from 
the filtrate by carbonate of ammonium, again filtering-, and allowing 
to cool. A crystalline magma of impure betulin was thus obtained, 
which was purified by repeated washing- with small quantities of 
ether and recrystallization from boiling alcohol. 

Pure betulin forms long, colom-less, inodorous, and tasteless 
7)risms, which when dry present the appearance of asbestos. It 
fuses at 258° C, and when heated beyond that point sublimes in 
long, very thin needles. It is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in 
cold alcohol, ether, benzol, and chloroform, and freely soluble in hot 
alcohol ; also in glacial acetic acid, oil of almonds, and turpentine. 
Its composition is represented by the formiila C.,(,_ Hf.,, O... By dry 
distillation oily products are obtained, possessing the characteristic 
odour of russia leather. "With acetic anhydride it forms betulin 
diacetate, a crystallizable ether, the composition of which agrees 
with the formula Cjo H^-j 0-. With nitric acid it forms betulin- 
amaric acid, C^j; H-.^ O^^ ; and by the action of chromic anhydride it 
is converted into betnlinic acid, C,^. H-jO,.. 

Detection of Mineral Acids by Colchicine. Prof. F. A. Fliick- 
iger. {Jonrn. CJiern. Soc, from liejTerf. Pharm., xxv., 18.) Mohr 
has observed that under certain conditions the behaviour of inor- 
ganic acids differs totally from that of the organic acids ; this differ- 
ence may be utilized for their discovery in presence of organic acids; 
for example, in vinegar or lemon juice. 

Potassium sulphocyanate in a dilute solution of ferric acetate 
causes no change, but if there be the smallest trace of hydrochloric, 
nitric, or sulphuric acid present, the blood red colour of ferric sul- 
phocyanate is at once apparent ; this, however, quickly vanishes on 
the addition of an acetate or oxalate ; but in this case phosphoric 
acid acts like the organic acids in preventing the formation of ferric 
sulphocyanate. Another of Mohr's methods depends on the fact 
that iodine is precipitated from a solution of potassium iodide if a 
ferric salt with an inorganic acid radicle be added. Ferric acetate 
causes no precipitation in a solution of potassium iodide, but if the 
smallest trace of an inorganic acid be present the iodine is imme- 
diately precipitated. 

But there is a case the reverse of this, in which the inorganic re- 
tards and the organic acid hastens the reaction. A soltition of pure 
ferrous sulphate mixed with a saturated solution of gallic acid pro- 
duces no change if the air be excluded, but acetates immediately 
produced in it a violet colour. 

Still more remarkable effects are produced by colchicine. Some 


colchicine was extracted from a few grams of the seeds by means of 
alcohol and water, the yellowish solution was diluted till the colour 
was scarcely perceptible. 

With concentrated sulphuric or nitric acid it gave a very distinct 
yellow, and on adding a drop of hydrochloric acid to this solution a 
bluish violet was produced. 

If some colchicine solution with a drop of nitric acid is strongly 
concentrated, and then a fragment of sodium acetate added, an 
orange colour is produced. 

If to a portion acidulated with sulphuric acid, a mixture of iodide 
of potassium and iodide of mercury, in the proportion of i)0 to 13'5, 
is added, a precipitate is formed. By means of this solution it was 
easy to detect half a jier cent, of sulphuric acid in vinegar. 

The Detection of Mineral Adulterants in Flour. Dr. C. Hiraly. 
(Pharmaceutlsche Handel shlatt, Xo. 7G.) As the complete incinera- 
tion of flour is a somewhat tedious operation, the author prefers to 
effect the separation of mineral adulterants by means of chloi-oform. 
Flour being much lighter, and the ordinary mineral adulterants 
(limestone, chalk, heavy spar, gypsum, and bone ash) much heavier, 
than chloroform, a sample of the suspected flour need only be 
shaken with it in a test-tube, and then allowed to separate A very 
slight dark coloured sediment, emanating from the millstone, will 
be deposited from a genuine flour, but any appreciable white sedi- 
ment indicates adulteration. The sediment, of course, can be 
weighed and further examined. 

The author has also employed this process for the separation of 
•white arsenic from a sample of flour in a forensic investigation. 

Alteration of Cantharidin in Cantharides. R. Wolf f. (Zeitsch: 
lies oestcr Apoih. Yer., xv., 102; PJiarm. Jov.rn., 3rd series, vii., 918). 
The experience that cantharides kept dry remain active for a long 
time, whilst when damp they rapidly lose their activity ; and fur- 
ther, the property of cantharidin not to be broken up under the action 
of strong sulphuric acid, whilst in the cantharides it loses almost 
directly its vesicatory action upon the skin, led the author, who is 
an apothecary in Buenos Ayres, to the conclusion that there must 
be present in cantharides some substance which, assisted by mois- 
ture, eflected a change in the cantharidin. As it is known that there 
is an evolution of ammonia when an aqueous solution of old canth- 
arides is heated with caustic potash, the opinion appeared to be justi- 
fied that ammonia might play an important part in the decomposition 
of the cantharidin. 

To clear up this point the author extracted the cantharidin from 


100 grams of Lytta aspersa. This species is used in Buenos Ayres, 
and is said to excel the ordinary Lytla vcsicatoria in its greater 
activity, which, when carefully dried, the insects retain during many 
years. From the 100 grams he obtained 0"815 gram of pure cantli- 
aridin, and also from the greeu-brown oily substance from which 
the cantharidin had separated upon treating it with ether and chlo- 
roform, 0'4G gram of a new body in tabular crystals, which, although 
it also had a vesicatory action, differed from cantharidin in its 
chemical properties as well as its form of crystallization. 

The crystals of this new body are difficultly soluble in cold water 
(about 1 in 6600); they are rather more soluble in boiling water, 
but separate upon cooling. In alcohol they dissolve in the propor- 
tion of 1 in 080 ; in ether, 1 in 390 ; in chloroform, 1 in 60. Hydro- 
chloric acid is without action upon them ; on the other hand, they 
are readily dissolved by nitric and sulphuric acids, especially when 
hot. In the latter case, however, decomposition appears to take 
place, since upon the addition of water cantharidin is precipitated, 
ammonium nitrate or sulphate being formed at the same time. 

When pulverized the new body dissolves at the ordinary tempera- 
ture in solution of potash or ammonia ; and upon the addition of an 
acid is again precipitated unaltered. If the ammoniacal solution be 
allowed to stand for some time in a moderately warm place, after 
the excess of ammonia has been given off, the solution readily red- 
dens blue litmus paper. If the ammoniacal solution be concen- 
ti-ated, crystals of the compound with ammonia are formed, which 
decompose upon drying, with formation of ammonia, and are then 
difficultly soluble in cold water. 

Upon evaporating the ammoniacal solution to dryness a white 
crystalline residue is obtained, that appears to be insoluble in 
cold water, but in boiling water it dissolves without difficulty. 
From the solution, which reddens litmus paper, acicular crystals 
separate upon cooling, ivhich constitute a second nitrogenous 
compound of cantharidin. The author made no closer inves- 
tigation as to the composition of these two compounds. In the 
remainder of the paper he simply distinguishes them as No. 1 and 
Xo. 2. Compound No. 2, placed on the skin, acts as a vesicant. 
It dissolves with difficulty in cold water, but readily in boiling 
water. In alcohol, ether, and chloroform it is very difficultly soluble, 
even when warmed. In acetic ether it is easily soluble, and upon 
evaporation cantharidin is left as a residue. The crystals dissolve 
readily in strong sulphuric acid, and no precipitation takes place 
upon the addition of water. Strong nitric and hydrochloric acids 


behave similarly. It appears as if the acids enter into combination 
■without causing decomposition. In ammonia this compound No. 2 
dissolves rather freely, but separates in acicular crystals upon the 
addition of acids. If the ammoniacal solution be allowed to evapo- 
rate slowly, ci'ystals are formed which consist of compound No. 2 
and ammonia ; upon drying and warming, these crystals are decom- 
posed with evolution of ammonia. It is also dissolved by potash 
solution, but it then separates unaltered upon the addition of acids. 
Upon evaporating the solution in alkali to dryness, ammonia is 
evolved, and part of the compound No. 2 passes into compound 
No 1. No. 2 appears to undergo no change upon fusion or sub- 
limation ; No. 1 also appears to melt and sublime without loss of 

If solution of a zinc salt be added to solution of cantharidin in 
caustic potash as long as any precipitate is foi'med, then a suflficiency 
of ammonia solution to dissolve the precipitate produced, and finally 
an acid in excess, the compound No. I separates as a white granular 
crystalline precipitate. Salts of copper and magnesia act like the 
salts of zinc, as probably do others that behave similarly towards 
ammonia. As magnesia salts are present in considerable quantity 
in cantharides, the author is of opinion that these, after the death 
of the insect, in presence of ammonia, quickly induce an alteration 
of the cantharidin into compound No. 1, and that this change is more 
rapid and complete in proportion as the conditions are favourable, 
which appears to be the case in the European cantharides, that so 
soon lose their activity. If by moisture a progi'essive formation of 
ammonia is favoured, the compound No. 1 is formed, and this after 
a time is in turn converted into compound No. 2, which then pro- 
bably enters into combination with acids contained in the canthar- 
ides. The author has no doubt that a more exact investigation of 
the nitrogenous compounds would afford a method of recovering 
the cantharidin that has undergone alteration in cantharides, the 
details of which would vary according to the degree of change that 
has taken place. 

Rhodeine, a New Reaction of Aniline. G. Jacquemin. 
(Joura. de Phann. et de Chiut., xxiv., 204.) Professor Dragendorff 
has shown that the well-known reaction of aniline with chlorinated 
lime fails to indicate this substance if its solution contains less than 
1 in GOOO. A few years ago the author observed that by substitut- 
ing sodium hypochlorite for the chlorinated lime, O'Ol gram of 
anilin dissolved in 100 c.c. of water, or 1 in 10,000, still produces 
a distinct violet coloration ; whereas solutions containing 1 part in 


20,000 give but a faiat brown, non-characteristic colour ; and those 
containing 1 part in 50,000 undergo no visible change whatever. He 
has now discovered a reaction by means of which aniline can be 
distinctly recognised in solutions containing 1 part in 250,000, and 
Avhich may therefore be advantageously employed when the hypo- 
chlorite fails. By the addition of a few drops of largely diluted 
solution of ammonium sulphide (1 drop to 30 c.c. of water) to the 
colourless or faintly brown mixture of aniline solution and sodium 
hypochloi'ite, a beautiful pink coloration is produced, which is still 
discernible in a solution containing but 4 milligrams of aniline per 
litre of water, but is instantly destroyed by an excess of ammonium 

The author hopes to isolate and to further investigate this new 
derivative of aniline, to which he has given the name rhodeine. 

Gentisin (Gentianin). H. Hlasiwetz and J. Habermanrt 
(Liehlr/s Annalen, clxxx.,343; Journ. Ghem. Soc, July, 1876.) The 
author's latest researches on this subject establish the indentity of 
pyrogentisic acid with hydroquinone. The true melting point of the 
latter is 169°. Gentisic acid is proved to be identical with oxysalicy- 
lic acid, which melts when pure at 196°-197°. 

By the action of sodium amalgam upon gentisin a body is formed 
having the formula C;^^ H^^g ^s? which differs from that of gentisin 
by C O. Fusel gentisin, when treated with dry hydrochloric acid, 
yielded methylchloride. Gentisin, therefore, contains the radical C H^. 
In a previous paper a diacetyl-gentisin was described, showing the 
presence in gentisin of two hydroxyl-groups. These facts admit of 
explanation on the assumption that gentisin is formed by the combi- 
nation of phloroglucin with a body isomeric with piperonal, thus : — 

Piperoual isomer. Phloroglucin. Gentisin. 



CfiH.K n > + CfHg ^OH-H,0 = CO 

C, H. ^ Q f 

Veratrine. E. Schmidt and R. Kopper. (From I?er. ^/er 
deutsch. Chem.-Ges., ix., 1115 ; Journ. Chein. Soc, jS'ov., 187G, 530.) 
Crystallized veratrine was prepared by the authors according to the 
directions of Merck, partly fi'om commercial verati-ine and partly 



from veratrine made by themselves. The general properties of the 
substance accord with the statements of Merck and Weigclin re- 
specting it. It melts at 205°. The numbers obtained by analysis 
(64"63 per cent, carbon, 8'G8 per cent, hydrogen, 2GG per cent, 
nitrogen) lead to the formula C.^^ H^q N Og. The hydrocliloride 
forms, with gold trichloride, the compound C.,., H^^ N Oy H CI + 
Au CI3, which crystallizes in yellow needles ; with platinum tetra- 
chloride, an indistinctly crystalline compound (C;^2H5qNO,j H C1)o + 
Pt C\^ ; and with mercuric chloride, a Avhite crystalline precipitate, 
C32 H-o N O9 H CI + Hg Clo. The sulphate (C32 H^q N Og)^ H. S 0„ 
and hydrochloride, are non-crystallizable. 

Crj^stallized veratrine is insoluble in water, but on pi'olonged 
washing therewith it becomes transformed into a soluble modifica- 
cation, the solution of which leaves when evaporated a yellowish 
amorphous mass having the same composition as the crystals. 
Veratrine dissolved in Avater is rendered insoluble, and is conse- 
quently precipitated, by heating the solution. Acids also appear to 
convert the soluble into the insoluble modification. 

Several samples of commercial veratrine examined by the authors 
were found to be almost pure. 

Method for the Analysis of Alkaline Mineral Waters. Prof. R. 
Presenius. (C'Ae»i.6'cH^r., Nov., 1870,549, from Ze'dschr.fur Anahjt.- 
Cliem., XV., 221-230.) The author publishes the following modified 
and improved process for the complete analysis of alkaline and 
ferruginous mineral waters : — 

1. Determination of Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine mixed. — About 
2000 grams of water are evaporated on a water bath to one-quarter 
of its original bulk. The solution is filtered, washed, the filtrate 
acidified with nitric acid, precipitated with argentic nitrate, and the 
precipitate weighed either as such or after ignition in a stream 
of hydrogen. 

2. Determination of Silicic Acid, Iron, Manganese, Alumina, 
Lime, and Magnesia. — About 7000 grams of water are acidified and 
evaporated to dryness in large platinum dishes. The residue is 
moistened with hydrochloric acid, water added, the solution warmed, 
and the silicic acid filtered ofi" and washed. After weighing, the 
silica is ignited with ammonium fluoride and sulphuric acid. Any 
non-volatile substances are deducted. The silicic acid filtrate is 
treated with ammonia, and the precipitate is filtei'cd after warming, 
and then washed. The latter (mostly hydrated ferric oxide) is dis- 
solved in hydrochloric acid, neutralized with ammonium carbonate, 
boiled and filtered. Should ammonia give a precipitate in the 



filtrate, it is filtered separately, dissolved, and reprecipitated. The 
filtrates are put togetlier. The two precipitates are again dissolved, 
the solution treated with, chemically pure alcohol (free from alumina), 
ammonia added, and the iron precipitated with ammonium sulphide. 
Having thus separated the iron from the alumina and the phos- 
phoric acid, the ferrous sulphide precipitate is dissolved in hydro- 
chloric acid, the solution oxidized with nitric acid, precipitated with 
ammonia, and weighed after ignition as ferric oxide. The filtrate 
from the sulphide is evaporated to dryness in a platinum dish, -with 
addition of a solution of sodium carbonate, and the residue is heated 
with nitre. After moistening with water it is dissolved in hydro- 
chloric acid, and the solution is filtered and precipitated with 
ammonia. Traces of a flocculent precipitate of aluminum phosphate 
are generally obtained. The filtrates containing the manganese, 
lime, and magnesia are concentrated ; the manganese is precipitated 
with ammonium sulphide ; the precipitate, after 2'i hours, collected 
in a filter, redissolved and reprecipitated; the precipitate mixed with 
sulphur and ignited in a stream of hydrogen ; and the manganese 
weighed as sulphide. The filtrates are evaporated with hydrochloric 
acid, the sulphur filtered ofi", and the lime precipitated in the filtrate 
with ammonia and ammonium oxalate. The precipitate is redissolved 
and reprecipitated, and finally weighed either as carbonate or oxide. 
The filtrates are evaporated to dryness ; the ammonia salts expelled 
by ignition ; the residue is moistened with hydrochloric acid and 
evaporated to dryness, again taken up with hydrochloric acid and 
water ; and the magnesia is precipitated with sodium phosphate and 
weighed as pyrophosphate. 

3. Determination of the Sttlphicric Acid and tlic All-alies. — About 
3000 grams of the water are acidified with hydrochloric acid, evapo- 
rated, and the silicic acid filtered off, as in No. 2. The filtrate, which 
must not contain much hydrochloric acid, is precipitated at the boil- 
ing heat by carefully adding barium chloride. The precipitate is 
first weighed, then warmed with hydrochloi'ic acid, and thoroughly 
washed. The solution is evaporated to dryness with a few drops of 
barium chloride solution, dissolved in water, filtered, and the pre- 
cipitate weighed with the former. The last weight is regarded 
as the more accui'ate. The filtrate is evaporated to dryness, the 
residue taken up with water, and the solution boiled with addition 
of pure milk of lime. The filtrate is precipitated with ammonium 
carbonate and oxalate. The filtrate from the precipitate is evapor- 
ated to di'yness, the ammonia expelled by ignition in a platinum 
dish, and the separation of the magnesia repeated^ using very small 


quantities of the reagents. After expulsion of the ammonia-salts 
the allcoliiie chlorides are obtained. In order to separate the potas- 
sium chloride from the sodiiim and lithium chlorides, all three 
are converted into platino-chlorides, and the dry precipitate, after 
treatment with alcohol of 80 volumes per cent., is filtered and washed 
with alcohol. The potassium salt having been transferred to a 
small tared platinum capsule, the remainder in the filter is dissolved 
in boiling water, evaporated to dryness, and Aveighed at 130°. To 
test the purity of the potassium-platino-chloride, it is again treated 
with water, platinum chloride, and alcohol, as above mentioned. 
The last weight is regarded as the more accurate. The quantity of 
sodium chloride is obtained by deducting the quantity of potassium 
chloride and lithium chloride (determined by the method described 
below) from the total sum of alkaline chlorides. Traces of alkaline 
earths, if present, must be determined and deducted from the total 
alkaline chlorides. 

4. Determination of the Carhonic Acid. — The process as described 
in Anleitimg zur quant. Analyse, 6 Aufl., p. 436, etc., is used. 

5. Determination of the Solid Residue. — About 500-1000 grams are 
evaporated in a tared platinum dish on a water bath, and the resi- 
due is dried at 180°, and weighed. It is treated with water and 
hydrochloric acid, then with excess of sulphuric acid, evaporated 
to dryness, and ignited for some time with addition of solid am- 
monium carbonate, so as to convert the acid sulphates of the alka- 
lies in neutral sulphates (till constant in weight). The solid 
residue of ferruginous waters is best determined with the water of 
bottles into which the iron has been completely deposited as hydrated 
ferric oxide by the action of the air. The solution is filtered, and 
the filtrate treated as in the preceding case. The precipitate is 
dissolved in nitric acid ; silicic acid, if present, is determined and 
added. The nitric acid solution is evaporated, the residue ignited, 
treated with water and ammonium carbonate, then heated moder- 
ately, and weighed ; and the weight is added to that obtained by 
weighing the solid residue of the filtrate at 180°. The ferric oxide, 
etc., is treated with nitric and sulphuric acids, evaporated and 
ignited. The weight obtained is added to the weight of sulphates. 

6. Determination of Iodine, Bromine, Lithium (Manganese), Ba- 
rium, and Strontium. — About GO litres are evaporated in a tinned 
copper still to about 4 or 5 litres, the alkaline liquid is filtered, and 
the residue washed with hot water until the washings are free from 
alkali. The residue is also treated until a lithium line is no longer 
visible in the spectrum. The solution (a) serves for determining 


iodine, bromiue, and lithium; and tlie residue (//) for determining 
the (maDganese) barium and strontium. 

(rt) TJie solution is evaporated and alcohol (95 per cent.) atlded, 
with constant mixing ; the filtered residue is boiled three times with 
the alcohol, and the alcoholic solution is distilled over, with addi- 
tion of two drops of strong potash ley. The residue is dissolved in 
water, evaporated, and again treated with alcohol of 9G per cent. 
The solution is redistilled, and the residue again treated as above. 
An alcoholic solution is thus obtained which contains all the iodine 
and bromine, but only traces of alkaline chloride. The solution is 
evaporated in a platinum dish with addition of two drops of potash, 
ley, and the residue, after gentle ignition, is extracted with boiling 
water. If the solution be coloured brownish it is again evaporated 
with two drops of potash ley and a small quantity of nitre, and the 
residue is again heated moderately. The solution, now colourless, 
is treated with carbon bisulphide, and acidified with dilute sulphuric 
acid; a small quantity of a solution of nitrous acid in sulphuric 
acid is then added, with agitation, and the violet coloured carbon 
disulphide is washed out. 

The iodine is determined in this liquid with a very dilute solu- 
tion of sodium thiosulphate. From the solution left after washing 
out the iodiferous carbon disulphide, bromine and chlorine ai-e pre- 
cipitated in the form of silver compounds, and the bromine is de- 
termined by deducting the weight obtained by heating weighed 
quantities of the bromo-chloride of silver in a stream of chlorine. 
The filtrate from the silver compounds is treated with hydrochloi'ic 
acid, and filtered, and the filtrate is set aside. 

For the determination of lithium (1), the three residues lefc by 
the treatment with alcohol (2), the two incinerated filters through 
which the solution (free from organic matter) of the alkaline 
metals was filtered, and (3) the solution which was obtained after 
separating the excess of silver are used. The three are mixed 
together with water, and then hydrochloric acid is added, and the 
solution evaporated. The residue is treated with absolute alcohol 
and filtered, and the residue is boiled with, small quantities of 
strong alcohol, until either the residue of sodium chloride, or the 
evaporated residue of the last alcoholic extract no longer gives a 
lithium spectrum. The alcoholic filtrates are distilled off, the resi- 
due dissolved in water, with addition of two drops of hydrochloric 
acid, the solution is evaporated, and the treatment with absolute 
alcohol twice repeated, adding to the last alcohol used half its volume 
of ether, and always testing the residues by the spectrum. The 


ethereal-alcoholic solution is now distilled off; the residue moistened 
with -water ; hydrochloric acid added ; the liquid again evaporated 
to dryness; the residue taken up with -water; and to remove small 
portions of phosphoric acid -n'hich may have gone over into the 
solution, two drops of iron solution are added. Pm-e milk of lime 
is next added in slight excess, the mixture boiled, and the precipi- 
tate (mainly magnesium hydrate) filtered, and washed with hot 
water until it no longer shows a lithium reaction. The filtrate is 
precipitated with ammonium oxalate, and the precipitate washed, 
ignited, dissolved, evaporated, and tested for lithium. If a reaction 
be still obtained, the solution is again precipitated and filtered. 
The filtrate or filtrates are evaporated to dryness, the ammonia 
salts expelled ; the residue moistened with hydrochloric acid ; water 
added ; the solution evaporated to dryness on a water bath, and the 
treatment with milk of lime, etc., repeated, using small quantities 
of the reagents, and constantly testing the separated precipitates 
for lithium. Having expelled the ammonia salts a second time, 
moistened with hydrochloric acid and evapoi-ated, the lithium is 
separated as lithium phosj^hate, according to the method mentioned 
in Zeifschr. anahjf. Ghevi., i., 42. The precipitate is then dissolved 
in hydrochloric acid, and tested to find out whether the dilute 
solution gives with excess of ammonia a small precipitate in the 
cold. If such be the case, it is redissolved in hydrochloric acid, 
precipitated with ammonia, filtered, weighed, and deducted from 
the lithium phosphate obtained. The filtrate from the phosphate is 
tested for caesium and rubidium. 

(5) The residue insoluble in water is treated with water in a largo 
porcelain dish, and hydrochloric acid (with five drops of sulphuric 
acid) added. Solids adhering to the copper still are removed by 
treatment with acetic acid, and the Avhole is evaporated to dryness. 
The residue is treated with hydrochloric acid and water ; the silicic 
acid, etc., filtered off; the precipitate boiled with sodium carbonate 
until the silicic acid is dissolved ; the solution filtered, and the 
residue washed, incinerated and fused with sodium carbonate, 

The fused mass is boiled with water, filtered, washed, and dis- 
solved in dilute hydrochloric acid ; the solution is evaporated, and 
the residue is taken up with water and a few drops of hydrochloric 
acid. The solution is then pi'ecipitated with a few drops of dilute 
sulphuric acid, left to settle, filtered, and the filtrate is treated with 
three volumes of alcohol. If a precipitate is formed, it is strontium 
sulphate or calcium sulphate. The filtered barium sulphate is, after 
washing, brought into a funnel closed at the bottom by a tap, and 


treated with a concentrated solution of ammonium carbonate. After 
twelve hours the tap is opened, the liquid run out very slowly, the 
precipitate washed and treated with very dilute nitric acid, to re- 
move any strontium mixed therewith; then washed with water, 
dried, ignited, and weighed as pure barium sulphate. The filtrate 
from the silicic acid is diluted with water, treated while warm with 
sulphuretted hydrogen, to remove traces of tin gone over into the 
solution ; the filtrate is then boiled with nitric acid, the precipitate 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid, the ferric oxide separated by pre- 
cipitation as basic salt, and the filtrate supersaturated with ammo- 
nia. In the solution, filtered, if necessary, the manganese is pre- 
cipitated with ammonium sulphide, and the lime in the filtrate 
precipitated with ammonia and carbonate of ammonia. The filtered 
and washed precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid (adding the 
above-mentioned nitric acid solution containing strontium), and 
evaporated in a retort on a sand bath, exhausting the moisture by 
means of an air pump. The residue is then treated with not too 
large a quantity of ether and alcohol, so as to dissolve the nitrate 
of calcium. The residue is dissolved in water, evaporated to a 
small bulk, and a concentrated solution of ammonium sulphate (1 
in 4) added in excess. After twelve hours the solution is filtered 
through a small filter (the above-mentioned strontium precipitate ob- 
tained by the treatment with alcohol is added to the same), and after 
washing with ammonium sulphate, dried and ignited as sulphate. 

7. Determination of the PJwspJioric Acid. — The phosphoric acid 
might be estimated in the determination of the ferric oxide, alu- 
mina, etc., in Nos. 2 and 6. It is best, however, to determine it in a 
separate portion of the water. About 6 litres are evaporated with 
hydrochloi'ic acid, the silicic acid is separated, the filtrate evapo- 
rated with nitric acid to dryness, the residue dissolved in nitric 
acid and water, precipitated with a nitric acid solution of ammo- 
nium molybdate, and the phosphoric acid determined as pyrophos- 
phate of magnesia. 

8. Determination of the Nitric Acid and Ammonia. — If nitric acid 
and ammonia are present in determinable quantities, the method 
mentioned in Anl. zur qtiant. Anal, 5 Aufl., pp. 696, 697, is used. 
If the water contains large quantities of organic substances, it 
is better to replace the soda ley necessary to expel the ammonia by 

Butter Analysis. Dr. J. Muter. (Abstracted from the J-ucJt/s^, 
1876, No. 1.) The process adopted by the author for the full analy- 
sis of butter is as follows : — 


1. 1500 grains of the butler are placed in a couutcvpoised 
porcelain dish over a very low gas flame, and stirred witli a ther- 
mometer at a heat not exceeding 230° F., until all the water is given 
off, which is indicated by effervescence entirely ceasing, and the 
curd and salt settling perfectly down to the bottom of the dish, 
leaving the absolutely clear melted fat. Tlie whole is then cooled 
and weighed, and the loss calculated to percentage of icater. This 
is the only method of absolutely and rapidly drying a fat, and the 
large quantity taken ensures a more perfect estimate of the true 
amount of water in the sample. The temperature of 230° has not 
the slightest influence on butter fat. 

2. The fat is melted at a gentle heat and poured off" as far as 
possible into a beaker, without disturbing the sediment. The re- 
mainder is poured on a weighed filter, placed over a beaker in the 
drying chamber, and when drained the basin and filter are rinsed 
with petroleum spirit, to remove all the traces of fat ; and the filter 
being dried and weighed gives cwd plus ash. 

3. The filter after being weighed is placed in a weighed platinum 
crucible and gently ignited. This gives ash called salt in the 

4. The fat poured off" from Xo. 2 — which will generally be about 
1200 grains — if absolutely clear, is at once used for physical and 
chemical examin-ation ; but if not perfectly free from specks, it must 
be filtered through a Swedish filter kept hot on the water bath. The 
processes necessary are the taking the specific gravity of the fat at 
100 F., and if that gives an adverse indication, the estimation of 
the total fatty acids of the butter fat, both soluble and insoluble. 

Determination of the Specific Gravity. — A 1000 grain bottle is pro- 
cured with rather a pear-shaped neck, and fitted with a thermometer 
stopper ranging from 32° to 140° F. The long mercurial bulb 
comes exactly down the centre of the bottle, and the scale is up 
above the stopper. The bottle is placed on the balance, and an 
accurate counterpoise prepared for it. It is then filled with 
recently boiled distilled water, at 95° F. The stopper is inserted 
and the whole at once plunged up to the neck into fi 12 oz. squat 
beaker partially filled with distilled water at 103° F., in which is 
placed a thermometer. As the temperature rises in the bottle, the 
water leaks out at the stopper, and in a few minutes (if the quantity 
of water in the beaker be properly regulated) a time arrives when 
the temperature of both thermometers equalize themselves at 100°. 
The point between the stopper and the bottle is instantly wiped 
with a small piece of filter paper, to absorb loose water ; and the 



bottle is lifted oiit, tboronghly cleansed, and weigtied. By repeating 
this three times the actual contents of the bottle at 100° F. is ob- 
tained, and the weight taken before a fall of more than 5° takes 
place. This weight of water is scratched on the bottle with a 
diamond, and all is ready for the butter. The pure butter fat, 
pi-epared as already described, is taken from the bath and cooled to 
95° F. ; it is then poured into the bottle, and the whole operation 
repeated thrice, exactly as with the water, and the mean of the 
three weighings thus obtained is divided by that of the water. The 
contrivance of having a " r/^^t'^f;' " fat heated by '''falling'''' water 
until the two equalize, is the height of accuracy, and moreover gives 
an appreciable rest in the variation of the temperature sufficient to 
enable the excess of fat which has leaked out to be removed exactly 
at the required temperature. 

In the author's opinion, any butter showing a specific gravity 
of over 'Oil may be safely passed over without analysis, as being 

The Total Fatty Acids. — About 10 grams (or 150 grains) of [the 
butter fat at 100° F. are weighed by difference from a suspended 
tube into a clean, dry, 15 ounce flask, and 5 grains of potassium hy- 
drate, with two fluid ounces of rectified spirit, are added. The flask 
is placed in a basin with hot water, and kept boiling for a consider- 
able time, until on adding water not the faintest turbidity occurs. 
Ten ounces of water are added, and evaporation continued (just 
short of boiling) until all traces of alcohol ai-e dissipated. The 
contents of the flask are then made up to 7 ounces with nearly 
boiling water; and a good fitting cork having been introduced, 
through which just passes a tube 2 feet long and ending in a small 
funnel, 5 grams of full strength sulphuric acid are poured in down 
the tube, followed by some water. The whole is then agitated with 
a circular motion until the soap, which rises suddenly, is changed into 
a perfectly clear and transparent stratum of fatty acids. The flask 
and contents are then cooled down to 40° F., till a perfectly solid 
cake of fatty acid forms. A few drops of cold water are run in to 
wash the tube, and the cork having been removed, a small jiiece of 
fine cambric is placed over the mouth of the flask, held i)i situ by 
an ordinary indiarubber ring. The fat cake is caused to detach 
itself from the sides of the flask by a gentle movement, and then 
the filtrate is decanted, without breaking the cake, into a litre test 
mixer with a good stopper. About an ounce of cold water is 
poured into the flask through the cambric, and the whole cake and 
flask rinsed out by gently turning round, and the washings added to 



the filtrate. Six ounces of water at 120° are now added through the 
muslin, which is then quickly detached, and tlie cork and tube in- 
serted. The whole is again heated, this time to 200^ and kept 
constantly agitated with a circular but not a jerky motion for five 
minutes. This agitation so divides the fat that it almost forms an 
emulsion with the water, and is the only means of thoroughly and 
rapidly washing fatty acids without loss. In practice no butyric 
acid comes off at 200°; but any trace that might do so is caught in 
the long tube. The cooling and filtering are then again proceeded 
with as above described (the filtrate being added to the contents of 
the test mixer), and tlie washings are repeated alternately cold 
with 1 ounce, and hot with 6 ounces of water, until they do not give 
the slightest change to neutral litmus. After thoroughly draining 
the residual cake by letting the flask stand upside down for some 
time, the cambric is removed and the flask is laid out on its side in 
the drying oven with a support under the neck, until the acids are 
thoroughly fused, when they are poured while hot into a tared 
platinum capsule, dried, and weighed. The film of fatty acid still 
remaining on the flask is rinsed out with ether, and dried in a small 
weighed beakei', and the weight added to the whole. If any drops 
of water be observed under the fatty acids in the capsule after an 
hour's drying, the addition of a few drops of absolute alcohol will 
quickly cause them to dry off. If any trace of fat is on the cambric, 
it should be also dried and extracted with ether ; but with care not 
to break the cake at the last pouring off this does not occur. 

The process is absolutely accurate, and the merest tyro cannot 
make any loss so long as he does not deliberately shake the melted 
acids against the cork, which he could not do if he practises a circu- 
lar agitation while washing. The filtrate in the test mixer is now 
made to an absolute bulk, and in 200 c.c. the total acidity is taken 
with a weak solution of sodium hydrate. The solution generally 
used represents "01 of NH3 in each c.c, as it serves also for nitrogen 
combustions ; but a iiscful strength would be decinormal soda, con- 
taining "004 Na H in each c.c. The acidity found is multiplied by 
five, calculated to H2 S O4, and noted as " total acidity as H,, S O4." 
100 c.c. are next taken and precipitated with barium chloride in the 
presence of a strong acidulation with hydrochloric acid, well boiled, 
and washed by three decantations, boiling each time ; and, lastly, 
on a filter, till every trace of soluble barium is removed. The pre- 
cipitate is dried, ignited, and weighed as usual, multiplied by ten, 
and calculated to Ho S O4, and noted as " total sulphuric acid." 
La.stly, 100 c.c. are evaporated to dryness over the water bath in a 


tared platinum dish holding 120 c.c, and furnished with a cover of 
platinum foil, also tared. When dry the dish is covered and heated 
over a bunsen till all fumes cease ; and a fragment of pure ammo- 
nium carbonate having been added, the whole is again ignited and 
weighed. The amount of potassium sulphate found is multiplied by 
10 and calculated to Ho S O4, and noted as "combined sulphuric 
acid." The rest of the calculation is obvious from the following 
example : — 

Ten grams talicn. 

Total acidity as Hj S 0^ 0-814 

Total H; S O4 4-9 

Combined H. S O4 4-1 


0-814— -5 = -314 acidity due to butter acids stated as H. S O4 

Then '^^^^ '^° = -504 butyric acid in 10 grams taken, wliich 
equals 5-64 per cent. 

The author regards 88 per cent, of insoluble fatty acid as a fair 
standard of butter calculation, if associated with at least 6'3 of solu- 
ble acids. But he would not apply any charge of admixture to a 
butter which showed less than 89"5 insoluble with 5 of soluble acids. 

Butter Analysis. A. Dupre. (From a paper read before the 
Society of Public Analysts, June 14th, 1876.) On the strength of 
numerous experiments, the author has adopted the following me- 
thod, which in his opinion leaves nothing to be desired on the score 
either of facility of execution or of accuracy : — About o grams of 
the dry filtered butter fat are weighed into a small strong flask ; 25 
c.c. of a normal alcoholic soda solution are added ; the flask is closed 
by means of a well-fitting caoutchouc stoppei', firmly secui'ed by a 
piece of canvas and string, and heated in a water bath for about one 
hour. When cool the flask is opened, the contents — which are 
semi-solid — carefully liquefied by heat and washed into a flask with 
hot water. This flask is now heated for some time on a water bath 
to expel the alcohol, some more hot water is added, and 25 c.c. 
of diluted sulphuric acid, somewhat stronger than the alkali used, 
are run in. The contents are allowed to cool, and the acid aqueous 
solution below the cake of fatty acids is passed through a filter. 
The fatty acids in the flask are washed by hot water in the manner 
recommended by Dr. Muter, i.e., each time allowed to cool ; all 
the washings are passed through a filter. The author uses no cam- 
bric, but passes everything through paper. With care scarcely 
any of the fatty acid will find its way into the filter. After the 


■washing with water is completed and the flask drained, lie Avaslies 
any fatty acid that may be on the filter into the flask hy means of 
a mixture of alcohol and ether on a water bath, and finally dries 
the fatty acids in the flask at a temperature of 105° C. The drying 
can be done readily if the melted fat is now and then shaken briskly, 
so as to sub-divide the water as much as possible. In this way the 
acids, when once in the flask, are not taken out until their weight 
has been taken, thus reducing the risk of loss to a minimum. 
Meanwhile the acidity of the aqueous filtrate and washings is esti- 
mated by decinormal soda solution. Subtracting from the amount 
required the proportion necessaiy to neutralize the excess of acid 
added in decomposing the soap, the rest represents the soluble fatty 
acids contained in the butter taken, and on the assumption of its 
being butyric acid we can, of course, calculate the amount of this 
acid present. When once the equivalent of the soluble acids -pve- 
sent in butter is fairly determined, this, of course, will have to be 
substituted for that of butyric acid. The results thus obtained are 
very accurate, and the process is very simple in execution. The 
author has satisfied himself by repeated experiments that the alka- 
linity of the alcoholic soda solution by itself is not altered by the 

The author places no reliance on the specific gravity test, as he 
finds that mutton dripping, and other fats likely to be used as 
adulterants of butter, may acquire a sp. gr. above "911 by being 
strongly and repeatedly heated. He thinks, however, that any 
sample of butter showing a sp. gr. below "Qll may safely be pro- 
nounced adulterated. 

In a subsequent note. Dr. Dupre states that he has effected the 
saponification, decomposition of the soap, and the washing and 
drying of the fatty acids at ordinary temperature, thus still further 
reducing the risk of breaking up the higher into lower acids. The 
saponification is i-eadily effected by using a sufliciency of alcoholic 
soda. Between four and five grams of the dry butter fat were 
shaken up for several minutes with 100 c.c. of normal alco- 
holic soda. The batter soon dissolves, but after a time the solution 
gelatinises to a clear, transparent jelly. (The temperature of the 
laboratory at the time of these experiments ranged between 22° and 
50°). This jelly is now allowed to stand over night, during Avhich 
time the smell of butyric ether, very strong at first, entirely dis- 
appears. In one of the experiments the alcohol was allowed to 
evaporate spontaneously, before the acid was added ; in the other 
(made with a different sample of butter), the soap was dissolved in 


about a half-litre of -water, and at once decomposed by the addition 
of liydrochloric acid. The fatty acids, which separated in white 
curdy masses, were thoroughly washed on a jfilter with cold water, 
about four litres, dried in vacuo over oil of vitriol, and weighed. 
The results of experiment show that butter fat yields the same pro- 
portion of insoluble fatty acids, whether saponified with or without 
the aid of heat. 

The Preparation of Nicotine. W. Kirch man n. (Archiv der 
Plmrm. September, 1876, 209.) The author proposes the follow- 
ing simple method of preparing pure nicotine. A tin vessel, 
provided with two tubulurcs, is filled with tobacco, which is 
previously damped with sodium carbonate. One of the tubu- 
lures admits a glass tube reaching nearly to the bottom of the 
vessel ; the other is provided with a glass tube merely jDcne- 
trating the cork. The vessel lis made air-tight, placed into a 
boiling hot steam bath, and a rapid stream of carbonic acid 
gas passed through it, entering the vessel by the longer, and 
leaving it by the shorter tube ; the latter dips into a mixture of 
alcohol and dilute sulphuric acid. In this manner a large yield 
of perfectly colourless nicotine sulphate is obtained. In order to 
obtain the pure alkaloid, caustic baryta is added to the solution, 
the latter evaporated to dryness, and ihe pure nicotine extracted 
with ether. 

A portion of highly concentrated solution of acid nicotine sulphate 
(bisulphate), saturated with alumina hydrate, deposited in a short 
time handsome octahedric crystals, which the author considers to 
be nothing else but nicotina alum, although he adds that he is not 
aware of a previously-known case where a tertiary diamine base 
could take the place of ammonia in alum. 

The same process could probably be employed for the preparation 
of conia (from Gonium macidatnm, L. ; hemlock) and sparteina 
(from Spartium scoimrium, L. = Cijtisus scoparms, Link., Sarotham- 
niis scoparius, Wimmer ; bi'oom.) 

The Essential OilofCubehs. A. Oglialoro. (Journ. Chem. Soc, 
from Gazetta Chim. Ital., v., 467.) Whilst examining a specimen 
of essence of cubebs, the author found that he obtained a hydro- 
carbon, Cin Hjg, boiHng at 160°, which appears to have been un- 
noticed by any previous experimenter, although he did not succeed 
in separating the hydrocarbon of boiling point 230°, mentioned by 
Schmidt. This induced him to prepare some of the essential oil 
from cubebs by distilling the substance in a current of steam in a 
copper still ; the yield was about four per cent., and the product. 


when submitted to careful rectification after being dried over cal- 
cium chloride, yielded a small quantity of a hydrocarbon, Cjo Hjg, 
belonging to the terpene series, boiling at lo8°-16o°, and a con- 
siderable portion boiling at 250^-270°, — evidently a mixture, — but 
no trace of the hydrocarbon boiling at 230°, observed by Schmidt. 
The portion boiling at 250°-2r0° was mixed with half its weight 
of ether and saturated with hydrochloric acid ; by this means a 
crystalline hydrochloride, of the composition Ci,-, H24 H CI, was sepa- 
rated ; whilst the mother-liquor, after evaporation of the ether 
and separation of a further portion of the hydrochloride which 
crystallized out, was washed with dilute alkali, dried, and sub- 
mitted to fractional distillation. The greater portion passed over 
at 262°-2G3°, and possessed a slight IsBvoi-otatory power, although 
it is doubtful whether this is inherent in thef hydrocarbon, or is 
due to the admixture of a small amount of that which forms the 
crystalline hydrochloride. The hydrochloride crystallizes from 
boiling alcohol in long colourless needles, which melt at 117°-118°; 
and when heated for some time to 170°-180° with water in sealed 
tubes, is completely decomposed into hydrochloric acid and a 
hydrocarbon of the formula C15 H04. This, after purification by 
rectification from sodium, has a density of 0"9289 at 0°, and boils 
at 264°-2Go°. It deflects the polarized ray to the left. The hydro- 
chloride also has considerable action on polarized light. 

The Fluorescent Matter in Atropa Belladonna. R. Fassbendeo. 
(Zeifschr. dcsoexterr. Apoth. Ft'/-., xi.,'50C ; Fhann. Zeit. [3], vii., 506.) 
The author publishes some further information respecting the blue 
fluorescent matter discovered by Richter. It is found in all 
parts of Atro2]a belladonna, and is distinguished by its great per- 
manence and very strong fluorescence, which can be recognised 
even when extremely diluted. The author found it in all the 
commercial extracts of belladonna he"! examined ; whether com- 
mercial specimens of atropa and it salts are free from this sub- 
stance, he is not in a position to state. 

In order to show how extremely small a quantity of this substance 
can be distinctly recognised, the author crushed two unripe belladonna 
berries in some water, evaporated the liquor in a water bath, treated 
the residue with alcohol, filtered, evaporated the solution, and again 
dissolved the residue in water. The filtered solution, which percept- 
ibly reddened blue litmus paper, was digested with animal black, 
which absorbed the colouring matter ; the charcoal was treated with 
alcohol at a gentle heat, a few drops of ammonia added, the liquor 
filtered, and the charcoal again Avashed with alcohol. The filtrate 


■was clearly fluorescent, and when diluted with 200 c.c. of alcohol, 
the characteristic blue colour was still distinctly perceptible if looked 
at from, above. The great permanence of this substance may be 
shown with a few drops of a less dilute solution mixed with a drop 
of ammonia on a watch glass ; after the rapid drying up of this 
liquid upon a warm day, the reaction is reproduced by the addition 
of more ammonia. Besides the colouring matter, there is obtained 
by the above method of preparation a yellow resinous body, insoluble 
in water and very soluble in alcohol. 

A New Reagent for Glucose. A. Soldaini. {Ber. der deutsch. 
Chem.-Ges., ix., 1126.) The author recommends a solution of 
potassio-cai-bonate of copper as a test for glucose. The reagent is 
prepared by dissolving 15 grams of precipitated carbonate of copper 
gradually, with the aid of heat, in a solution of 410 grams of bicar- 
bonate of potassium in 1400 c.c. of water. It keeps well and under- 
goes no change, even on prolonged boiling. It is reduced by glucose 
and sugar of milk, but not by pure cane sugar, dextrin, or starch. 
Tartaric acid, uric acid, and normal urine do not affect it ; but 
tannic and formic acid, when heated with it, effect a separation of 
cuprous oxide. 

OccuiTence of Glucose in Spirit of Wine. G-. Salomon. 
(Chem. Gentralhl., No. 33.) Commercial alcohol has been observed 
to leave on evaporation a residue which reduces Fehling's solution. 
In one instance the author obtained from one litre of spirit 0"13 
gi-am of glucose, emanating probably from liquors previously kept 
in the same cask. A knowledge of the occurrence of this impurity 
may be important in analytical investigations. 

Taxine, a Poisonous Alkaloid contained in the Leaves and Seeds 
of Taxus Baccata. W. Mavine. (Chem. Centrcdhl., 1876, 166 ; 
Journ. ClieJii. Soc, April, 1877.) Although cases of poisoning by 
yew berries have been confirmed in former times, and also recently, 
the poisonous effects of the fruit and seeds of the yew tree are dis- 
puted from many sides, while the strongly toxic action of the other 
portions of the tree are known generally. 

Lucas isolated from the leaves of this tree three grains of a body 
which he called taxine, and gave a few reactions regarding it. For 
its preparation Stass's method for detecting alkaloids was followed 
out, without giving satisfactory results. The following process was 
more successful : — The leaves or seeds are powdered, and repeatedly 
exhausted with ether ; the extracts are mixed, and the ether is dis- 
tilled off. The residue, which when obtained from the leaves forms 
a green resinous mass, having a peculiar aromatic smell and sharp 


taste, while that fi-om the seeds is a large quantity of a fatty oil, 
"was repeatedly shaken up with water, acidulated, and slightly 
warmed. The water separated from the residue was filtered, and in 
the clear and colourless filtrate the taxine Avas precipitated by am- 
monia or fixed alkali, in snow-white bulky flakes. When washed 
and dried over sulphuric acid, it forms a white crystalline powder, 
which is scarcely soluble in distilled water, readily soluble in acidu- 
lated water, alcohol, ether, chloroform, beuzin, and carbon disul- 
phide ; and insoluble in petroleum ether. In has no smell, but a 
very bitter taste. Pure, concentrated sulphuric acid reddens it ; 
nitric, hydrochloric, and phosphoric acids dissolve it without change 
of colour. With most of the reagents characteristic of alkaloids — 
tannic acid, phosphomolybdic acid, potassio-mercuric iodide, po- 
tassio-cadmic iodide, potassio-bismuthic iodide, iodo-potassio iodide, 
potassio-argentic cyanide, potassic bichromate, picric acid — it 
yields, in an acid solution, amorphous precipitates. Platinic 
chloride, auric chloride, mercuric chloride, potassio-platinous 
cyanide are not precipitated. It does not form crystallized salts 
with the ordinary acids. It is nitrogenous (evolves ammonia when 
heated with freshly ignited soda-lime), melts at 80°, and burns with- 
out residue when heated more strongly. Taxine is present in the 
leaves in larger quantities than in the seeds of the yew tree. 

The Dissociation of the Vapour of Calomel. H. Debray. 
{Comptes Reiulus, Ixxxiii., 330.) Odling and Erlenmeyer regard the 
dissociation of the vapour of calomel at 440° C. as complete, and 
base their opinion on the density of the vapour and the observation 
that a strip of gold placed in the vapour becomes amalgamated and 
also coated with an incrustation of mercuric chloride. This view, 
however, is not borne out by the author's experiments. If it be 
assumed that the vapour at the tem]3erature named represents a 
mixture of equal volumes of the vapour of mercury and mercui^ic 
chloride, the tension of the vapour of mercury in this mixture 
would amount to half an atmos})hcre ; and unless the tension of dis- 
sociation of gold amalgam is proved to be less than half an atmos- 
phere, the author declines to regard the experiment with the strip 
of gold as conclusive. If it be more than half an atmosphere, the 
gold could not amalgamate in such a mixture. His own experi- 
ments show that a strip of gold heated to 440° is not amalgamated 
in the vapour of mercury at the ordinary atmospheric pressure; and 
that on heating calomel to the same temperature, and placing a 
curved gilt silver tube, through which cold water is kept running, 
into the vapour for a few seconds, the tube becomes coated with 



calomel intermixed with a small quantity of metallic mercury. He 
therefore arrives at the conclusion, that though some decomposition 
takes place, the dissociation at 440^ is not complete. 

Ostruthin. E. von Grorup-Besanez. (Llebif/s Ann. d. Gliem., 
clxxxiii., 321-343; Amer. Journ. of Pharm., May, 1877.) This 
body was discovered by the author in 1874, in the root of Im- 
peratoria ostruthium. The following is an outline of the process 
by which the largest yield has been obtained : — 

The young roots of masterwort, one to two years old, are cut and 
digested with 90 per cent, alcohol at 50° to 60° C, until the liquid 
ceases to become coloured ; the mixed tinctures are distilled to one- 
third, and this then evaporated until on cooling a thick liquid re- 
mains. This residue is exhausted by a mixture of three parts of 
ether and one of ligroin of low boiling point, until a firm plaster- 
like mass remains. The solution is mixed with more ligroin, which 
separates a brown sticky mass, and the decanted liquor is evaporated 
spontaneously from flat dishes, and if necessary decanted from the 
oily sediment forming. Yellow crystals are afterwards deposited, 
which are freed from adhering resinous matter by spreading them 
upon porous plaster tiles. The crystals are then dissolved in ether, 
the solution again mixed with some ligroin, freed from the deposited 
oily matter, and evaporated spontaneously. Repeated recrystalliza- 
tion from ether yields larger but still yellow ci-ystals, which are ob- 
tained white by dissolving them in alcohol and adding water until 
a permanent precipitate begins to appear. 

Ostruthin crystallizes from ether in the triclinic system, the cry- 
stals resembling rhombohedrons. It fuses at 115° C, and congeals at 
91° C. to a wax-like mass, becoming crystalline ; it is inodorous, 
tasteless, burns with a bright smoky flame, and yields by dry 
distillation a thick yellowish oil, with an odour resembling Canada 
balsam. It is insoluble in cold water, sparingly soluble in benzol 
and petroleum benzin, and freely soluble in alcohol and ether. The 
alcoholic solution has a faint blue fluorescence, which becomes mag- 
nificently blue on the addition of water ; more water precipitates it. 
All its solutions are neutral and optically inactive. It composition is 

Ostruthin hydrochlorate, C^^ H^^ Oo H CI, is obtained by passing 
muriatic acid gas into a not very dilute alcoholic solution of os- 
truthin, which congeals ; the mass is then washed with water and 
crystallized from ether. It forms white, tasteless, and inodorous 
needles, soluble in alcohol, ether, benzol, and chloroform ; less so in 
petroleum benzin. 


Ostrutliin hydrobromate is prepared in the same way ; but in 
attempting to crystallize from ether it was decomposed, bromine 
being liberated. A combination with hydriodic acid could not be 
obtained, owing to the liberation of iodine. Among the products of 
decomposition obtained by adding ostruthin to fusing potash, 
resorcin was found. Treated with strong nitric acid, it is first con- 
verted in a resinous body, and finally into oxalic acid ; but when 
boiled for a long time with nitric acid, diluted with three parts of 
water, it yields styphinic and a little oxalic acid. 

Chlorine yields with difficulty, bromine more readily, substitution 

Volumetric Estimation of Astringent Principles. F. Jean. (Compt. 
Bend., Ixxxii., 0S2.) Tannic and gallic acids, and other astrin- 
gent substances, after the addition of an akaline carbonate, ener- 
getically absorb iodine from its solution ; and this absorption takes 
place in direct proportion to the quantity of the astringent matter 
present. For the estimation of such substances the author employs 
a 0'4 per cent, solution of iodine in potassium iodide, and this is 
titrated by means of a standard solution of tannin in sodium car- 
bonate. Under the influence of the iodine the tannin solution 
acquires an intense orange red colour, which would prevent the 
starch test being applied as an indicator of the presence of free iodine, 
if this test were applied in the ordinary way. But the author rubs 
powdered starch over white filter-paper, and when a minute drop of 
the deeply coloured liquid is placed on the paper, it is instantly 
absoi'bed, while the characteristic violet stain due to the free iodine 
remains. As decoction of oak bark is found to contain no principle 
other than tannin, which is capable of exercising this action on 
iodine, the method is directly available for testing barks intended 
for tanning purposes. 

Ferric and Aluminic Phosphates. M. Millot. {Journ. Chem. 
Soc, from Comptes Rendus, Ixxxii., 89.) 

Ferric Fhosphite.—2 P. O5. Fco O3. 8 H. = Fe. P.^ Oj^. 8 Ho 0.— 
This phosphate is obtained when ferric hydrate or oxide is dissolved 
in hydrated phosphoric acid, either cold or hot. If an insufficient 
quantity of phosphoric acid is employed, the mass hardens, and 
more phosphoric acid must be added till it remains pasty. Water 
is added and the liquid is filtered. On addition of water to the 
washings, the phosphate, :3 Po 0-. 2 Fe^ O3. 8 Ho 0, is deposited. 
The mass left on the filter, after purification, has the formula, 
•1 Po Oj. Fco. O3. 8 Ho O. 

The anhydrous <6alt is prepared by fusing ferric oxide with an 


exc3ss of phosplioric acid, and removing tlie excess by wasliing. If 
a liigli temperature be employed, part of the product becomes 
insoluble in acids, but docs not vary in composition from the 
portion which dissolves. The hydrated phosphate dissolves in 
ammoniacal ammonium citrate, and in alkalies and their carbonates, 
but is insoluble in acetic acid. The precipitate obtained on adding 
water to the filtrate from the preparation of the above-mentioned 
phosphate is white and crystalline. Its formula is 3 Po 0,-. 2 Fe^ 0-. 
8 Ho = Fe^ Pg Oo]^. 8 Ho 0. It is more easily prepared by heating 
a solution of ferric sulphate with dihydi'ic ammonia orthophosphate, 
thus : — 
0. (N H,) H. P Oi + 2 Fe. (S OJ3 = Fe^ P^ 0.^. H, + 6 (N HJ H S 0^. 

The liquid is filtered white hot, and the precipitate is washed 
with boiling water. When ignited it turns to a greyish blue mass, 
which dissolves easily in acids. Its properties are similar to the 
preceding one. 

Aluminlc PhospJiate—-2 P, 5. Ah O3. 8 H. = Al. P.^ 0^3. 8 H. 0. 
— This salt cannot be prepared in the same manner as tlie corre- 
sponding iron salt, owing to the solubility of alumina. It may be 
obtained by treating the phosphate, Al^ Pg Oo^. 16 H, 0, with two 
equivalents of phosphoric acid ; it is dried, washed, and the treat- 
ment repeated. It may be obtained in the anhydrous state by 
igniting a salt of alumina with excess of phosphoric acid, and wash- 
ing out the metaphosphoric acid formed, with water. The product 
is partially insoluble in acids. 

3 P. O5. 2 AL O3. 16 H, O = Alt Pg O^i. 16 H. 0. 
This phosphate is obtained when two equivalents of aluminum 
sulphate and six equivalents of dihydroammonic orthophosphate 
are boiled together, thus : — 
2 Al. (S 0^)3 + 6 Ho(NHJP 0,i = AljPg Ooi- 3H.0 + 3(NH,)HS0j. 

The precipitate is filtei'ed and washed with boiling water, for it 
is soluble in cold water. Free sulphuric acid must be present 
during its preparation, or it will contain excess of alumina. This 
salt is formed when commercial superphosphates are washed with 
water. When ignited it becomes partially insoluble in acids : — 

2 P. O5 3 AI3 O3. 8 H, = Alg P^ O19. 8 H^ 0. 

If an acid solution of one of the previously- described phosphates 
is precipitated with ammonia, taking care not to add sufiicient to 
■dissolve it, this phosphate is produced. When ignited it dissol,vcs 
.in acids. 


All these phosphates are hygroscopic ; they are all insoluble in 
acetic acid, but dissolve in ammoniacal ammonium citrate, am- 
monium oxalate, alkaline carbonates, and ammonia ; tliose of 
alumina dissolve much more easily than the correspondin<:^ iron 

A Hydrate of Cellulose. A. Girand. (Zeitschr. dos oesterr. 
A^oth. Ver., 187(3, 557, from Coinptes licndus.) Besides the normal 
cellulose as it is obtained from the oi'gans of i)lants, and the gela- 
tinous modification of the same mentioned by Bechamp in 1856, 
there is known to exist another peculiar, not very distinctly charac- 
terized variety of this substance, the formation of which is frequently 
observed in industrial ' operations. The celhilose in this state 
appears to have lost its firmness and become friable. In submitting 
this body to a closer examination, the author recognised it as the 
first modification produced from cellulose by the action of acids. 
In preparing it the conditions requisite for its formation must be 
scrupulously observed ; the acid must be of a definite strength, and 
must be allowed to act on the cellulose at a definite temperatui'e 
and for the exact time required. Pure cotton wool is moistened 
with water, then introduced into cold sulphuric acid of 1"450 
specific gravity, and left in contact with it for about 12 hours. At 
the expiration of this time the fibres appear but little altered, but 
when pressed between two glass plates they break up into a multi- 
tude of small, iiTCgular fragments. Notwithstanding its friability, 
this substance can be readily washed and dried at a low tempe- 
rature without losing its shape. In the dry state, however, it 
crumbles between the fingers to a fine snow-like powder. The 
numbers obtained in its ultimate analysis lead to the formula 
Ci2 Hoj ^11' ""^hich represents it as a monohydrated cellulose. It 
does not part with its molecule of water on drj-ing. 

Hydrocellulose, as the author calls this substance, possesses 
definite characteristic properties. It is readily oxidizable ; heated 
to 50° C. for several days it gradually turns yellow, while its per 
centage of oxygen increases and that of its carbon diminishes. If 
it now be washed with water, it yields to the latter a coloured 
substance which reduces both Fehling's solution and silver nitrate ; 
but the insoluble residue is nothing but unaltered hydrocellulose, 
Ci2 Hot Oj|. Heated with a 1 per cent, solution of caustic potash it 
is gradually dissolved, with the formation of a strongly coloured 
liquid possessing reducing properties. 

The formation of a friable hydrocellulose as an intermediate 
product between cellulose and glucose seems to throw light on. 


certain industrial processes which were hitherto but little under- 
stood. The production of parchment paper, for instance, may be 
attributed to a superficial conversion of the paper fibre into hydro- 
eelhilose. These fibres adhere closely and firmly together, thus 
closing the pores of the paper and making it impermeable. If the 
action of the acids is allowed to proceed too far, or if the washing is 
done imperfectly, the whole of the fibres are then changed in this 
manner, and the paper becomes flawy. Possibly the mellowing of 
paper and of cloth, due to an imperfect removal of the bleaching 
agents by washing, may also be explained as the result of the for- 
mation of hydrocellulose. The chlorinated lime, being decomposed 
by the carbonic acid contained in the air, forms hypochlorous and 
hydrochloric acid, by the action of which on the cellulose the latter 
may be pai-tially convei'ted into hydrocellulose. 

The Constituents of Balsam of Toln. E. Busse. (Ber. der 
deutscli. Chem.-Ges. ix., 830; Journal Chemical Societij. Dec, ISTC? 
640.) Somewhat contradictory results have been arrived at by 
Fremy, Deville, Kopp, Scharling, and Carles, partly at least due to 
the fact that the mode of operating was calculated in some cases to 
bring about decomposition of the bodies originally present. The 
author dissolved 1 kilo, of partly resinized tolu balsam in '2 litres 
of ether, filtered the liquid from a little insoluble matter, and then 
agitated it with 2 litres of soda-solution containing 100 grams 
Na^ ; after agitating the ethereal liquor again with soda, and 
washing with water, a residue was obtained on distilling off the 
ether, consisting of 85 grams of fluid neutral compounds. On 
fractional distillation, a little passed over below 200°, more between 
250° and 300°, and most of all above 320°. The first of these 
fractions appeared on analysis to be impure benzylic alcohol ; it 
formed benzoic aldehyde and acid on oxidation. The second gave a 
distillate at 300^, consisting of henzijl henzoate, Ci^HjoOj; on 
saponification it formed benzylic alcohol and a benzoate. The 
third poi'tion consisted of benzijl cinnamate, Cj(;H;^jOo; it furnished 
cinnamic acid and benzylic alcohol on saponification, and had the 
sp. gr. 1-1145 at 16°. Hence the natural constituents of tolu balsam 
are the same as those found by Kraut in Peru balsam, only 
they exist in smaller quantity and difierent proportions, — benzyl 
cinnamate forming the majority in the first, benzyl benzoate in the 

The soda liquors obtained as above described were saturated with 
carbonic acid, whereby much resin was precipitated. The filtx'ate 
yielded a precipitate on addition of hydrochloric acid; one-half of 



the cinnamic acids thus throvi-n down -was boiled with milk of lime. 
A sparingly soluble lime salt was thus obtained, containing (after 
recrjstallization) 1026 per cent, of calcium, the cinnamate requiring 
10"30 per cent. ; fi-om this cinnamic acid, melting at 133°, was 
isolated. The mother-liquors of the sparingly soluble calcium 
cinnamate contained much calcium benzoate, which crystallized out 
after concentration ; this gave (after several recrystallizations) num- 
bers agreeing with the formula Ca (C^ B.- 0^)o + 3 H^ ; and from it 
benzoic acid was precipitated, melting at 120"5°. 

The other half of the mixture of acids was dissolved in alcohol 
and treated with hydrochloric acid gas. By fractional distillation 
the ethers thus formed were separated ; the portion distilling at 
215^ gave numbers agreeing with the foi-mula Cg H^q O3, ethyl 
benzoate; that passing over at 265° agreed with Cj^HijO.,, ethyl 

Hence tolu balsam contains free benzoic and cinnamic acids, as 
well as their benzylic ethers. 

Determination of Phosphorus and Arsenic by Molybdate of 
Ammonia. P. Champion and H. Pellet. {Bull, de la Soc. 
Chim., January o, 1877; Chem. News, 3-5, 11-5.) M. Boussingault 
has shown that the ajiproximation furnished by directly weighing 
the phospho-molybdate is superior to that obtained by redissolving 
the precipitate and determining the phosphorus as ammoniaco- 
magnesian phosphate. The error committed is the more appreci- 
able the less phosphorus is present in the matter under analysis. 
According to M. Boussingault the phospho-molybdate contains 3' 73 
pel* cent, of phosphoric acid. The operation may be performed 
very rapidly by observing the following precaiitions : — Dissolve 
100 grams molybdic acid in ammonia (about loO c.c. of ordinary 
ammonia) and 80 of water. Pour it drop by drop into oOO c.c. of 
pure nitric acid and 300 c.c. of water. Stir, let settle, and filter if 
needful. Introduce into a capsule such a measure of the molybdic 
solution that the weight of the molybdic acid may be about fifty 
times the supposed weight of the phosphoric acid. Add ammonia 
to render the liquid alkaline ; concentrate as far as possible the 
liquid containing the phosphoric acid, and mix the two solutions ; 
raise the temperature to 70° to 80°, and pour in rapidly an excess 
of nitric acid until the yellow coloration appears, stirring briskly 
to aid the formation of the pi'ccipitate. Filter through a double 
tared filter, wash, and dry at 100° to 110°. The filtrate should be 
colourless. If it is yellow, the precipitation is incomplete ; in this 
case ammonia is poured upon the filter to redissolve the precipitate, 


the solution is evaporated, and re-acidified witli nitric acid. The 
same process may be successfully applied to the determination of 
arsenic, 100 grams of the precipitate of arsenio-molybdate of am- 
monia containing o'l of arsenic acid. 

Compounds of Metallic Oxides with Glycerin. J. Puis. (Journ. 
fill' pract. Chem., No. 2, 1877.) The author describes an extensive 
series of experiments on the solubility of various metallic oxides 
in glycerin, performed by adding aqueous solutions of metallic salts 
to mixtures of glycerin and H K 0. Clear solutions were obtained 
when glycerin, ferric oxide, and caustic potash were in the mole- 
cular proportions of 3:2:1 and 3:3:2. After a short lapse of 
time the ferric oxide is precipitated spontaneously from the solu- 
tions, and has passed into the colloidal state. Cupric oxide does 
not show this peculiarity. With weak solutions of glycerin the 
water appears to exert a neutralizing influence upon the base 
present, which allows the solution of the oxide ; but after a certain 
degree of concentration there is a fixed relation between the 
weights of glycerin and Cu dissolved. The author recommends 
the application of this fact for the analytical determination of 
glycerin. The hydrates of the alkaline earths are much more 
soluble in glycerin than the oxides of the heavy metals. 

Titration of a Mixture of Alkaline and of Earthy Alkaline Sul- 
phates. F. Jean and H. Pellet. (Bull, de la Soc. Ghim. ; Chem. 
Neios, 35, 152.) Let there be a mixture formed of sulphates of 
potassa, soda, lime, magnesia, and of alkaline and alkalino-earthy 
chlorides and nitrates. It is required to determine the sulphuric 
acid combined with alkalies and the sulphates of lime and magnesia. 
These determinations may be easily and exactly obtained by the use 
of two standard liquids, — the one of sulphuric acid, the other carbo- 
nate of soda, by operating in the following manner : — 

1. Titration of Sidplmric A cid covib inecl loitli Alkaloids. — The matter 
being dissolved in water (or in water acidulated with hydrochloric 
acid, if necessary) is exactly neutralized with soda in a diluted so- 
lution. To a volume of the liquid to be analysed we add a slight 
excess of baryta water, then seltzer water, and boil it to drive away 
completely the excess of carbonic acid, and to render insoluble all 
the carbonate of baryta. We filter, and pour into the clean liquid, 
coloured with a few drops of tincture of litmus, standard sulphuric 
acid to neutralization. The quantity of sulphuric acid employed to 
saturate the alkali is exactly the same as that which was originally 
combined with the alkalies, potash and soda. 

2. Titration of Sulphate ofLitne. — A volume of the saline solution 


is mixed witli alcoliol ; the sulphate of lime precipitated is collected 
on a filter, washed with alcoholic water, then introduced into a 
Bohemian glass, or into a capsule, with a known volume of a 
standard solution of carbonate of soda. "We raise it to a boil, then 
separate by filtration the carbonate of lime arising from the decom- 
position of the sulphate. In the filtered liquid we titi-ate the car- 
bonate of soda remaining ; and we have by the diifereuce the 
quantity of this salt passed into the state of sulphate of soda, which 
is calculated as sulphate of lime. 

3. Titration of Sulphate of Magnesia. — The solution to be analysed 
is treated at a boil with a known volume of a standard solution of 
carbonate of soda. We separate by filtration the carbonate of lime 
and magnesia ; and we determine in the filtered liquid, by the aid of 
standard sulphuric acid, the quantity of soda not decomposed, whence 
we calculate the amount of sulphuric acid belonging to the sulphate 
of lime and magnesia. The weight of the sulphate of lime being 
given by the preceding operation, we find by the difference that of 
sulphate of magnesia. 

4. Determination of total Sulpliuric Acid. — If in a mixture of salts 
we wish to titrate total sulphuric acid, free and combined, we boil 
the solutions with carbonate of soda, we separate the carbonate 
of magnesia and lime, and the liquid, filtered after having been 
exactly neutralised with standard sulphuric, is treated with baryta 
water, as in the titration of alkaline sulphates. This method of 
tritration gives vei'y exact results when Ave employ a solution of 
sulphuric acid sufliciently dilute. Thus, in a mixture of salts con- 
taining total sulphuric acid OG-A-i gram, Ave have found by our 
process 0'663 gram ; and in 0'112 gram of sulphate of potash 
O'llO gram. 

Estimation of Theine in Tea. M. Markownikoff. (Ber. der 
deutsch. Chem.-Ges., ix., lol'i.) 15 grams of powdered tea leaves are 
boiled Avith 500 grams of water and 15 grams of calcined magnesia 
for some time ; the decoction is filtered, the residue Avell washed, 
and the filtrate, together with the washings, evaporated, with the 
addition of a little calcined magnesia, to perfect dryness. Upon 
exhausting the dry residue Avith hot benzol, filtering, and evapo- 
rating the filtered solution, the theine is obtained iu a pure state. 

Coffee may be submitted to the same process. 

Action of Hydrochloric Acid on Potassium Chlorate. G . S c h a c k- 
erl. {Liehic/s Annalen, clxxxii., ID.j ; Journ. Chcm. Soc, 1877, 47.) 
Pebal showed that the action of hydrochloric acid on potassium 
chlorate results iu the formation of chlorine and hypochloric acid 



(CI O2) in varying proportions. The author's experiments on this 
subject have led to the conclusion that the action is represented 
primarily by the equation : — 

K CI O3 + 2 H CI = CI Oo + CI + K CI + H, ; 

or, when sulphuric acid and potassium chloride are employed, by 
the equation, — 

KC103 + KCl + 2H2S04=C10, + Cl + 2KHS04 + HoO; 

but that, in most cases, there occurs a secondary action of free hy- 
drochloric acid first formed, whereby the pi'oportion of chlorine is 
increased. The extent to which this secondary action takes place 
was found to depend upon the amount and strength of the hydro- 
chloric acid present in the liquid from which the gases were evolved. 
Thus, when a solution of potassium chlorate was run into hot hy- 
drochloric acid of sp. gr. 1*19, the proportion by volume of the 
hypochlorous acid and chlorine evolved was 2/35"6 ; bat when finely 
triturated potassium chlorate was decomposed with hydrochloric 
acid diluted with twice its bulk of water, the two gases were in the 
proportion of 2/l"71. Again, when a mixture of 1 molecule of potas- 
sium chlorate and molecules of potassium chloride was decomposed 
by sulphuric acid, the hypochlorous acid and chlorine were evolved 
in the proportion of 2/5"54 ; but when a mixture of 4 molecules of 
chlorate and 1 molecule of chloride was decomposed in the same 
mannei', the two gases were in the proportion of 2/l"27. Numerous 
other experiments were made, all leading to the same conclusion. In 
no case was pure chlorine obtained. The gases were analysed by 
Pebal's method. 

Purification of Oleic Acid. L. "Wolff, (Neiv Remedies, from 
Amer.Journ. Pharm.) The author proposes the following method of 
obtaining oleic acid of sufiicient purity to prepare the oleates at 
present in use : — Oil of sweet almonds is saponified with caustic po- 
tassa ; the soap is decomposed with tartaric acid, and washed with 
hot water to separate the precipitated potassium bitartrate from the 
mixture of oleic and palmitic acids. These are combined with 
litharge, forming oleo-palmitate of lead, from which petroleum 
benzin dissolves the oleate of lead, leaving the other salt as a resi- 
due. From the benzin solution the lead is precipitated by dilute 
hydrochloric acid, in form of lead chloride ; and on evaporation of 
the benzin, oleic acid will remain, sufficiently pure for pharma- 
ceutical purposes, giving clear and permanent solutions with the 
red and yellow varieties of mercuric oxide, as high as 30 per cent, if 
necessary. As crude commercial oleic acid can be bought at very 



low figures, this may be made the stai'fcing-point of the process, 
yielding a purified acid at a very small expense. To gain the same 
end, the simplest way is perhaps to use the ready-made oleo-palmi- 
tate of lead, — the officinal lead-plaster, — to dissolve it in benzin, and 
extract from, it the oleic acid by precipitating the lead by hydro- 
chloric acid. Oleic acid thus prepared has been used for some 
time, and found to answer better for the preparation of the oleates, 
tlian the article sold by some of the manufocturing chemists. 

Determination of Albumen in Urine. J. Stolnikow. (Chem. 
Centralbl.) The urine is diluted with water, until a sample poured 
upon some nitric acid contained in a test-tube pi'oduces still a faint 
white ring at the point of contact after the lapse of forty seconds. 
The number of volumes of water, added to the volume of the urine 
(which may be taken as 1), is divided by 250, and the quotient will 
be the percentage of albumen in the urine. This relation has been 
established and confirmed by gravimetric determinations. 

Soap Analysis. (From CImyi. News, :^xxv., 2.) Weighing. — In all 
methods usually given in text books the analyst is dii'ected to weigh 
out for each operation small portions (1 to 5 grams) of the sample. 
This plan is to be avoided, and for two reasons: — (1) Soap is ex- 
tremely variable in composition, and considerable variations are pos- 
sible even in the same sample ; (2) it is perpetually losing water 
by evaporation from its surface. As the soap is usually weighed in 
the form of thin shavings, the surface exposed is, in relation to the 
weight taken, very considerable. These two sources of inaccuracy 
are obviated by weighing out for the analysis a section cut through 
the bar at right angles to its length (GO to 80 grams), dissolving in 
distilled water, and making the volume up to 1000 c.c. (in the cold) ; 
oO c.c. of this solution are measured off for this operation. It should 
be observed, that as some of the alkaline salts of the fatty acids 
separate out from the solution on cooling, it must be well mixed by 
agitation previously to drawing off each 50 c.c. The several opera- 
tions are conducted as follows: — 

1. Total Alhidi. — 50 c.c. of the solution are diluted to about 
200 c.c, the liquid is coloured faintly with eosine, and standard acid 
is run in, taking care to stir briskly Avith a glass rod. The neutral 
point is extremely well marked by the suddeu decolorization of the 
whole. The cause of this apparent destruction of colour is the union 
of the fatty acids with the eosine at the moment of their complete 
separation from the fluid. 

2. Uiicomhined Alkali. — 50 c.c. ai*e added to 300 c.c. of a satura- 
ted solution of common salt, which must be of course neutral to test 


paper, and the volume made up to 400 c.c. The neutral alkaline 
salts of the fatty acids (i.e., true soap) are preci[)itated ; any excess 
of alkali present remains in solution, — this is determined in an ali- 
quot part of the filtered solution. The filter must not be moistened 
previous to filtration. From this the total uncombined alkali is 
calculated, and subti-acted from the total alhall already found. Then 
the combined and luicomhiiicd alkali are determined. 

3. Fatty Acids. — 50 c.c. of this solution are introduced into a 
stoppered separating funnel, decomposed with excess of acid, and 
agitated with carbon disulphide until the libei-ated fatty acids are 
dissolved. The disulphide solution of the fats is di-awn off into a 
tared flask ; the aqueous solution is washed once or twice with small 
portions of disulphide, the whole of which is then separated from 
the fats by distillation. The fats are purified from the last traces 
of C Sj by heating the flask for a short time at 100° C. ; the weight, 
after cooling, less the tare, gives the weight of the fatty acids. Or- 
dinary ether may be used in place of the C So ; it has, however, the 
disadvantage of retaining small quantities of water, and therefore 
aqueous acids, which must be driven off" at the end of the operation 
by exposing to a temperature of 100 ° to 120° C, until the weight is 
constant. Further, the ethereal solution will be the upper stratum, 
and is, for obvious reasons, not so easily to be manipulated as the 
bisulphide solution, which forms the lower layer. 

Note. — A moment's consideration of the following equation, repre- 
senting the composition of sodic cleate by H CI — 

2 1 Cis ^3|ONo + 2 H CI = 2 Na CI + 2 I ^^^ ^^s ^No, 

will make it evident that while the fiitty acid is present in the soap 
in the form of anhydride, it is separated and weighed in the course 
of analysis as hydrate. A correction must, therefore, be applied, 
based upon the fact that 282 parts oleic hydrate equal 273 parts 
oleic anhydride; i.e., the weight of the fatty acids is to be multiplied 
by the decimal fraction 007. 

In the case of the " olein " soap of commerce, a very rapid and 
tolerably accurate estimation may be made in the following way : — 
50 c.c. of the solution are decomposed with H CI in a small flask, the 
neck of which is long and narrow, and graduated in c.c, and so much 
water added that, upon heating in the water bath the separated oil 
will rise into the neck and fall entirely within the graduated portion. 
The heating must be continued, with occasional tapping of the flask, 
until the whole of the fat has been separated and has risen into the 



The flask is allowed to cool, and when cool the volume of the oil 
is read off. This quantity, multiplied by the specific gravity of the 
oil, gives its weight. The specific gravity (which the writer almost 
always found to be 0'9) may be determined by pouring off a small 
quantity into a capsule (a second reading will give the volume 
taken), and weighing it ; the weight divided by the volume is the 
required specific gravity. 

4. Wafer. — If the purity of the sample has been ascertained, this 
constituent may be calculated by difference. The direct estimation 
is effected by evaporating 50 c.c. of the solution to dryness on the 
water bath (finally on the air bath from 100° to 120° C.) in a Aveighed 
dish. The residue is anhydrous soap ; from its weight the per- 
centage of water on the soap may readily be calculated. It may be 
observed that the usual method, which consists in the exposure of 
the soap, previously cut into thin shavings and weighed, to the 
temperature of boiling water until it ceases to lose weight, is in- 
accurate, as it fails to drive off the last portions of water (1 to 2 per 
cent.), which seem to have contracted a stronger union with the soap. 

5. Mineral Impurities and TJnsaponified Fat may be detected by 
taking the dried soap from the preceding operation, dissolving in 
strong alcohol, and filtering through a funnel heated by means of a 
jacket of hot water. Mineral impurities remain upon the filter as 
an insoluble residue, the weight of which is readily ascertainable. 
The alcoholic filtrate is evaporated with successive additions of dis- 
tilled water ; by these means any unsaponified fat or resin is separa- 
ted from the soap, which of course remains in aqueous solution. 
This solution may be used for N'o. 1, 2, or 3. The mineral impurities 
may be examined qualitatively after drying and weighing. 

Preparation of Potassium Bicarbonate. L. Pesci. (Journ. Chem. 
Soc, Oct., 1876, 381.) The author finds that the best method of 
preparing pure potassium bicarbonate, free from chloride and nitrate, 
is to pass a current of carbonic anhydride to saturation though a 
solution of potassium hydrate in alcohol of 80 per cent. At first 
neutral carbonate is formed, which withdraws the water from the 
alcohol, forming a dense stratum at the bottom of the vessel ; but on 
continuing the passage of the gas this becomes pasty from deposition 
of crystals of the bicarbonate. The alcohol containing chlorides and 
nitrates is now decanted and replaced by a fresh quantity, the pas- 
sage of the gas being continued, with occasional agitation, until the 
pasty precipitate becomes pulverulent and the liquid is saturated 
with carbonic anhydride. The bicarbonate, after being thoroughly 
washed with alcohol, is found to be pure. 


A New Test for Alcohol. E. W. Davy. (Proc. Eoyal Irish 
Academy, ii., 570.) The reagent recommended is a solution of 1 
part of molybdic acid in 10 parts of pure concentrated sulphuric 
acid. On warming' this solution gently in a porcelain dish, and then 
adding a few drops of a liquid containing alcohol, a blue coloration 
is developed, which gradually disappears on exposure to the air, but 
is reproduced on expelling the absorbed naoisture by evaporation. 
The alcohol may thus be detected in a single drop of a mixture 
containing 1 part of alcohol to 1000 parts of water. The test is 
specially recommended for the detection of alcohol in chloroform 
and chloral hydrate. 

Shellac and Sarcosinic Acid, J. Hertz. {Arcliiv der Fharmacie 
[3], viii., 234; Journal Ghein. 6'oc., April, 1877.) This vaz^iety of 
shellac was obtained from Mexico, where it is known as " somo de 
sonora," and called by the Indians "arre." It exudes from the 
Mimosa coccifera, the native name for which is " tzinacaia cuit- 
laquahuitl." It has an astringent, bitter taste, and a yellowish or 
brownish colour. It is used as a remedy for diarrhoea and uterine 

East Indian shellacs ai'e treated with water before they ai'e de- 
livered to the European market, to extract an acid substance and a 
red dye, which forms 10 per cent, of the weight of the crude gum. 

The American specimen lost 6 per cent, of its weight on treatment 
with hot water. It was then treated with alcohol, which dissolved 
about half; the solution, on evaporation, left a transparent brittle 
residue, which had all the appearance of good shellac. The portion 
which refused to dissolve in alcohol was soluble in boiling potash, 
with a fine red colour ; on addition of acid the solution became 
colourless, and a yellowish white resin separated, which was partially 
soluble in alcohol. These reactions correspond with those of shellac. 

The aqueous solution contained two substances, — a colourino- 
matter and an acid body. The colouring matter was removed by 
lead acetate, and the filtrate evaporated after removal of the lead. 
The colouring matter was soluble in water with a fine red colour, 
and insoluble in alcohol and in ether. It could not be obtained in a 
crystalline state. Its solution showed a strongly acid reaction. 
The filtrate from the colouring matter deposited crystals, easily 
soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol and in ether. They 
were purified by solution in boiling aqueous alcohol, from which 
they deposited as a powder on cooling. The formula of the acid 
was found to be Cg H^ N Oo, and it was named " sarcosinic acid." 

The hariikm salt is an amorphous powder, soluble in water but 


Dot in alcohol. The silccj' salt, C^HgNOoAq, forms yellowish 
white nodules, and is reduced on exposure to light. The sodiuni 
salt crystallizes with G molecules of water, and forms colourless 
hexagonal tables. The calcium salt crystallizes with one molecule 
of water, and is an amorphous powder. 

The acid does not evolv^e ammonia when boiled with caustic 
soda, but on heating with soda-lime it does. It melts at 195°, and 
chars at a higher temperatui-e without subliming. The acid is 
isomeric with alanine, sarcosine, lactamide, and urethane. The 
two latter, however, are indifferent bodies : lactamide, when heated 
with soda, decomposes into lactic acid and ammonia ; urethane into 
carbonic anhydride, ammonia, and ethyl alcohol. Sarcosine unites 
only with acid, and it is doubtful whether it is an amido-acid ; ifc 
evolves methylamiuc on ignition with soda-lime. Alanine, when 
treated with nitrous anhydride, yields lactic acid. These bodies 
are assumed, therefore, to have the following constitution : — 

Urethane. Lactamide. Sarcosine. Alanine. 

CO.NH., ^CHoOH CHo.NH(CHa) ^CH.,.NH., 

1 ■ CH,<" I ' I " CH,<' I 

CO.OC.H-, ^CO.NH, CO.OH ^C 0. H 

Sarcosinic acid appears to be move nearly related to sarcosine 
and alanine than to lactamide or urethane; yet sarcosine is a base, 
while sarcosinic acid is a true acid. The acid, however, was found 
to form a hydrochlorate and nitrate. With nitrous anhydride nitro- 
gen was evolved and lactic acid w-as formed. The acid, therefore, 
has great analogy to lactic acid, from which it differs only in 
taste, crystalline form, and marked acid properties. The author 
attributes to it the same constitutional formula as to alanine; bub 
intends to attempt to prepare it synthetically, to decide wherein 
the difference lies. E. Reichart attributes to it the formula, 
C Ho. X Ho. C Ho. C H. 

Note on Litmus. H. "W. Mitchell. {American Chemist; from 
a paper read before tlie American Chemical Society, June, 1876.) 
Wartha has separated four organic bodies from litmus. The 
first is obtained by treating commercial litmus with alcohol of about 
90 per cent., filtering cold, and boiling the clear tincture ; where- 
upon indigo is precipitated as a fine power, according to the author. 
The second body is obtained by evaporating the violet red mother- 
liquor ; it is a beautiful red, or, from many varieties, green fluor- 
escent substance, indifferent to acids. The litmus residue left after 
treatment with alcohol is digested with distilled water for twenty- 
four hours ; after which the deep coloured solution is evaporated on 


the water bath, and the residuary extract is treated several times 
"with absolate alcohol containing a little glacial acetic acid, and again 
evaporated, until it forms a brown powdery mass. This mass is 
now exhausted with absolute alcohol and acetic acid, whereby 
a largo quantity of a scarlet red body is dissolved, which resembles 
orcin, and becomes purple red in place of blue with ammonia. 
The portion of the brown powder insoluble in the acidified 
alcoholic solution consists of litmus colouring matter in a very 
pure form ; so pure, in fact, that by means of it the carbonated 
alkaline earths contained in spring waters may be titrated with as 
great delicacy as by the use of cochineal mixture ; which is far 
from being the case with crude litmus. To get this substance 
perfectly pure, it is first washed with absolute alcohol, then dis- 
solved in a small quantity of water and thrown into a large excess 
of alcohol and the flocculent purple precipitate is collected and ao-aia 
thoroughly washed with alcohol. In repeating the above experi- 
ments, the author confirms Wartha's results in every particular 
save as regards the indigo, Avhich could not be obtained by boilino- 
the alcoholic tincture. The fluorescent body above mentioned is 
violet or purple, and gives a solution in alcohol of a similar 
colour, which shows a beautiful green fluorescence with sunlight, 
and with the spectroscope gives a very characteristic absorption- 
band in the green, together with an almost total absorption of the 
violet end of the spectrum. It is soluble in water, amylic alcohol, 
and common ether; very soluble in alcohol; but is insoluble in carbon 
bisulphide, chloroform, petroleum naphtha, and turpentine. The 
solutions, both in amylic alcohol and in ether, exhibit a beautiful 
fluorescence ; but the ethex-eal solution shows the absorption-band 
in the green only very faintly. The body which resembles orcin 
shows a very faint fluorescence ; its alcoholic solution gives a 
spectrum in which the absorption is characteristic and quite dis- 
tinct from that of the last. It is slightly soluble in water, veiy 
soluble in alcohol, but seems to be insoluble in ether, chloroform, 
carbon disulphide, and petroleum naphtha. The pure litmus col- 
ouring matter is insoluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, bisulphide, 
of carbon, and petroleum najjhtha ; very soluble in water. It turns 
blue with ammonia, and yields with alkaline solutions a beautiful 
violet lake with alumina, one of a pale violet colour with stannous 
acetate, and deep blue lakes with calcium and barium. 

The residue left after extracting the pure litmus dissolves to 
some extent in hydrochloric acid. The residue insoluble in hydro- 
chloric acid consists mostly of fine sand, but yields some colouring 


matter to strong ammoiiic hydrate. About 25 grams of the pure 
colouriug matter (15 grams of the body like orcin, and 10 grams of 
the fluorescent body) wore obtained per ounce of litmus. 

Emodin from Rhamnus Frangulae Bark. C. Liebermann and 
M. Waldstein. (^Ber. der deutscli. Ghem.-Ges., 1870, 1775-1778.) 
Old frangula bark was exhausted with dilute soda solution, and 
the liquid precipitated by hydrochloric acid ; the precipitate was 
again boiled with soda, and precipitated by H CI; then washed, dried, 
and repeatedly crystallized from boiling absolute alcohol. A small 
quantity of a glucoside was removed by boiling with dilute sul- 
phuric acid and crystallizing fi'om alcohol or glacial acetic acid. 
The authors obtained it from the latter liquid in the form of orange 
coloured silky needles, containing acetic acid and water, which are 
expelled at 140° C, the crystals becoming opaque. 

Ultimate analysis proving the composition of the crystals to be 
Ci5 HjQ O5, their identity with emodin from rhubarb was further 
proved by the solubilities, form of crystals, and colour of alkaline 
solution ; also by the following behaviour : — baryta and lime water 
yielded red precipitates, which were soluble in boiling water with a 
red colour ; alum solution dissolved slightly with a yellow colour, 
ammonia yielding red precipitates ; evaporation with nitric acid 
yielded yellow nitro compounds, soluble in water with a red colour. 
The behaviour towards glacial acetic acid was that stated above. 

The frangulinic acid of Faust differs in some respects from emodin; 
it is not impossible that it may be contained in the recent bark, and 
gradually converted into emodin by oxidation. 

Preparation of Pure Bismuth and Bismuth Compounds. H. 
Thiirach. (Journ. praht. Chem. [2], xiv., oO'J-olG ; Juuru. Chem. 
Soc, March, 1877, 283.) The usual impurities, even in what is 
sold as pui-e bismuth, are silver and iron. Quesneville's process, 
viz., fusing the metal with niti'e, has the disadvantage of being ex- 
tremely wasteful, a large quantity of bismuth being oxidised. !Nor 
can bismuth be separated from it by precipitation as oxychloride 
with water, for iron is invariably a constituent of the precipitate. 
If the bismuth be fused under a mixture of potassium chlorate and 
a little sodium carbonate, the iron is completely oxidised, while very 
little bismuth is lost ; for the fused mass does not become alkaline, 
as is the case when nitre is used as a flux. Two to five per cent, of 
sodium carbonate should be added, and the fusion should last for 
a quarter of an hour. No method of separating bismuth from iron 
by the wet method was successful, excef^t by crystallizing the double 
chloride of bismuth and the alkalies, and by precipitating the bismuth 


from a sliglitly acid solution with oxalic acid. The bismuth oxalate, 
Big (Co 0^ )3 + 15 Ho 0, comes down absolutely free from iron. Too 
large an excess of oxalic acid should be avoided, for the oxalate is 
slightly soluble in the acid ; the precipitate should not be allowed to 
stand too long in contact with water, else the basic oxide is formed 
which retains the iron. The oxalate on ignition yields metallic 

This process has not been attempted quantitatively. 

The only method of separating silver from bismuth is to oxidise 
the bismuth, and leave metallic silver. 

Bismuth is best pi'ecipitated as sulphide. The liquid is then 
warmed, when the sulphide cakes together and may be easily filtered 
and washed. On ignition in air it is converted into bismuth oxide, 
and may be weighed as such. 

Santonin and Santonic Acid. MM. Cannizzaro and Sestini. 
(L^Union Pharmaceutique, xvii., 136.) Santonic acid is obtained 
from santonin by boiling the latter for twelve hours with a satu- 
rated solution of barium hydrate, decomposing the barium santonate 
thus formed with hydrochloric acid, and taking up the liberated 
santonic acid by ether. The authors have previously shown (1873) 
that this substance is isomeric with santoninic acid, but not resolv- 
able like the latter into santonin and water. 

Pure santonic acid forms orthorhombic prisms which, unlike 
satonin, are not affected by light and do not produce a violet color- 
ation with potassium hydrate. Its composition is represented by the 
formula C;^5 Hog O^ ; it fuses at 161°-163° C, and is readily soluble 
in boiling water, alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Its sodium and 
barium salts — Na Ci5H^9 04, and Ba 2 0^5 H^gO^ — are extremely so- 
luble in water and difficult to crystallize. Though the authors have 
hitherto been unable to convert santonic acid into santonin, they 
have produced from it metasantonin, a substance isomeric with san- 
tonin, by boiling it with hydriodic acid and phosphorus. This new 
derivative forms white crystals, which fail to yield a santonate on 
boiling with solution of barium hydrate, and which can be distilled 
in a vacuum without suffering decomposition. 

By the action of bromine on an acetic acid solution of santonin, 
the authors obtained a body crystallizing in red needles and corres- 
ponding to the formula Cjj Hjg O.5 Br,. 

Testing of Salicylic Acid. H. Kolbe. (Journ. lorald. Chem. [2], 
xiv., 143). Half a gram of the acid to be tested is dissolved in 
about five grams of strong alcohol, and the clear liquid allowed 
to evaporate slowly in a watch glass at the ordinary temperature. 


Tiie acid will form groups of fine efflorescent crystals round the 
edge of the glass. These crystals should be of a pure white colour, 
if the acid was previously crystalline ; but more or less yellow if 
precipitated. If the crystals are at all brown, the acid is impure. 

Simplified Method of Extracting Poisonous Alkaloids in Forensic 
Investigations. F. Selmi. (Journ. Chem. Soc, from Gaz. Gkim. 
ItaL, vi., 15o.) The alcoholic extract of the viscera, acidified and 
filtered, is evaporated at G5°, the residue taken up with water, filtered 
to separate fatty matters, and decolorised by means of basic acetate 
of lead, leaving the solution in contact with the air for 24 hours. It 
is then filtered, the lead precipitated with sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and the solution, after concentration, repeatedly extracted with 
ether. The ethereal solution is then saturated with dry cai'bonic 
anhydride, which generally causes a precipitate of minute drops, 
adhering to the sides of the vessel, and containing some of the 
alkaloids. The ethereal solution is then poured into a clean vessel, 
mixed with about half its volume of water, and a current of carbonic 
anhydride passed for 20 minutes, which may cause the precipitation 
of other alkaloids not precipitated by dry carbonic anhydi'ide. 
Usually the whole of the alkaloids present in the ether are thrown 
duwn by these means ; but if not, the solution is dehydrated by 
agitation with barium oxide, asid then a solution of tartaric acid in 
ether added to the clear liquid, taking great care not to employ 
excess of acid. This throws down any alkaloid that may remain. 
In order to extract any alkaloids that may still remain in the viscera, 
they are mixed with barium hydrate and a little water, and then 
agitated with purified amylic alcohol ; the alkaloids may subse- 
quently be extracted from the alcohol by agitation with very dilute 
sulphuric acid. 

Notes on Atropine. F. Selmi. (Gazzetfa Chimica Italkma, 
vi., l'J-5.) In connection with the foregoing article on the extraction 
of poisonous alkaloids, the author refers specially to atropine and 
some of its decompo.«ition products. As atropine is readily decom- 
jjosed into tropine and atro})ic acid, and might become altered in the 
process of extraction from the viscera, etc., he studied the action of 
various reagents on the alkaloid. Boiled with a solution of barium 
hydrate in contact with the air, it gave a pleasant odour of haw- 
thorn flowers, but no odour was observed on distilling the mixture. 
The residue contained troinne, which was extracted with ether. 
Atropine was decomposed when boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, 
or with a solution of tartaric acid, but no odour was developed ; a 
substance (a) being obtained from the solution on treatment with 



ether, very different in its reactions from tropine. The action of 
ammonia on atropine yields two substances of the nature of an alka- 
loid ; one (b) precipitable by carbonic anhydride from the ethereal 
solution ; the other (c) not precipitable. Their reactions are as 
follows : — 





Tannic Acid .... 




Iodized Hydriodic Acid . 

Brown drops 




Platinum Perchloride 





Picric Acid .... 





Meyer's Keagent 





Gold Chloride .... 





Brominated Hydrobromic Acid 





Mercuric Chloride . 

Straw yellow 




Sodium Phosphotungstate 




Iodide of Potassium and Bis- 



Orange yeU. 



Iodide of Potassium and Cad- 






From experiments made on the putrefied viscera of an animal 
poisoned -with atropine, and on the alkaloids generated by the putre- 
factive process in the viscera themselves, the author finds that one 
of those formed in the latter case, and which may be extracted by 
the use of amylic alcohol (although not by ether), closely resembles 
atropine in its action on the animal organism. Atropine may be 
distinctly recognised, however, by the characteristic odour of haw- 
thorn given off during evaporation with baryta and by the bitter 
taste and poisonous action of the ethereal extract, accompanied by 
dilation of the pupil. 

Estimation of Urea, M. Depaire. (Joiirn. de Pharm. d'Anvers, 
February, 1877.) The author desired to arrive at a process which 
would give reliable results, even in the hands of those persons who are 
not specially trained in chemical manipulations. He adopts the pro- 
cess of Yvon and Esbach, with certain modifications. Sodium hypo- 
bromite is used with excess of an alkali, to decompose the urea, and 
the resulting nitrogen gas is measured over water, which retains 
the other products of the decomposition, namely, carbonic anhy- 
dride and water. 10 centigrams of urea, decomposed by sodium 
hypobromite in alkaline solution, gives off a volume of nitrogen 
which measures 37 c.c. at 0° C, and 760 mm. pressure. In order 
to avoid calculations, the plan of Yvon may be adopted, namely 
to make a preliminary trial upon a known solution of urea just 
before examining the urine, and to compare the two results. 


Naturally the amount of urea corresponding to the urine must be 
increased in the same ratio as the figure found for 010 gram of 
pure urea exceeds 37. Supposing 10 centigrams of pui-e urea 
have been treated in the manner described, and have disengaged 40 
c.c. of nitrogen and 10 c.c. of an unknown solution of urea, or of 
urine, disengage under the same circumstances (iG c.c. The quantity 
of urea contained in the latter will be found as follows : — 40 : 10 = 
66 :.T :a' = 16'5 centigrams. The result will be correct as long as 
there is not present an excess of uric acid or albumen. In the 
former case, it is best to expose the urine to cold, to promote the 
crystallization of the uric acid and urates, which are then removed ; 
and in the latter case, the urine must be heated in a closed vessel, 
so as to coagulate the albumen. 

Titration of Oxalic Acid and Oxalates. F. Jean and H. Pellet. 
(Bidl. de la Soc. Chim.; Chem. Netvs, 35, 248.) The determination 
of free oxalic acid, or of oxalates, may be effected very exactly by 
the aid of baryta water and a standard solution of sulphuric acid. 
For this purpose the solution to be assayed is carefully neutralized 
with a dilute solution of soda, then mixed with baryta water in a 
slight excess and filtered. The filtrate is then mixed with seltzer 
water, raised to the boiling point, separated by filtration from the 
carbonate of baryta, and in the clear liquid the alkali is titrated 
with standard sulphuric acid. 00777 gram of S O3 H = O'l gram 
C2O33HO. 10 c.c. of a solution containing 1 per cent, of C^OaSHO, 
required 11 '8 c.c. of a standard acid, of which 10 c.c. = 0"066 gram of 
SO3HO; that is, 00778 of sulphuric acid. O'lOOOl gram of oxalic 
acid was thus found, instead of 01 gram. In another assay the num- 
ber obtained was 0"0999 gram. 

In order that this process of titration may give good results, care 
must be taken to separate the oxalate of baryta before adding seltzer 
water ; for this salt is very sensibly decomposed by carbonic acid, 
and the neglect of this precaution would lead to grave errors. 
The authors also applied this process to the titration of borates and 
tartrates ; but the assays made with this view never gave good 
results. With boric acid it is impossible to seize the point of neutra- 
lization ; and the borates of baryta are all more or less soluble in an 
alkaline liquid. The tartrate of baryta is equally soluble in baryta 
water and in alkalies, in the latter case forming double tarti-ates. 

Titration of Chlorides in the Presence of Phosphates. H. Pel- 
let. {Bull. Soc. Chim. [2], xxii., 246.) The solution to be tested 
is acidified with nitric acid, and then neutralized with calcium car- 
bonate. The chlorine may now be titrated with silver nitrate in 


the usual way, potassium chromate being used as an indicator. A 
correction should be made for the excess of silver nitrate by mixing 
a quantity of distilled water, equal in volume to that of the liquid 
in which the chlorine was determined, with a few drops of solution of 
potassium chromate, and adding the standard silver solution till the 
red coloration is produced. The presence of sugar, or similar or- 
ganic substances, does not interfere with the process. 

Indirect Estimation of Ammonia in Ammonium Salts. H. Pel- 
let. (Bidl. Soc. Chim. [2], xxii., 250.) A solution of 10 grams 
of the ammonium salt in 30 or 40 c.c. of water is mixed with a few 
decigrams of pure calcium carbonate, to insure perfect neutrality. 
It is then made up to 500 c.c , and filtered. The filtrate is now 
boiled with an excess of titrated solution of sodium hydrate until 
the ammonia is completely expelled, when the excess of soda is 
determined with titrated sulphuric acid. 

Chemical Constitution of Chlorinated Lime. C. Stahlschmidt. 
{Bimjl. pohjt. Joitrn., ccxxi., 335-3-15 ; Jouni. Chem. Soc, March, 
1877.) G-ay-Lussac represented chloride of lime by the formula 
Ca C1.2, according to which pure chloride of lime should contain 
no calcium chloride. Gopner sought to establish this view by the 
assumption that chloride of lime, on treatment with dilute mineral 
acids, yields pure chlorine, and no hypochlorous acid. This assump- 
tion has been proved untenable by Schorlemmer, who obtained hypo- 
chlorous acid by distilling with dilute nitric acid. Richter and Junker 
also contended that no calcium chloride is contained in chloride of 
lime ; and this they sought to prove by boiling a solution of 1 gram 
of chloride of lime in 20 c.c. of a 20 per cent, phosphoric acid solution, 
till all smell of chlorine had disappeared, and then find no calcium 
chloride left. Thus they assumed that such a phosphoric acid solu- 
tion cannot decompose calcium chloride on being boiled with it, and 
that only the chlorine of the compound Ca 0. CL is liberated. The 
author has, however, found that phosphoric acid solutions will 
decompose calcium chloride with liberation of hydrochloric acid. 
Kolb found that the richest chloride of lime he could prepare con- 
tained 88'72 per cent, actual chlorine ; and this coincides with a 
formula, 3 (Ca 0. K, 0) + 4 CI, or 2 (Ca 0. H, 0. CI.) + Ca O. H. 0. This 
chloride of lime should be decomposed by water, as follows : — 
3 (Ca 0. H„ 0) + 4 CI = Ca H., as a precipitate, and 2 Ca CI^ 
going into solution. Then the true constitution of the chloride of 
lime dissolved in water, as given by Ballard, should be : 2 Ca CI. 
= Ca CI., + Ca C\,. 

In a more recent publication, Kolb gives to chloride of lime this 


formula, 2 (Ca Clo) + Ca + 3 H, ; the filtered solution consisted 
as before of Ca 0. CL and Ca CL. In the first formula, Kolbassnmes 
that water belongs to the constitution of chloride of lime; but after- 
wards he appears to forsake this view. According to Kolb also, three 
molecnles of calcium hydrate are acted on by four atoms of chlorine 
to form chloride of lime; and thus far he and the author are agreed. 
The author used in his experiments only chloride of lime which 
contained 39 per cent, of actual chlorine, and which had been formed 
exactly according to the formula 3 Ca H.> 0.. + 4 CI. In a beaker a 
quantity of the above chloride of lime was treated with water, a 
trace of cobalt sulphate added, and the whole boiled. In this man- 
ner the calcium hypochlorite formed is converted, -with liberation of 
oxygen, into calcium chlorate and calcium chloride, without a trace of 
clilorine escaping. The boiling was continued till a di'op of the solu- 
tion produced no coloration on iodized starch paper. Carbonic acid 
was then passed into the solution for several hours, whereby the cal- 
cium hydrate separated at first was converted into calcium carbonate. 
Finally, the whole was boiled for some time to drive off" free carbonic 
acid, and separate any carbonate that might have been dissolved 
thereby. The precipitate was collected on a filter, washed and 
weighed, and the amount of caustic lime therein calculated. This 
amount agreed well with the equation, — 

2 CaHClO, + CaCla + 2 H.O = Ca Cl^ 0^ + Ca H^ 0^ + Ca CI, + 2 H^ 0. 

The chloride of lime was next treated with freshly prepared sul- 
phurous acid — quite free from sulphuric acid — until the reaction with 
iodized paper ceased. Thus two molecules of sulphurous acid were 
converted into sulphuric acid by one molecule of hypochlorous acid, 
and this united with an equivalent quantity of lime, setting free a 
corresponding proportion of hydrochloric acid. The whole was then 
evaporated on the water bath to dryness, when the free hydrochloric 
acid escaped, and sulphate of lime remained, together with one mole- 
cule of calcium chloride originally existing in the dry chloride of 
1 ime : — 

Ca CI2 O2 + Ca H2 O2 + Ca CL + 2 S O2 = 2 Ca S O4 + 2 H CI + Ca CI . 

The calcium chloride was then estimated with silver solution. 
The results agreed well with the formula quoted. 

The behaviour of chloride of lime at high temperatures was next 
tested. It is already known that chloi'ide of lime, under the 
influence of heat, decomposes with formation of calcium chloride 
and chlorate, and liberation of oxygen gas and sometimes of chlorine. 


With a less intense heat, according to Morin, one-third of the cal- 
cium hypochlorite passes into chloride and chlorate, whilst two- 
thirds remain unaltered ; and then a stronger heat decomposes this 
into calcium chloride and oxygen. 

When freshly prepared chloride of lime is heated in a bulb tube 
between 100° and 120°, water and chlorine escape. When the tem- 
perature rises, no more chlorine escapes after a certain point ; but 
at and above 300°, pure oxygen is liberated. When an incipient red 
heat is attained, the whole melts to a fluid mass, clear and trans- 
parent as water, resembling fused nitre ; and on cooling solidifles to 
a crystalline mass, resembling the latter salt in appearance under like 
conditions. At a red heat a further liberation of gas takes place, and 
the mass then becomes muddy, opaque, and thick, with separation of 
an insoluble compound. By heating chloride of lime, all the chlorine 
which escapes does so as chlorine, not a trace as hydrochloric acid. 

For the estimation of the water in chloride of lime, a portion of 
the body was heated in a bulb tube, first slowly, and then after- 
wards to ignition ; a current of dry air, free from carbon dioxide, 
being passed over it, and the water escaping being retained by a 
calcium chloride tube. 

The amount of water thus estimated agreed very well with the 
formula, 2 Ca CI H Oo + Ca CI. + 2 Ho 0. It appears then that this 
final molecule of water is not liberated even at a red heat. 

Another portion of the chloride of lime was now mixed with dry, 
ignited sodium carbonate, and the whole ignited in the bulb tube, 
so that the mass does not quite fuse. Three molecules of water were 
thus set free, with simultaneous formation of calcium carbonate, 
sodium chloride, and free oxygen. The numbers obtained com- 
pletely bear out the formula 2 Ca H CI 0, + Ca CI, + 2 H. 0. 

By the first heating 9"96 per cent, of water escaped, and by the 
second 5'04 per cent. ; total, 15 per cent. 

li; was finally discovered that by heating chloride of lime to 120°, 
4"6 per cent, of chlorine were given off", and by further heating over 
the lamp 1085 and ll'GO per cent. Under these circumstances also , 
9 89 per cent, of water and some oxygen were liberated. At first then 
there are liberated from one molecule of chloride of lime, besides the 
2 Ho 0, also 1 CI + 1 ; and further, by stronger heating, | follows. 
The loss for the 2 H_, = 9-89 per cent. -^ 

1 CI = 9-75 „ [ 21-03 per cent. 

10 = i-3d „ J 

iO = 2-19 „ 

Total loss - 26-22 „ 


A portion of the chloride was now ignited, the residue dissolved 
in water, and the amounts of calcium hydx-ate and calcium chloride 

The results agreed sufficiently well with the formula mentioned, 
100 parts of chloride of lime contain, according to the formula, 19'23 
per cent, of lime (Ca 0), and 53'36 per cent, of calcium chloride. 

EesriUs obtained: — Lime, 18"83 and 18"11 percent. ; calcium chlo- 
ride, 51-00 and 52-21< per cent. 

It is now shown that if the actual compound in chloride of lime 
were Ca Clo, as according to Gopner, then by necessity it must 
have been formed as follows : — 3 Ca Ho Oo + 4 CI = 2 Ca CU + 
Ca Ho O2 + 2 Ho 0. But this formula fails to explain several of the 
results obtained by the author, and chiefly that by which it appear.s 
that the third molecule of water is obstinately retained in the com- 
pound ; for had it been contained as calcium hydrate merely, the 
strong heating would have driven it forth. Gdpner's formula does 
not in any way acconnt for the fusibility of the chloride of lime to a 
clear glassy mass at a moderately high temperature. A mixture of 
calcium hydrate, calcium chloride, and calcium chlorate does not 
possess this property. It is considered, therefore, that chloride of 
lime contains no calcium hydrate. Finally, the author considers it 
as proved, that chloride of lime has a constitution expressed by i\^ 
formula, 2 Ca H ,C1 Oo + Ca Clg + 2 Ho 0. He also joins Frcseuius 
in the view that the calcium chloride in this formula must be con- 
sidered as standing outside the constitution of chloride of lime. 

"Whether the formula CaH CI Go or Ca^^p, gives the true 

situation of the atoms in the compound, or whether this formula 
should be doubled, the author will not decide. He contents himself 
with proving that the bleaching compound arises by the replacement 
of one atom of hydrogen in calcium hydrate by an atom of chlorine, 
and that the other atom of hydrogen remains in chemical combina- 
tion. Finally, that the compound should be regarded as a calcium 

Asparagin in Sweet Almonds. L. Fortes. (Eepert. dePharm., 
l67*'>, Oil.) Having ol).served a peculiar crystalline crust on the 
outside of peeled almonds placed in absolute alcohol, the author 
made a series of experiments to ascertain the nature of this sub- 
stance. It was found to be but little soluble in cold water; easily 
soluble in hot water, hot dilute alcohol, ammonia, acids and acid 
solutions ; insoluble in strong alcohol, ether, and fixed oils. These 
properties, together with its composition, (CjHgNjOg. Hj 0), and 


its crystallograpliic character, prove the substance to be aspara- 

Volumetric Estimation of Phenol. "W. F. Koppeschaar. 
(Zeitschrift fur Analyt.-Chem., xv., 233.) The process generally 
employed for the estimation of phenol in. the crude article of com- 
merce is based upon the fact that the action of potassium hydrate 
on phenol results in the formation of a body soluble in water, — 

Ce H5 H + K H - Cg Hj K + Ho 0. 

The crude substance is shaken in a graduated tube with a strong 
solution of caustic potash, and the mixture allowed to stand until 
the insoluble hydrocarbons have completely separated at the bottom ; 
their volume is read off, and deducted from the volume of the crude 
phenol employed. 

Having found this method to be untrustworthy, the author en- 
deavoured to work out a volumetric process on the basis of the well- 
known reaction of phenol with bromine, — 

Cg H5 H + 3 Br, = Ce Ho Brs H + 3 H Br. 

According to Landolt, who first investigated this reaction, so- 
lutions of phenol containing but 1 part in 43,700 parts of water still 
produce a distinct turbidity on the addition of bromine water. As 
the washing and drying of the precipitated tribromophenol is a 
tedious operation, the reaction does not aiford a handy gravimetric 
method. The author therefore preferred to employ an excess of 
weak bromine water, and to determine this excess volumetrically 
by potassium iodide, and standard solution of sodium hyposulphite. 
In the course of bis experiments he found that nascent bromine, as 
liberated from a mixture of potassium bromide and bromate by 
hydrochloric acid, is preferable to bromine water. The mixture is 
produced by adding bromine in moderate excess to solution of 
potassium hydrate, and evaporating to dryness ; the residue is then 
dissolved in water, and the available bromine determined in the 
solution by means of potassium iodide, hydrochloric acid, and 
sodium hyposulphite. 

If the substance under examination be phenol containing water 
as the main impurity, it may be dissolved in cold water, and forth- 
with submitted to the test. But if the amount of phenol has to be 
determined in a sample of coal-tar creasote, containing many hydro- 
carbons, agitation with warm water in a flask is required to insure a 
complete solution of the carbolic acid. 

The results obtained by the author are very satisfactory. 


Volumetric Estimation of Magnesia in Potable Waters. L. Leg- 
ler. (Zi'if.filr Anali/t.-Cheni., xv., 425.) The method recommended 
consists mainly in the precipitation of the magnesium as hydrate 
by a known quantity of sodium or potassium hydrate, and the titra- 
tion of the excess of caustic alkali by standard sulphuric acid. The 
reagents required are a solution of neutral potassium oxalate (to 
precipitate the calcium), decinormal solutions of caustic soda and 
sulphui'ic acid, and as an indicator one drop of rosolic acid. The 
modus operandi is as follows : — 

The expulsion of free carbonic acid, and the complete decom- 
position of carbonates, are essential points in this process, and are 
best accomplished by mixing 100 c.c. of the water with decinormal 
sulphuric acid in moderate excess, and a drop of the indicator, 
allowing the mixtui'e to stand for some time, then adding a slight 
excess of decinoi'mal solution of sodium hydrate, boiling, and 
making careful gradual additions of standard acid to the boiling 
liquid, until it becomes permanently colourless. The number of c.c. 
of sulphuric acid used are calculated for carbonic acid or lime. 
Boiling the water "with an excess of acid must be strictly avoided. 

The water being thus freed from carbonates, is mixed with an 
excess of neutral potassium oxalate, and after complete precipitation 
of the lime, it is boiled with a known volume of decinormal NaH 0, 
to effect the precipitation of the magnesia, and then made up to 
150 c.c. by the addition of water. After filtering, the excess of 
soda is estimated in 100 c.c. of the filtrate by adding the standard 
acid in the same manner as before. 

Magnesia may thus be estimated in waters containing only two 
milligrams of Mg per litre, besides indefinite quantities of lime 
and alkalies. 

The complete removal of carbonates is necessary, as otherwise the 
calcium bicarbonate contained in the water would decompose the 
potassium oxalate, forming calcium oxalate and potassium bicarbo- 
nate, the latter of which would require an increased amount of 
sulphuric acid for neutralization, and thus cause a serious error in 
the analysis. 

Estimation of Tannin. J. Lowenthal. (Zelt^chr. filr Analijt- 
Chem., xvi., 33- i8.) The author describes the results of his experi- 
ments in the estimation of tannin, and considers that his improve- 
ments give determinations satisfactory for technical, if not for strictly 
scientific, purposes. The estimations of tannin from diff"crent sources 
(e.g., sumach and nutgalls) are not comparable, but only those from 
sumach inter se, and from galls inter se. 



Hammer's method is used, the extract being first titrated after 
adding indigo solution, so as to ascertain its potassium-permanganate 
value ; the tannin is then precipitated from another portion of the 
extract, and the permanganate-value of the filtrate ascertained by 
the difference of these results. 

For the precipitation of the tannin a solution of glue in water is 
made and satnrated with common salt; it contains 25 grams of glue 
to the litre. After thoroughly mixing this with the tannin extract, 
a small quantity of dilute hydrochloric or sulphuric acid is added to 
assist the separation of the tannin ; a vessel with narrow opening 
should not be used, as the precipitate coagulates into a mass. Of 
the tannin-extract to be titrated, sufficient is taken to require 0'06 
to 0'08 grams of permanganate ; 10 gi-ams of sumach are extracted 
with boiling water, and after cooling, the liquid is made up to 2 
litres. To 100 c.c. of this solution 100 c.c. of the glue solution are 
added, and to this mixture are further added 50 c.c. of water con- 
taining 5 c.c. of H CI (1-12 sp. gr.), or 2 to 2-5 grams of Ho S 0.^. 
The sligbt reducing action of the glue solution upon the perman- 
ganate may be safely neglected ; the error due to this cause is less 
when Hammei''s powdered skin {hatdpidver^ is employed. This 
error almost vanishes if four-fifths of the glue solution directed to be 
added is replaced by a saturated solution of common salt. The pre- 
sence of indigo solution is necessary, not only as an indicator, but it 
also prevents the oxidising action of the permanganate extending to 
any substances in the extract less readily oxidisable than the indigo 
is itself. The only requisite for making this method quite accurate is 
the separation of pure tannin and the determination of its permanga- 
nate-value ; this would ensure the accurate calculation of the quan- 
tity of tannin from the difference of pei'manganate-values. The 
sepai'ation of tannin from its lead-compound by addition of insuffi- 
cient oxalic acid yielded much purer tannin than the separation by 
sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The sample in which tannin is to be estimated is never dried be- 
fore being weighed, as it is sold in the undried state. Oser's re- 
commendation to add acid during the titration of the indigo sokition 
has been accepted by the author. The determination of glue by 
precipitation with an excess of tannin, which excess is afterwards 
titrated, is inexact. Since the quantity of tannin combining with a 
certain quantity of glue increases with the quantity of tannin pre- 
sent, the author intends to examine the effect of using sodium-chloride 
solution in place of water. Hydrochloric acid is preferred to sul- 
phuric for acidifying. The statements of Wagner that gall-tannin 


combined with glue putrifies, and that in turkey-red dye works 
sumach is never used without galls, are not confirmed by the au- 
thor's experience. 

Volumetric Estimation of Alcohol. T. T. Monell. (Chem. and 
Drugj., Dec, 1876, from Amer. Chem.) If a cobalt salt be added to 
an alcoholic solution of sulpho-cyanide of ammonium, a deep blue 
coloration is produced, which suddenly vanishes on dilution with 
water, and reappears on further addition of alcohol. Given the 
same volume, spirit of a certain percentage always gives precisely 
the same intensity of colour with a standard blue solution in which- 
ever order alcohol or water may be added. It is possible in this 
way to determine quickly, by a volumetric process, even so little as 
one-fourth per cent, of alcohol in a mixture. A measured quantity 
of the dark blue standard fluid is placed in a cylinder, and a mix- 
ture to be tested is added until the colour is reduced to that of a 
strip of pale blue glass ; the volume of this pale coloured fluid will 
be the greater as the mixture is richer in alcohol. This volume, 
once determined, will always remain the same, and the percentage 
noted on the cylinder may afterwards be read off without further 
trouble. The standard fluid is always prepared with the spirit of 
the same strength, and compared with the same strip of blue glass. 
The nitrate of cobalt is the salt found most convenient for this pur- 
pose. Coloured brandy may be tested directly ; in this case the tint 
is not blue, however, but green. Two cylinders are therefore ne- 
cessary, — one for the test, and one to give the desired tint in conjunc- 
tion with the blue glass. The cobalt solution may be either neutral 
or slightly acid, but should contain as little water as possible. 

Cyclamin, or Arthanatin. (Pharm. Gentralhalle, 1877, 18.) This 
glucoside is mentioned by Professor de Luca as a substitute for 
curare, and recommended by him as a remedy against tetanus. It 
is contained in the tubers of Cyclamen EaropcBicm, a native of central 
and south-eastern Europe, belonging to the natui-al order Pnmu- 
lacece. According to Saladin, the fresh tubers are collected in 
autumn, crushed into a pulp, and digested with a small quantity of 
water. The solution is evaporated at a temperature not exceeding 
60° C. to the consistence of a syrup, the residue exhausted with 
absolute alcohol, the alcoholic solution decolorized with animal 
charcoal, and allowed to evaporate spontaneously in a warm place. 

Cyclamin thus prepared forms white odourless crystals having a 
very acrid taste. It is readily soluble in water and alcohol, but in- 
soluble in ether, chloroform, and carbon bisulphide. The aqueous 
solution, according to De Luca, froths like a solution of soap ; and 


when heated to 60°-70° C, it separates the cyclamin in a coagulated 
form. With concentrated sulphuric acid it forms a yellow solution, 
passing gradually to violet. When boiled with dilute mineral acids 
it is split up into glucose and a resinoid substance called cyclamiretin, 
which is insoluble in water and in ether, but soluble in alcohol. The 
same decomposition is effected by emulsin at 30°-35° C. 

The formula of cyclamin was ascertained to be Coo -^"vt Oio- 

According to Pelikan, who administered this substance to frogs, 
both internally and by subcutaneous injections, it belongs to the 
irritant poisons. Schroff observed that the toxic symptoms follow- 
ing the internal administration of 0'2 gram passed off in the course 
of an hour. 

The Detection of Bile in Urine. 0. Kosenbach. (Med. Central- 
hiatt.} Urine containing bile, when passed through white filtering 
paper, imparts a yellow or brown colour to the paper. On allowing 
one drop of strong nitric acid to run down the side of the moist 
filter, it leaves a yellow streak, soon changing to orange, with a 
violet border, on the outside of which blue and emerald green zones 
may be observed : these colours remain visible for some time. Dark 
coloured urine, owing its tint to substances other than bile, do not 
produce this play of colours. 

The Detection of Sulphur in Organic Compounds. H. Vohl. 
(Bar. der deutsch. Chem.-Ges., ix., 875.) The tests generally ap- 
plied for the detection of sulphur in organic substances afford no 
means of distinguishing between sulphur, as such, and its oxygen 
compounds. The author's process is not open to the same objection, 
as it is based upon a reaction which is not shared by these oxygen 

The test solution is prepared by introducing freshly prepared cal- 
cium hydrate, in small quantities at a time, into a flask containino- 
a mixture of two volumes of pure glycerin and one volume of dis- 
tilled water, until a saturated solution is obtained ; then adding 
hydrate of lead, or finely powdered letharge, in excess ; boiling the 
mixture for a few minutes, allowing it to settle in the closed flask, 
and decanting the clear liquid from the sediment. 

Organic substances containing sulphur, such as hairs, feathers, 
nails, horn, albumen, blood-serum, etc., when heated with this solu- 
tion, are blackened, owing to the formation of sulphide of lead. 
Volatile compounds require to be heated with the reagent in a 
sealed tube to 10o°-110° C. for several hours. 

The test is a very delicate one, as may be seen from the fact that 
■wheat bread, when boiled with the reagent, assumes a yellow and 


afterwards a grey colour, the reaction being due in this case to the 
trace of sulphur contained in the gluten of the wheat. Blood stains 
on linen, and also the stains of seminal fluid, are blackened on being 
moistened with the reagent and heated to 100° C. 

Solutions of hydrate of lead in caustic potash or soda will, of 
course, produce the same effect ; but they are not so well suited for 
this test, on account of the yellow or brown coloration which the 
caustic alkalies impart to many organic substances. 

Impurities in Wood Charcoal. M. Jaillard, (Joum. de Pharm. 
et de Chim., xxv., 121.) Vegetable charcoal frequently contains 
organic impurities which have escaped destruction during its pre- 
paration. The commonest of these is acetate of potash, of which 
the author has found some samples to contain as much as 0*3 per 
cent. Such a charcoal requires to be heated to redness in a closed 
vessel to free it from its organic constituents. 

Preparation of Pure Potassium Cyanide. E. Erlenmeyer. 
(Zeitschr. des oesterr. Apoth. Ver., 1877, -iO, from Ber. der deutsch. 
Chem.-Ges.) The process of fusing a mixture of ferrocyanide and car- 
bonate of potassium yields a preparation containing a considerable 
amount of cjanate, which is difficult to remove. By using metallic 
potassium in place of the carbonate, the formation of cyanate is 
completely prevented, and a pure cyanide obtained. As cyanide of 
sodium, or a mixture of cyanide of potassium and sodium, will serve 
for most of the purposes for which the potassium salt is generally 
employed, the author suggests the use of metallic sodium (as being 
much cheaper than potassium) for the preparation of a pure alkaline 
cyanide. The composition of the product thus obtained would be 
represented by the formula 2 K Cy + Na Cy. 

The Determination of Soda in Pearl Ash by Indirect Analysis. 
G. C. Wittstein. (Zeitschr. des oesterr. Apoth. Ver., 1877, 207.) 
In estimating the potassium and sodium in a mixture of their car- 
bonates by the so-called indirect method, it was hitherto the rule 
first to convert these carbonates into chlorides or sulphates. This 
the author shows to be unnecessary, as the relative proportions of 
the two carbonates may be equally well calculated from the quantity 
of carbonic acid which the mixture is found to contain. If the 
carbonic acid (C 0.,) amounts to more than 31'80 per cent., or to 
less than 41'47 per cent., the alkaline carbonate under examination 
can neither be pure potassium carbonate, nor pure sodium carbonate, 
but must be a mixture of the two, the composition of which can be 
ascertained by the following calculation : — 

To find the per centage of potash (K, 0), multiply the weight of 


the two bases (the total weight of the carbonates minus that of 
C Oj) by 1-708763, deduct the product from the weight of the 
carbonates, and divide the rest by - 2426G3. 

To find the percentage of soda (Na^ 0), multiply the weight of 
the bases by 1 -466100, deduct from the product the weight of the 
carbonates, and divide the rest by-0'242663. 

Eeactions of Trimethylamine with Solutions of Metallic Salts. 
C. Vincent. (Bull, de la Soc. Chim. tie Paris, 1877, 194.) The 
addition of an aqueous solution of trimethylamine to metallic solu- 
tions produces the following reactions : — 

Magnesium Salts. — With neutral solutions of magnesium salts the 
reagent produces a white permanent precipitate ; no precipitation 
occurs with acid solutions, but on the subsequent addition of sodium 
phosphate, a white amorphous precipitate is formed, which gradually 
becomes crystalline. 

Berylliiim Salts. — White permanent precipitate. 

Aluminiiom Salts. — Gelatinous precipitate, soluble in an excess of 
the reagent. 

Zirconium Salts. — White permanent precipitate. 

Cerious Salts. — White permanent precipitate. 

Ceric Salts. — Reddish white permanent precipitate. 

Ferrous Salts. — Dirty white permanent precipitate. 

Ferric Salts. — Brown permanent precipitate. 

Chromiuvi Salts. — With green solutions, a grey permanent pre- 
cipitate ; with violet solutions, a bluish green one. 

Manganous Salts. — White precipitate, turning brown on exposure 
to the air. The precipitation occurs also with acid solutions. 

Cobalt Salts. — Bluish grey permanent precipitate. 

JVickel Salts. — Pale green permanent precipitate. 

Uranium Salts. — Yellow permanent precipitate. 

Zinc Salts. — White permanent precipitate. 

Stannous Salts. — White permanent precipitate. 

Stannic Salts. — White permanent precipitate, soluble in an excess 
of the reagent. 

Bismuth Salts. — White permanent precipitate. 

Lead Salts. — With lead nitrate a white precipitate, soluble in an 
excess of the reagent. With lead acetate, no precipitate. 

Cupric Salts. — Greenish blue permanent precipitate. 

Mercurous Salts. — Black permanent precipitate. 

2Lercuric Salts. — Yellow permanent precipitate ; with mercuric 
chloride the reaction is the same as with other mercuric salts. 

Silver Salts. — Dark grey precipitate, soluble in a large excess of 


the precipitant. Silver chloride is completely insoluble in trimethyl- 

Palladium Salts. — Brown precipitate, soluble in an excess of the 

Gold Salts. — Pale yellow precipitate, also soluble in an excess. 

Flatinum Salts. — Yellow precipitate, soluble in hot water, and 
crystallizing from the solution on cooling. 

The Detection of Nitrates in Potable Waters. A. Vogel. 
(Neues Repertor.fiir Phann., xxiv., G66.) The author employs leaf 
gold for the detection of nitrates in potable water. 20 c.c. of the 
water to be tested are evaporated in a porcelain dish, with gold leaf 
and a few c.c. of pure hydrochloric acid. If nitrates are present, 
some of the gold will be dissolved, and may be detected in the solu- 
tion by stannous chloride ; or if the quantity of nitrates is not too 
small, by the yellow colour of the solution. The advantage of this 
method consists in the non-employment of sulphuric acid, the im- 
purities of which (nitric acid, and oxides of nitrogen) are a veiy 
common source of error in testing for traces of nitrates. 

Preparation of Pure Hydriodic Acid. H. Kolbe. {Jour n. f. 'pr aid. 
Chem., XV., 1"2.) One part of ordinary phosphorus is gradually 
added to ten parts of iodine in a retort filled with carbonic acid gas ; 
the resulting liquid is heated for a short time, then allowed to cool, 
mixed with four parts of water and distilled. The acid thus obtained 
is colourless and free from uncombined iodine. The application of 
larger proportions of iodine and water, as recommended in " Gmelin's 
Handbuch," and other works, results in the production of a much 
weaker acid, which moreover always contains free iodine. 

Volumetric Determination of Carbonic Acid. G. W. Wigner. 
{Analyst,!., 158; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1S77, 218.) Most laboratories 
are now furnished with the McLeod appai'atus, or some similar 
efficient apparatus, far measuring the volume of gases under known 
conditions of temperature and pressure. The author has therefore 
devised a simple apparatus for the decomposition of carbonates, and 
the measuring of the gas evolved. A test-tube of about 7 inches 
by 1 inch is taken and provided with a good india-rubber stopper 
bored with two holes. Through one of these holes a tubulated, 
thistle-headed funnel of small size, furnished with a stop-cock, is 
passed, and through the other a bent piece of small-bore glass-tubing, 
also provided with a stop-cock. This bent tube is coupled to the 
McLeod or other gas-measurment apparatus by a short length (6 
inches) of very stout, small-bore india-rubber tube (y'g inch is large 
enough for the bore of this). In the bowl of the thistle-funnel a 


glass marble is put, and in the interior of the test-tube a smaller 
test-tube of about 2 in. x -| in., containing the sample to be analysed. 
The process is as follows : — The tubes of the McLeod apparatus are 
filled with mercury and the stop-cocks closed. The sample (say 25 
grams of carbonate of lead) is weighed and transferred to the 
smaller tube, and about half an ounce of distilled water is poured 
into the large test-tube. The small tube is then carefully dropped 
in, taking care that its mouth is above the level of the water in 
the large tube ; the stopper into which the funnel and bent tube 
have been inserted is then carefully put in place, and the whole 
held in a slightly oblique position in a retort-stand clamp, on the 
ordinary rising table of the McLeod apparatus. The india-rubber 
tube is then coupled up to the facets of the measuring-tube of the 
McLeod apparatus. The stop-cock on the bent tube is closed, 
after having opened it and the cock on the funnel-tube in order 
to liberate any excess of air in the india-rubber tube, and the 
mercury in the measuring-tube is allowed to fall, so as to produce 
a vacuum. The stop- cock on the funnel remains open, and to 
the bottom of the test-tube a lamp is applied until the water boils 
briskly, when distilled water is poured into the funnel and kept 
from running into the test-tube by the pressure of steam ; the boil- 
ing is continued until the steam escaping through the funnel and 
under the glass marble all condenses, showing that the tube is filled 
with pure steam. The lamp is now withdrawn and the stop-cock 
instantly closed. Meanwhile a portion of dilute nitric acid has been 
boiled on another burner, and is poured into the funnel. The stop- 
cocks on the bent tube and on the measuring-tube are opened, and 
then the stop-cock on the funnel-tube is cautiously opened. The 
hot acid of course runs in, and the only precaution necessary is to 
avoid liberating the gas too quickly. When the test-tube is about 
two-thirds full, and all effervescence has ceased, the solution in the 
tube is again boiled, and then, still maintaining a partial vacuum 
by means of the mercury, the tube is filled completely through the 
funnel-tube with boiling distilled water, until every bubble of air is 
driven into the measuring-tube of the McLeod apparatus. The stop- 
cock on the bent tube is then shut, and the mercury in the pressure- 
tube and the measuring-tube brought to the same level. This brings 
the internal pressure of the air on the short india-rubber connecting 
tube to the atmospheric pressure, and as its volume does not exceed 
1 c.c. the correction for its temperature may be safely omitted. 
The gas is then measured in the ordinary way, and its volume 
calculated to weight and percentage. 



It is easy to make four determinations of carbonic acid per hour 
by this apjiaratus, and the accuracy of the results is very great. 

Determination of Morphine in Opium. E. F. Teschemacher. 
{Chem. News, xxxv., 47; Journ. Ghent. Soc, 1877, 231.) In employ- 
ing the following method, the use of alcohol to extract the morphine 
is avoided, and mecouic acid is separated at an early stage, which 
prevents the formation of a basic meconate on precipitation of the 
morphine. Two special reagents are required for this process : the 
one prepared by mixing 1 part of solution of ammonia, sp. gr. 0880, 
with 20 parts of methylated alcohol and digesting in this mixture a 
large excess of morphine, this when filtered is termed " morplnated 
spirit;" the other, '■'' morphiated loater," is water saturated with 
excess of morphine, and contains 004 per cent, of this alkaloid. 

1000 grains of opium are macerated for twelve to twenty hours 
in about 4000 grains of cold distilled water, together with 300 
grains of lead acetate, stirring the mixture from time to time. This 
separates the meconic acid as lead meconate, whilst the morphine is 
dissolved in the acetic set free. 

After this maceration the opium may be readily ground in a mortar 
to a paste, and so much more cold distilled water added (rinsing the 
pestle and mortar with successive portions of it) as to fill with the 
mixture a measure = 20,250 grains of distilled water : experience 
has shown that the space occupied by the insoluble matters measures 
from 200 to 300 grains, so that the limit of possible error, by aver- 
aging and allowing 250 grains for the insoluble portion, amounts to 
05 per cent, in opium containing 10 per cent, of morphine. The 
mixture is to be filtered and 15,000 measured grains ( = 750 grains 
of opium) of the clear solution are to be evaporated to an extract on 
a water bath, and this residue to be drenched with 3O90 grains of 
boiling alcohol or methylated spirit, and the whole digested, with 
frequent stirring, for about ten minutes. This separates the gum, 
etc., of the opium, which is insoluble in alcohol, and so far frees the 
solution of morphine from impurity. At this stage of the process it 
is well to get rid of the excess of lead-salts, and for this end sul- 
phuric acid is preferable to sulphuretted hydrogen. So much diluted 
sulphuric acid as may be equal to 30 grains of oil of vitriol will 
almost always be sufficient for this, any excess of acid being 
converted into sulphate of ammonia by the subsequent addition of so 
much solution of ammonia as shall be equivalent to the 30 grains of 
oil of vitriol, thus forming a salt but slightly soluble in the alcoholic 
solution. This mixture may now be transferred to a beaker and 
allowed to settle for twelve hours, after which it is to be filtered, and 


the filter and insoluble residue thorouglily washed with alcohol or 
methylated spirit. This alcoholic filtrate is then distilled, or eva- 
porated on a water bath, to about 1000 grains ; and mixed, while 
still hot, with 400 grains of solution of ammonia, sp. gr. 0'880, stir- 
ring rapidly and continuously for at least twenty minutes, whilst 
the beaker or evaporating dish should be cooled as rapidly as pos- 
sible, by immersion in an external vessel filled with cold water. The 
rapid and continuous stirring is most important, as the precipitation 
of the whole of the morphine in fine powder is thereby effected, 
instead of the granular or mammillated condition so frequently met 
with, and it thus permits of the easy and thorough separation of all 
the narcotine which may be mixed with the morphine. When the 
cooling of the mixture and precipitation of the morphine is thus 
attained, transfer it quickly and completely to a filter of sufficient 
capacity to hold the whole, and when the liquid portion has passed 
through, wash the remainder of the precipitated morphine adhering 
to the dish or beaker on to the filter, using for this purpose the 
morphiated spirit already described, and continuing the washing of 
the precipitate until it is completely fi^ed from the mother-liquor. 
To do this efiPectually requires some little care : thus the morphine 
on the filter must be kept in a spongy condition and never allowed 
to cohere, which is easily effected by pouring the morphiated spirit 
round the edges of the filter so as not to disturb the precipitate, 
which must not be permitted to drain or solidify until this washing 
is completed. 

The precipitate is now to be washed from off" the filter-paper with 
the morphiated water previously described, and digested therein for 
a few minutes, which removes some more colouring matter together 
with any salts soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol, which may 
have adhered to the precipitated morphia; then once more collect 
the precipitate on a filter, washing it with morphiated spirit, after 
this once with ether, and finally thrice or more with benzin ; this 
completely frees it from narcotine, which is very soluble in benzin, 
morphine on the contrary being insoluble in this liquid. It now 
remains to drain and dry at a low temperature, say 100° F., the 
resulting pure and white morphine, the weight of which will indi- 
cate the amount of this alkaloid present in 750 grains of the opium 
under examination. 

Extraction of Caflfeine from Guarana. Dr. F. V. Greene. (Amer. 
Journ. Phann., 1877, 338.) In determining the percentage of caf- 
feine in guarana by Stenhouse's process (see Pharm. Journ., 1st series, 
xvi., 212), the author experienced some diflBcalty in separating the 


solution from the portion insoluble in boiling water, and found the 
washing of the mass precipitated by lead acetate a very tedious 
operation. He therefore attempted the separation of the alkaloid by 
means of litharge, which substance has been recommended by Prof. 
E. S. "Wayne for the extraction of caffeine from coffee and tea. The 
results proved that in the case of guarana, too, this process affords 
a ready means for the isolation and estimation of the alkaloid. 

The details of the method are as follows : — The powdered guarana 
is intimately mixed with three times its weight of finely divided 
litharge, and the mixture boiled in distilled water, the ebullition 
being continued until, on allowing the temperature to fall below 
the boiliug point, the insoluble portion is found to subside rapidly, 
leaving the supernatant liquid clear, bright, and without colour. 
The quantity of distilled water required will be found to be about a 
pint for every fifteen grams of the guarana used in the experiment, 
and, as the boiling has to be continued for several hours before the 
desired and all essential separation mentioned above takes place, 
water must be added from time to time to supply the place of that 
lost by evaporation. When cool, the clear liquid is decanted upon 
a filter, and when it has passed through, which it will be found to 
do with fiicility, the precipitate is to be transferred to the filter and 
washed with boiling water, the washing to be continued as long as 
yellowish precipitates are produced with either phosphomolybdic 
acid solution, auric, or platinic chloride. A stream of sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas is now passed through the filtrate to remove the small 
quantity of lead that has been dissolved and the sulphide thus 
formed separated by filtration. The solution is evaporated on a 
water bath to expel the excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, filtered to 
remove a trace of sulphur, finally evaporated to the crystallizing 
point, and the caffeine, which crystallizes out on cooling, removed 
from the mother liquor and pressed between folds of bibulous paper. 
After being thus treated, the crystals will be found to be perfectly 
white. On diluting the mother liquor with distilled water, filtering 
and evaporating, a second crop of crystals are obtained, which ai"e 
also perfectly white, after being pressed as above. The crystals are 
now dissolved in boiling diluted alcohol, filtered, and the solution 
set aside to crystallize by spontaneous evaporation. The resulting 
crystals of caffeine are perfectly pure and colourless. 

In order to test the accuracy of the process, fourteen grams of 
guarana in an impalpable powder were treated with the utmost care, 
as above described. The extracted caffeine, after drying at 100° F. 
until the weight became constant, was found to weigh •707 grams, 


5"0j per cent., a remarkably close approximation to the results of 
Stenhouse, who from 25 grams of guarana, obtained 1"2G0 grams of 
caffeine = 504 per cent., and from 14 grams 5*1 per cent. Average 
= 5-07. 

As this method of extracting caffeine is entirely devoid of all 
complicated steps, and requires but a short space of time for its 
completion, it may be used advantageously in estimating the per- 
centage of caffeine in the fluid extract of guarana, -which is now 
frequently prescribed. 

Rapid Preparation of Caffeine. 0. Caillol and P. Cazeneuve. 
(Bull. Soc. Chim., 1877, 199.) Caffeine is generally prepared from 
tea, as it is contained therein in larger quantities than in coffee. 
According to the usual method, the tea is exhausted with water, the 
infusion precipitated by lead acetate, the filtrate freed from lead by 
sulphuretted hydrogen, and evaporated ; the crystals thus obtained 
are purified by decolorization with animal charcoal and recrystal- 

The authors have attained a better result by the following more 
rapid process : — Black tea is thoroughly softened with four times its 
weight of hot water ; a quantity of calcium hydrate equal to that of 
the tea used is then added, and the whole evaporated on a water 
bath to perfect dryness. The dry residue is exhausted with chloro- 
form in a displacement apparatus, and the chloroform recovered 
from the percolate by distillation. The residue left in the retort is 
a mixture of caffeine and a resinous substance containing chloro- 
phyll. On treating it with hot water, filtering, and evaporating the 
filtrate on a water bath, the caffeine is obtained in perfectly white 
silky crystals. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Sodium Carbonate. Dr. H. 
Hager. (Pharm. Centralhalle, 1877, 42.) The prepai'ation of 
carbonate of soda by the so-called ammonia process, though com- 
paratively new, is already undergoing important modifications. 
Hitherto the main step in the process was the formation of sodium 
bicarbonate (see Year-Booh of Pharmacy, 1874). The latest modi- 
fication is based upon the comparative insolubility of the monohy- 
drated sodium carbonate, Nao C O3. Hj 0, in a concentrated solution of 
common salt. The ordinary carbonate, usually containing 10 molecules 
of water of crystallization, when recrystallized at 35° C. contains 
but seven molecules, and when crystallized at 60°-70° C. it contains 
but one molecule of water. The action of the ammonium carbonate 
upon the sodium chloride is explained by the following equation •' — 
2 Na CI + (N HJ2 C O3 - Nao C O3 + 2 N H^ CI. 


Dialysed Iron. A. and H. C. Blare. (Amer. Journ. PJiarm., 
1877, oiO.) This prepai-ation has attracted the attention of many 
members of the medical and pharmaceutical professions for some 
time past, and the experience resulting from its use is so satisfactory 
that it promises to become one of the most valued therapeutic agent.s 
in a large class of diseases where the ordinary iron preparations are 
objectionable. The writers obtained the following formula from a 
prominent French chemist who has been extensively engaged in the 
manufacture of this remedy : — 

Take 10 parts liq. ferri per. chlor. (B. P.), precipitate by aqua 
ammonisB, and wash the precipitate thoroughly. Mix this with 12 
parts of liq. ferri per. chlor. (B.P.), and place in a dialyser. The 
dialyser is placed in a suitable vessel with distilled water, the water 
under it renewed every 24 hours. The opei*ation is continued until 
the dialysate ceases to contain chlorine, at which time the pre- 
paration is found to be neutral. It usually takes from 12 to 15 
days to complete the process. 

The resulting preparation is, or should be, of a deep dark red 
colour, and contains about 5 per cent, of the oxide of iron. As to 
the chemical condition of the iron in solution, M. Bravais, of Paris 
(who claims to produce the only genuine), says, " It consists of 
liquid peroxide of iron, i.e., iron merely united with oxygen and 
water to the exclusion of all acids ; " but it is, no doubt, in fact a 
neutral solution of an oxychloride of iron in a concentrated form, 
and the theory of its production is nothing new, and is very simple. 
The oxychloride (which is the substance retained in solution in the 
dialyser) is a colloidal substance. The chloride (which is the princi- 
pal substance rejected, or washed out as it were) is a crystalloidal 
substance. These two substances — crystalloid and colloid — are 
separated by dialysis, the former from the latter by diffusion through 
a septum, such as parchment paper. 

Other formulae more recently have been suggested, differing 
somewhat from the above, and it has been the subject of no little 
discussion abroad as to the particular merits of the one or the other 
of these. By some it has been suggested to pursue the following 
formula : — Take a given quantity of liq. ferri perchlor. (B. P.), and 
precipitate by ammonia; wash well the precipitate, and mix with 
sufficient quantity of the same preparation of liq. ferri perchlor. to 
saturation, and dialyse. It is remarkable how large a proportion of 
this freshly precipitated sesquioxide of iron will be taken up or 
dissolved. For example, the precipitate obtained from one pint of 
our officinal liquor ferri chlor., representing 3 ounces and G drams 


of dry oxide, is entirely taken up by about 5 fluid ouncef? of the 
same liquor. In the magma this precipitate seems a very great 
quantity, so bulky is it ; and, as stated before, it is quite surprising 
to see it disappear into solution under the influence of so small a 
quantity of the liquor. 

By following the above method the process is shortened consider- 
ably. It became thoroughly dialysed in one week, while the other 
takes about twice that time. 

Still another method has been suggested, namely, to take a given 
quantity of the liquor ferri chlor., and add aqua ammonite almost 
enough to produce the precipitate of the sesquioxide. When the 
precipitating point is reached the whole solution is placed in the 
dialyser. The chloride of ammonium is thus extracted from the 
solution, and the peroxide of iron, or oxychloride, retained. 

If either of these processes is pursued carefully, the same result 
will be obtained. If the solution, after completion of the operation, 
should contain more than 5 per cent, of iron, it may be diluted with 
distilled water till it reaches that point. There are some dialysed 
irons in the market containing no more than from 3| to 4 per 
cent. When the preparation has become thoroughly dialysed, it 
is tasteless and neutral ; the operation should then be discontinued, 
as by further dialysis the liquid is converted into a gelatinous 

The above formula furnishes an article precisely similar to the 
original Bravais' dialysed iron, which the authors have im- 
ported and had ample opportunity for comparison. They found 
that it can be produced for about one-half the cost of the imported. 

The manner of taking the pure concentrated dialysed iron is 
generally in drops, ranging from 15 to 50 daily, in divided doses, 
on sugar or in sugar and water ; suitable vehicles can be used for 
administration without fear of decomposition. Being without taste 
and odour, compatible with syrup and alcohol, and communicating 
no taste to any suitable vehicle, it is easy to construct formulae for 
elixir, syrup, etc. ; a glycerite is stated to be an excellent preparation, 

Dialysed Iron. J. M. Maisch. (Amer. Joum. Pharm., 1877, 342.) 
Dialysed iron, which will doubtless become one of the most valuable 
ferruginous medicinal agents, has been recently introduced into 
the United States, under various names. Some claiming it to be a 
solution of oxide of iron in water, it was, and is still frequently 
called in Europe, ferrum oxydatum dialysatum ; but like the very 
simi'ar preparation, ferrum oxydatum saccharaticm, which has been 
made oflicinal in several European pharmacopoeias (Amer. Journ. 


Pharm., 1873, p. 161 ; 1874, p. 559), it is nothing more nor less 
than a very basic oxjcliloride of iron. To prevent erroneous con- 
ceptions concerning its composition gaining a foothold, a brief review 
of the earlier literature on the subject will not be out of place. 

The first paper on this subject deserving notice is one by John 
M. Ordway, entitled " Examination of the Soluble Basic Sesquisalts," 
which was published in the American Journal of Science and Arts, 
2nd series, xxvi., 197 (1858), and in which the following language 
is used : " Time is a very important element in the production of 
the highly basic compounds. One may easily be deceived as to when 
the hydrate ceases to be dissolved, and may set down as opaque 
that which by longer digestion becomes quite transparent. By 
successive steps we get pretty easily as far as Fe.^ CI,;. 11 Fe, O3, 
and in the course of several weeks I have gone as high as 
Fe, Clg. 23 Fes Os-" 

The next important paper is by Bechamp (1859), published in 
Annates de Chimie et de Physique, 3rd series, Ivii., 296, which in the 
main coiToborates the statements of Ordway, but gives the most 
basic compound obtained Feo Clg. 20 Feg O3. In both cases the 
solutions of the normal salt were digested with ferric hydrate. 

Th. Graham's celebrated essay on the diffusion of liquids (Phil. 
Trans., 1861, 183) announces the following results : — " If recently 
precipitated ferric- hydrate or carbonate of ammonium is added to 
an aqueous solution of ferric chloride, as long as the precipitates are 
redissolved, and if the dark red solution thus obtained, containing 
from 4 to 5 per cent, of solid matter, is subjected to dialysis, mainly 
muriatic acid will pass through the septum, upon which, after 19 
days, remains a red liquid containing for 98'5 parts of oxide 1*5 part 
of muriatic acid. It remains liquid for 20 days and then gelatinizes, 
separating ferric hydrate. A similar solution of colloidal ferric 
hydrate may be obtained by dialysis of ferric acetate, and contains 
6 parts of acetic acid to 94 parts of ferric oxide." 

Calculating Graham's results as an oxychloride, the formula 
Fe, Clg. 95 Fco O3 would be obtained, which seems to be hardly 
probable. At the same time, it must be remembered that none of 
the so-called soluble oxide of iron has as yet been obtained free 
from acid. Graham's figures are the lowest thus far observed, and 
the solution was not permanent, but gelatinized spontaneously. It 
must therefore be granted that any permanent solution of so-called 
soluble oxide of iron must contain notable quantities of acid ; and 
within the past year such has been proved by Hager to be the case 
with several Eui-opean preparations sold as oxide of iron. 


The behaviour of the solutions is quite curious and apt to mislead, 
unless care be taken to arrive at correct results. They will retain 
their clearness on boiling, are miscible with alcohol, glycerin, syrup, 
etc., but readily yield precipitates on the addition of acids not in ex- 
cess, or of saline solutions, the precipitates disappearing again on 
dilutmg with distilled water. Tannin added in small quantities 
darkens the solution somewhat, and on filtering leaves but little 
matter in the funnel ; on using a stronger solution of tannin a well 
diffused gelatinous precipitate takes place, having a deep brown, but 
not a black colour, and the filtrate is colourless. Solution of nitrate 
of silver added in small quantity does not disturb the transparency 
of the liquid ; on adding more of the former a gelatinous hroivn pre- 
cipitate takes place, and the colourless filtrate is free from iron, but 
the addition of distilled water causes the precipitate to dissolve 
again. Apparently, therefore, the solution is free from chloride ; 
but on adding first a .slight excess of ammonia, filtering from the 
ferric hydrate, acidulating with nitric acid, and then testing with 
nitrate of silver, a white precipitate of chloride of silver is formed. 
All these reactions as well as the slight astringent, not inky taste, 
and the intense brown-red colour have been observed by the investi- 
gators named above, and they characterize also the commercial 
products. A sample recently examined by the writer, and said to 
contain no, or only traces of, chlorine, yielded when treated as above 
abundant evidence of its presence. 

Physicians and pharmacists should therefore bear in mind that 
there is no soluhle oxide of iron; but what is sold as such, be it im- 
ported or made in this country, is very basic oxy chloride of iron. 
This being the case, the question naturally presents itself, whether 
such a solution cannot be obtained by saturating a solution of ferric 
chloride with hydrate of iron ? That question is easily answered if 
the behaviour of saline solutions is taken into consideration and the 
fact is remembered that, when solutions of ferric salts are precipi- 
tated by alkalies, the ferric hydrate will invariably retain small 
quantities of the precipitant, which cannot be removed by washing 
Avith water. These saline impurities, minute as they may be, are 
sufficient to prevent the formation of the very basic oxychloride ; or 
if formed it becomes insoluble in the liquid, and nothing but dialysis 
or considerable dilution with distilled water can dissolve it again. 
To obtain it of the maximum strength indicated by Graham (5 per 
cent.) and also adopted by the Phai'maceutical Society of Paris, 
dialysis appears to be unavoidable. 

As to the advantage of the dialysed over the oxychloride made by 


saturation -vrith hydrate of iron, that is best ascertained by com- 
paring tlieir taste, which in the former is scarcely astringent, while 
that of the latter is distinctly ferruginous. A preparation imported 
from Germany, called ferrum oxydatum dialysatum, which was 
received and examined by the author, appeared to have been made 
by saturation alone, or by incomplete dialysis ; for its reaction is dis- 
tinctly acid and its taste quite styptic. Some French preparations, 
sold by the same name, were found to be superior to the German in 
both respects ; but one yielded only 3"3 per cent, of solid matter, 
another less than half that quantity. A 5 per cent, solution of 
dialysed iron should yield 3 grains of dry residue when GO grains 
of it are carefully evaporated to complete dryness. 

The characteristics of a 5 per cent, solution of dialysed iron may 
be stated to be — 

1. The deep brown-red colour, which in thin layers is perfectly 

2. The freedom from odour and taste, it being merely faintly 
astringent to the palate. 

3. The absence of even slight acid reaction to test paper ; and 

4. The behaviour to tannin and to saline solutions (even spring 
water), as stated above. 

It is best given by itself upon sugar, or mixed with some simple 
syrup which is free from acid. It should be mentioned yet that the 
same preparation has made its appearance in Austria as catalytic 

Note upon a Reaction of Emetine. F. B. Power. (Amer. Journ. 
Pharm., 1877, 391.) A solution of chlorinated lime produces with 
emetine a bright orange or lemon yellow coloration, and is con- 
veniently employed by touching a trace of the alkaloid^ upon a porce- 
lain plate with a drop of the alkaline solution : the reaction being 
much favoured by the addition of a drop of acetic or other weak 
acid, to insure the liberation of the hypochlorous acid, upon which 
the reaction apparently depends, as chlorine is incapable of produc- 
ing the coloration, which is permanent and maybe quite indefinitely 

A few drops of a solution of one part of emetine, in 1000 parts of 
water, when evaporated to dryness and brought in contact with a 
drop of the alkaline solution, readily produces the coloration ; and 
with a solution containing one part of the alkaloid in 5000 parts of 
water, the yellow coloration is still perceptible. 

In view of the isolation of the alkaloid when mixed with compli- 
cated organic substances, it must be remembered that it is not ab- 


sorbed from acid, but very readily from alkaline solutions by amylic 
alcohol, chloroform, benzol, and petroleum benzin. 

The reaction may also be employed as a means of testing the 
value of various species of ipecacuanha. If a gram of the root of 
GeplueUs ipecacuanha in fine powder, or the cortical portion therein 
contained, be treated according to the process described by Prof. 
Fliickiger for the isolation of emetine, i.e., mixed with a small 
amount of quicklime and a few drops of water, the mixture allowed 
to dry upon the water bath, subsequently exhausted by chloroform, 
and the filtrate allowed to evaporate in a capsule containing a few 
drops of dilute acetic acid, the nearly colourless residue thus ob- 
tained affords with the alkaline solution the characteristic color- 

The root of Richardsonia scahra, Lin., or undulated ipecacuanha, 
which is occasionally quoted as a source of emetine, when similarly 
treated does not produce this reaction, a fact which may confirm 
the supposition already entertained, that this root is destitute of 

Detection of Sugar in Glycerin. A. Schillberg. (Pharmaceut. 
Centralhalle, 1877, 115.) Pure glycerin when boiled with an equal 
volume of hydrochloric acid (containing about 25 per cent, of HCl) 
remains colourless; but if the least admixture of sugar be present, a 
yellow or yellowish red coloration is produced. The glycerin takes 
no part in the reaction, as the same coloration is produced on heat- 
ing a weak aqueous solution of sugar with the acid. Accoi'ding to 
the author this reaction is the same which W. W. Stoddart con- 
sidered to be duQ to the colouring matter of saffron (see Year-Booh 
of Pharmacy^ 1876, 494). 

Cochineal Testing. J. M. Merrick. {Zeitschr. filr Analyt.-Ghem., 
XV., 41)3.) In determining the value of a sample of cochineal by 
titration of its colouring matter with potassium permanganate, as 
previously described by the author (^Zeitschr. fur Analyt.-Ghem., xi., 
230), it should be understood that there is a marked difference be- 
tween black and silver cochineal in their behaviour with the reagent 
named. If permanganate be added to solutions of the colouring 
matter of the two kinds until both show the same yellow coloiir, 
no farther change will be observed for some time in either ; but if 
the mixtures be allowed to stand for 8 to 12 hours, that obtained 
from the black cochineal will aj^pear deep red, whereas the other 
remains still unaltered. To avoid errors it is necessary, therefore, 
to keep standard samples of both kinds of cochineal, so that the 
sample tested may be compared with a sample of its own kind. 


Sclerotic Acid. The Preparation and Properties of Sclerotic 
Acid. Prof. G. Dragendorff and M. Podwissotzky. {Neio 
Bemedies, from Pharm. Zeit. fur liussland, 1877, No. 5.) In a 
previous report on the constituents of ergot (a summary of which 
will be found in the Year-Book of Pho.rmacij, 187G, p. 2-i7), the 
authors announced the isolation of a proximate principle of an acid 
character, possessing in a high degree the physiological properties of 
the drug. In a more detailed report of their researches subsequently 
published, they furnish a full account of their method of preparing 
this principle, which they have named " sclerotic acid." 

Very finely powdered ergot is exhausted with distilled water, the 
solution concentrated in vacuo, and the residuary liquid mixed with 
an equal volume of 95 per cent, alcohol. This causes the precipita- 
tion of a peculiar slimy substance, scleromucin, together with a 
portion of the salts and the greater part of the suspended fatty 
matter. The mixture having been allowed to stand on ice for 
twenty-four or forty-eight hours, it is filtered and the filtrate mixed 
with a f uz'ther quantity of 95 per cent, alcohol, sufficient to precipi- 
tate all the sclerotic acid in combination with the bases (chiefly as 
calcium sclerotate). The separation of the precipitate is promoted 
as before by placing the mixture ou ice for some days. This causes 
the deposited mass, which has a brownish colour, to adhere firmly 
to the walls of -the vessel, so as to permit the supernatant liquid to 
be easily poured ofi". The precipitate is kneaded with alcohol of 80 
per cent., and immediately thereafter dissolved in a sulficieut quan- 
tity of 40 per cent, alcohol, when the remainder of the scleromucin 
and another larger portion of the foreign salts are left behind. The 
filtered liquid is now mixed with absolute alcohol, whereby sclerotic 
acid is precipitated in conjunction with certain bases and other sub- 
stances. The impure product, when carefully dried over sulj^huric 
acid, was found on analysis to contain 8"5 per cent, of potassium, 
about 036 per cent, calcium, 4"3 per cent, sodium, 2' 74 per cent, 
phosphoric and 3'4 per cent, silicic acid ; or altogethei", 12'9 per cent- 
of ash. 

The greater part of these admixtures may be removed and the 
sclerotic acid obtained free, by adding, before the final precipitation 
with absolute alcohol, a considerable quantity of hydrochloric acid 
(for every 100 c.c. of solution, 5-6 grams of the acid, sp. gr. I'lOO), 
allowing to stand at ordinary temperature for a few hours, and then 
proceeding to precipitate. In this manner the amount of ash may 
be brought down to 3 per cent., and by repeated solution, addition of 
acid, and precipitation, it may further be reduced to less than 2 per 


cent, or 3 per cent. A more complete purification is difficult and 
hazardou.s, becaiise every addition of hydrochloric acid causes the 
decomposition of a small quantity of the sclerotic acid, while at the 
same time a portion of the latter is lost by remaining in solution. 

The resulting product, although not chemically pure, is neverthe- 
less, so to say, physiologically pure, as it always produces constant 
and identical results, no matter from what sample of (good) ergot 
it was obtained. 

Sclerotic acid is entirely odourless and tasteless. In aqueous 
solution it has a faint acid reaction, and decomposes calcium car 
bonate slowly, even on warming. Boiling nitric acid of 1"200 sp. 
gr. produces a little picric and oxalic acid, and a new substance, 
which assumes a bright yellow colour on adding ammonia or other 
alkalies. More concentrated nitric acid converts it into picric, 
oxalic, mucic, tartaric, and aposorbic acids. It is not a glucoside ; 
nor does it lose its effectiveness, on the addition of dilute sulphuric 
or hydrochloric acids ; on the contrary, the latter appears to inten- 
sify its effects. Boiling alcohol, in presence of sulphuric acid, extracts 
it from ergot in small quantities, cold alcohol not at all. It is there- 
fore possible to abstract by means of cold alcohol and sulphuric acid 
a portion of the colouring matter from ergot, before extracting the 
sclerotic acid with water. But, unfortunately, the aqueous solutions 
(which carry with them a portion of the alcohol and sulphuric acid) 
spurt or bump so energetically during the distillation, that this 
modification of the process becomes unadvisable. 

It might be supposed that sclerotic acid is not an acid, but an 
alkaloid, as it yields with phosphomolybdic acid a yellow, and with 
tannin an almost colourless, precipitate. But other alkaloidal preci- 
pitants are without action upon it, and only lead acetate with 
ammonia produces a strong flocculent precipitate. 

When properly purified, sclerotic acid is hygroscopic but not deli- 
quescent, which circumstance distinguishes it advantageously from 
the commercial purified extracts of ergot. It is found in these in 
greater or lesser quantity according as a weaker or a stronger 
alcohol was employed in exhausting the ergot. A few commercial 
extracts were found to be very deficient. In Bonjean's and Wer- 
nich's prepai-ations and in Wigger's osmazom it exists in consider- 
able quantity, while scleromucin is almost entirely absent, as is the 
case in all alcoholic extracts of ergot. In ZweifFel's preparation the 
acid occurs ina tolerably pui'e state, in a less pure condition in Buch- 
heim's. In alcoholic tinctures of ergot, and in Wigger's ergotin, it 
is only present in traces or is entirely absent. 


Good ergot contains about 4 to 45 per cent, of the acid, although, 
samples are met with which contain scarcely 1*5 to 2 per cent. 

The Alkaloids in Agaricus Muscarius. E. Harnack. (Zeitschr. 
des oesterr. Apotli. Ver., from Chem. Centralhlatt, vii., 560.) Koppe 
and Schmiedeberg have isolated from this fungus a poisonous 
alkaloid, to which they have given the name " muscarine." 

The author has obtained a second alkaloid, which, however, is 
devoid of poisonous properties, by treating the aqueous extract of 
the fungus with water acidified with hydrochloric acid, evaporating 
to the point of crystallization, and pressing the crystalline mass thus 
obtained between filtering paper, which absorbs the very hygroscopic 
salt of muscarine, leaving the hydrochlorate of the second alkaloid. 

The formula of muscarine is Cj H^g N Oo, that of amanitine, the 
second alkaloid just referred to, C5 H^g N 0, which is the same as 
that of choline. Amanitine, however, is not identical with choline 
as by oxidation by chromic acid it does not yield betaine, but is par- 
tially converted into muscarine. 

Chemistry of the Barks of the Oak, WUlovr, and Elm. E. 
Johansen. (Juudi. GJtem. Soc, from Arcliiv der Pliarmacie [3], 
ix., 210-248.) The investigation was undertaken with the view of 
ascertaining the nature of the different tannin-like substances con- 
tained in the barks of the oak, willow, and elm, and it was hoped, 
by isolating these and carefully examining their properties and the 
natuie of their principal compounds, to ascertain whether they were 
analogous or even identical. By a long and elaborate process, the 
different tannins were separated from the three barks in something 
like a pure state. 

Oah Tannin is a red-brown, amorphous, glistening body, easily 
soluble in alcohol, slightly soluble in ether, and forms an imper- 
fectly clear solution in water. In its behaviour to litmus paper, 
metallic salts, and alkaloids, it is completely analogous to gallotan- 
nic acid. Dried at 110° it lost 848 percent, of water. On analysis 
it gave 64"61 per cent, of carbon, 5"32 per cent, of hydrogen, and 
40'07 per cent, of oxygen, agreeing approximately with Wagner's 
formula, CuHj^Og, which requires 5.385 per cent, of carbon and 
5'13 per cent, of hydrogen. It contains also 0'77 per cent, of nitro- 
gen and 0"13 per cent, of ash. 

Wdloio Tannin consists of a brown-red amorphous body, with a 
slightly astringent taste; easily soluble in alchohol, slightly soluble 
in ether, and forming a thick solution with water. With ferric salts 
it gives a deep black colour, turned violet-red by alkalies. It pre- 
f.ipitates murcuric nitrate and chloride, and zinc and copper sul- 


phates, as well as albumen, starch, and alkaloids. At 120° the 
■willow tannin lost lO'lO per cent, of water, and on analysis gave 
61'13 per cent, of carbon, 4"78 per cent, of hydrogen, and 4409 per 
cent, of oxygen. It contains also 1'88 per cent, of nitrogen and 1'63 
per cent, of ash. Another specimen, prepared in a different manner, 
though possessing the same reactions as the last, contained 51 '26 
per cent, of carbon and 5*99 per cent, of hydrogen, besides having 
independently 0'44 per cent, of nitrogen and 1'42 per cent, of ash. 

Elm Tannin. — In appearance and solubility this variety resembles 
oak tannin. With ferric chloride, it gives a dirty green precipitate, 
turned violet-red by sodium hydrate. With ferrous sulphate it gives 
a pure green precipitate. It precipitates lead and copper acetates, 
and zinc sulphate after some time. With zinc chloride, mercuric 
nitrate, calcium acetate, etc., it gave the usual reactions. At 110° 
elm tannin loses 3"32 per cent, of water, and, on analysis, gives 44'54 
per cent, of carbon, 4' 72 per cent, of hydrogen, and 50' 71 per cent, 
of oxygen, besides containing 1'21 per cent, of ash. 

The salts of these three tannin acids (quercitannic, salitannic, and 
ulmotannic) were next examined. 

Lead Salts. — Quercitannate of lead is a chocolate-brown, amor- 
phous mass, slightly soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol or ether. 
On heating it to 110° it lost 9"66 per cent, of water ; and on analy- 
sis it gave 22'85 per cent, of carbon, 1'47 per cent, of hydrogen, 9"14 
per cent, of oxygen, and 36" 54 per cent, of lead oxide. The salitan- 
nate of lead resembled the last body, and on drying at 120° lost 4'50 
per cent, of water, and on analysis gave 22 •53 per cent, of carbon, 
1'35 per cent, of hydrogen, and 5328 per cent, of lead oxide. By 
fractionally precipitating with a lead salt, both these acids gave salts 
of varying constitution. Ulmotannate of lead was greyer than the 
last body, and on analysis gave 21"36 per cent, of carbon, 1'51 per 
cent, of hydrogen, 10'32 per cent, of oxygen, and 66"81 per cent, of 
lead oxide. 

Copper Salts. — Quercitannate of copper is a brown substance, in- 
soluble in alcohol and ether, and sparingly soluble in water. At 110° 
it lost 12'23 per cent, of moisture, and on analysis gave 3999 per 
cent, of carbon, 2'38 per cent, of hydrogen, 28'14 per cent, of oxygen, 
and 29 49 per cent, of copper oxide. Salitannate of copper forms 
a dark reddish brown salt, which lost at 120° 12"4 per cent, of 
moisture, and on analysis gave 39"36 per cent, of carbon, 235 per 
cent, of hydrogen, 27'83 per cent, of oxygen, and 3046 per cent, of 
copper oxide. Ulmotannate of copper is chocolate-brown, and after 
drying at 110° gave 3968 per cent, of carbon, 1-93 per cent, of 


hydrogen, 17'98 per cent, of oxygen, and 40"41 per cent, of copper 

Tin Salts. — Quercitannate of tin is a greenish brown substance, 
insoluble in alcohol and ether, and only sparingly soluble in water. 
At 110° it loses 5'98 per cent, of moisture, and on analysis gave 
30'32 per cent, of carbon, 2o6 per cent, of hydrogen, 20G9 per 
cent, of oxygen, and 40'43 per cent, of stannous oxide. The fornuila 
C3oHngOj3. 3 Sn agrees fairly with these numbers. Salitannate 
of tin is a chocolate-coloured body, which loses 7' 18 per cent, of 
moisture at 120°, and on analysis gives 3o"17 per cent, of carbon, 
2"79 per cent, of hydrogen, 1505 per cent, of oxygen, and 4G"50 per 
cent, of stannous oxide. Ulraotannate of tin on drying at 110° gave 
38"99 per cent, of carbon, 2"40 per cent, of hydrogen, 13"66 per cent, 
of oxygen, and 44*95 per cent, of stannous oxide. 

When these different tannins were acted on by dilute acids in the 
usual manner, as Grabowski has already shown, the oak tannin 
yields an easily decomposed saccharide and a crystalline body. The 
amount of these bodies obtained varies with the strength of acid 
employed. On purification the saccharide is obtained as a brown 
substance, forming a dark brown bitter syrup. Similar bodies were 
obtained from the willow tannin. On analysis the saccharide ob- 
tained from the willow tannin gave 36*94 per cent, of carbon, 519 
per cent, of hydrogen, and 5787 per cent, of oxygen. Elm tannin, 
on the contrary, yields no crystalline body, but only a saccharide 
resembling in every respect the last. 

On fusing with potassium hydrate, the oak tannin yields, amongst 
other products, butyric acid amongst the volatile products, and 
protocatechuic acid from the residue. Willow tannin, similarly 
treated, yielded acetic and butyric acid amongst the volatile pro- 
ducts, whilst the residue in the retort contained a body whose 
identity could not be satisfactorily made out. Elm tannin, treated 
in the same manner, yielded acetic and butyric acids among the 
volatile products, and oxyphenic acid in the residue. 

Artificial OU of Mustard. Dr. E. Mylius. (Archiv der Pharm., 
[3], X., 207.) Some time ago Dr. Schacht stated at a meeting of 
Berlin pharmacists that owing to the identity of artificially prepared 
oil of black mustard with the genuine oil, the former might with 
perfect propriety be substituted for the latter in pharmacy. Having 
observed a decided difference in the odour of the two preparations, the 
author submitted a quantity of the best artificial oil he could obtain 
to fractional distillation, and a thoi'ough chemical examination of 
the fractions. He found 1000 parts of the oil to contain — 


Allyl Sulphocyanide .... 922 pajts> 
Carbon Bisulphide .... 8 ,, 

Hydrocyanic Acid .... 0*2 ,, 

Polysulphides (chiefly allyl trisiilphide) 40 ,, 

Bodies not volatile without decomposition, 
containing both nitrogen and sulphur 30 ,, 

From these results the author draws the conckision that Until a 
satisfactory and inexpensive method of purifying the artiBcial oil of 
mustard, as met with in commerce, can be devised, this oil ought not 
to take the place of the genuine product in pharmacy. The oil ex- 
amined by him was probably the nnpurified product of the diy 
distillation of a mixture of allyl-sulphate and sulphocyanide of potas- 
sium. An oil prepared from iodide of allyl and sulphocyanide of 
potassium would be more expensive than the genuine article. 

Determination of Potassium as Potassium Platinochloride in 
Presence of Chlorides of the Metals of the Alkaline Earths. Prof. 
R. Fresenius. (^Zeitschr. fur Analyt.-Ghem., xvi., 63-65; Jourri. 
Ghem. Soc, 1877, 218.) This method, at the commencement, does 
not differ from that usually employed. The concentrated solution 
is treated in a small porcelain dish, -with excess of pure platinum 
chloride in excess, evaporated on a water bath (below 100°) to a 
syrupy consistence, carefully mixed with alcohol of 80 per cent., 
and left a short time with frequent stirring. By this means the 
platino-potassium chloride, insoluble in alcohol, is separated from 
the sodium salt, which goes into solution. 

At this stage the method begins to differ from the usual one. 
The alcoholic solution is poured through a small filter, and the re- 
sidue in the dish treated with alcohol, till the potassium salt appears 
pure. This is then collected on the filter and washed thoroughly 
with alcohol of the same strength. The filter is then dried, to 
ensure the complete expulsion of the alcohol. If the quantity of 
the salt thus collected be large, it may be .separated as much as 
possible from the filter-jmper, from which the remaining salt is 
removed by boiling water ; the solution is then evaporated to dry- 
ness in a small platinum dish. The main bulk is then added, the 
whole dried at 130°, and weighed. If the quantity is small, the 
precipitate may be wholly washed off the filter into the platinum 
dish, evaporated, and weighed as above. 

To ascertain whether the weighed potassio-platinum salt is pure, 
treat it with repeated quantities of hot water, leave it to settle, and 
decant the solution into a dish. A little platinum chloride is then 
added, to convert any sodium chloride into the platinum-sodium 



salt, the solution evaporated as above almost to dryness, and mixed 
with alcohol of 80 per cent. The deposited potassium salt is filtered 
off and washed with alcohol, dried on the filter, and washed with 
boiling water iu a platinum dish, into which the undissolved bulk of 
the original precipitate is brought. The whole is evaporated to dry- 
ness, dried at 130^, and weighed. Should any alteration in weight 
have taken place, the previous precipitate was impure, and the 
present weight may be regarded as the right one. Pure plati no- 
potassium chloride must dissolve entirely in boiling water. 

As regards the accui-acy of the above method in presence of other 
alkaline salts, the following results are insti'uctive. In a solution 
of potassium chloride, the potassium was determined as above, at 
first in the normal solution, then with addition of chlorides of 
barium, strontium, calcium, and magnesium respectively. The re- 
sults show that the method maintains its accuracy in presence of 
the chlorides of any of the alkali-metals ; but that when magnesium, 
barium, and strontium respectively are present, the results were 
very slightly in excess. To obtain perfectly accurate results the 
process recommended above should be strictly adhered to. 

Note on the Volumetric Estimation of Phosphoric and Arsenic 
Acids by Uranium. G. Briigelmanu. (Fharin. Centralhalle, 
1877, 12-i, from Zeitsclir. fur Analyi.-Ckem.) The author suggests the 
following modification of the uranium process generally employed : — 
The aqueous or acid solution of the phosphate or arseniate is mixed 
with a quantity of solution of sodium hydrate just suificient to im- 
part to the mixture a distinct alkaline reaction. Acetic acid is then 
added in excess, and the titration with uranium solution carried 
out in the usual manner, potassium ferrocyauide being used as an 
indicator. Xo addition of sodium or ammonium acetate is made 
before the titration. In this way only a very small quantity of 
alkaline acetate is contained in the mixture, and the smallest excess 
of uranium will be readily indicated by the ferrocyauide, whereas iu 
the presence of larger quantities of acetate the sensitiveness of the 
reaction is considerably diminished, so as to necessitate the correc- 
tion usually made in this titration. The author's process renders 
this correction superfluous. 

Detection of Artificial Colouring Matters in Wine. A. Dupre. 
(Analyst, 187G, 26.) The colouring matter of pure red wine does 
not pass through the dialyser. The dialysate from pure wine is 
therefore colourless, or shows but a slight purplish coloration, such 
as water would assume on the addition of a small quantity of the 
the wine. A yellow ov brownish yellow dialysate indicates an 



adulteration with logwood, brazil wood, or cochineal, the colouring 
matters of which may then be identified by the chemical and optical 
tests usually employed for this purpose. The ammoniacal solution 
of the colouring matter of cochineal yields thi'ee well-marked absorp- 
tion bands. 

Detection of Fuchsine in Wine. The following methods are re- 
commended by E. Jacquemin in the Gomi)tes Rendus, Ixsxiii., 70: — 

1. A small quantity of gun cotton is heated for a few minutes in 
10-20 c.c. of the wine, and then washed with water. The natui'e of 
the coloration (if any) imparted to the cotton is now identified by 
means of solution of ammonia, which decolorises rosauiline but 
turns archil violet. 

2. 100 c.c. of the wine are boiled to expel the alcohol, and then 
boiled for some time with white Berlin wool, previously moistened 
with water. The colour imparted to the wool by fuchsine is re- 
tained after washing, and may be distinguished from archil by 

3. 100-200 c.c. of the wine are boiled to expel the alcohol, then 
allowed to cool, mixed with ammonia in excess, and shaken with 
ether. By immersing white wool in the ethereal solution, and 
evaporating the latter, the wool acquires the characteristic colour 
of fuchsine. 

C. Husson (Ibid., 199) suggests the following mode of testing : — 

Place a few c.c. of the wine in a phial and add ammonia, then 
immerse a piece of white Berlin wool in the mixture, withdraw it 
after it is well soaked, and pour upon it a drop of dilute acetic acid. 
In the presence of fuchsine the wool thus acquires a red tint. 

Pure fuchsine is not very poisonous. 

The method of estimating the arsenic which may have been intro- 
duced with the fuchsine into the wine, depends upon the fact that 
if arseniuretted hydrogen be passed into a solution of iodine in beti- 
zine, the colour of that solution is rapidly destroyed, whilst it is not 
affected by pure hydrogen. 

It was found by experiment that O'Ol gram of arsenic in the form 
of arseniuretted hydrogen was decomposed by 0*02 gram of iodine. 
The process is to be practised as follows : — 

Having decomposed the suspected matter by the ordinary pro- 
cesses, so as to obtain the arsenic as a potash-salt, this is dis- 
solved in distilled water, and the solution divided into two parts : 
one is reserved for qualitative examination, the other divided into 
two. in one of which the arsenic is approximately determined by 
pouring it into a Marsh's apparatus which is evolving pure hydro- 


gen, aud passing the gas into a measured quantity of a standard 
solution of iodine in benzine, and as this is decolorised, gradually 
adding more from a burette until the decolorisation ceases. In the 
other part of the solution the quantity of arsenic is exactly deter- 
mined by pouring it into a Marsh's apparatus as before, and allow- 
ing the evolved gas to pass through a series of about six test-tubes, 
each containing a known amount of iodine : for example, in the 1st 
0-01 gram; 2nd and 3rd, 0-005 gram; 4th, O'OOl gram ; 5th, 0-0005 
gram ; and 6th, 00001 gram; but these quantities maybe varied ac- 
cording to the indications afforded by the previous experiment. By 
noting the number of test-tubes coloured, the exact quantity of 
arsenic introduced into the Marsh's apparatus can be ascertained. 

The process recommended by L. Lamattena (Ibid., 564) is as 
follows : — 

Fuchsiue may be detected by mixing 100 grams of the wine with 
15 grams of coarsely powdered manganese dioxide, shaking for 12 or 
15 minutes, and filtering through a double filter-paper. If the wine 
is pure it passes through colourless ; if adulterated, some artificial 
colouring matter has been used. If pure peroxide is used, this pro- 
cess is unexceptionable ; but if the manganese contains iron, the 
acids of the wine dissolve it, and it forms an insoluble lake with the 
colours which remain on the filter. If in this case the residue on 
the filter is treated with alcohol, the fuchsine dissolves, aud may be 
immediately recognised by adding strong acetic acid and a few drops 
of ammonia. 

Another process is described by E. Bouilhon (Ibid., 858) : — 
500 c.c. of the wine are placed in a capsule, raised to a boil, 
and evaporated down to 125 c.c. ; the capsule is then withdrawn 
from the fire, and 20 grams crystalline hydrate of baryta are added. 
The mixture is agitated to facilitate the reaction, allowed to cool, 
poui-ed upon a filter, and the precipitate washed with distilled water, 
so as to obtain in all 125 c.c. of filti'ate. It is then necessary to 
ascertain, by the addition of a few crystals of hydrate of baryta to 
the filtered liquid, that the precipitation of the colouring matter 
of the wine is complete ; if not, moi'e hydrate of baryta must be 
added, and the liquid re-filtered. It is then introduced into a flask 
containing about 250 c.c, with 50-60 c.c. of pure ether, strongly 
shaken, and allowed to settle. When the ether is completely sepa- 
rated from the aqueous liquids, it is drawn ofi" by means of a pipette, 
and poured into a porcelain capsule. A drop of acetic acid at 8° is 
added, 3 or 4 drops of di.stilled water, and a little white unwoven 
silk, consisting of ten threads a centimetre in length. If the quan- 



tity of magenta contained in the wine is at all notable, acetic acid 
produces at once a rose coloration ; but when only minute traces 
are present, the ether is allowed entirely to evaporate. The residue 
consists of a small quantity of aqueous liquid, in which the silk 
soaks. The capsule is then very gently heated, so as to evaporate 
the balk of this liquid and concentrate the traces of colouring 
matter in a few drops, thus favouring its fixation upon the silk. 
This process, if carefully executed, reveals one hundred-millionth 
part of fuchsine in wine. 

The following directions are given by Gr. M. Fordos (Ibid., 980) : 

10 c.c. of the wine are shaken with 1 c.c. of pure ammonia, 5 to 
10 c.c. of chloroform are then added, the whole well shaken, and the 
chloroform, after separation by a tap-funnel, heated in a porcelain 
dish with a piece of white silk immersed in it ; when the chloro- 
form is nearly evaporated, a little water is added, and the heating 
continued. All the fuchsine is thus fixed in the silk, which becomes 
more or less rose coloured if fuchsine is present. 

This method permits of the detection of extremely small quanti- 
ties of fuchsine, especially if the wine be concentrated, and a very 
small piece of silk be used. Quantitative results might be obtained 
by means of a series of pieces of silk coloured more or less deeply, 
with which the piece coloured by the wine under examination might 
be compared. 

On page 1045 of the same journal a modification of this process 
is desci'ibed by J. Fordos : — 

To 10 c.c. of the wine to be tested for fuchsine 1 c.c. of am- 
monia and 10 c.c. of chloroform are added. The test-tube is to 
be several times inverted, but not shaken, and the chloroform 
drawn off by means of a tap-funnel ; a little water is added to it, 
and then it is saturated with acetic acid. The fuchsine now sepa- 
rates from the chloroform, and its aqueous solution floats on that 
liquid. Another modification is to use only 5 c.c. of chloroform, 
and when this has settled to the bottom of the tube, to drop in a 
crystal of citric acid. The ammonia being saturated, the fuchsine 
appears on the crystal. 

New Researches on Gallium. Lecoq de Boisbaudran. (Journ. 
Chein. Soc, from Gomptes Bendus, Ixxxii., 1076.) Pure gallium melts 
at 29"5° and liquefies on being held between the fingers. It remains 
in a state of superfusion with great facility, which explains how a 
globule of it may remain liquid for several weeks, even though the 
temperature may occasionally fall nearly to zero. When solidified 
the metal is somewhat hard, even at a temperature only a few 


degrees short of its fusing point ; it possesses, however, some m.ille- 
abihty, and may be cut with a knife. When melted it adheres to 
glass, forming a mirror which is whiter than that produced by 
mercury. Heated to redness in air gallium oxidises only superficially, 
and does not volatilise. Hot nitric acid dissolves it, but the cold 
acid scarcely attacks it. The density of the metal is 4"7 at 15°, 
determined as nearly as possible on 0"0G4 gram weight of it. 

The metal was obtained by electrolysing an ammouiacal solution 
of gallium su^lphate ; its hydrochloric acid solution gave the spec- 
troscopic lines of gallium, and much more feebly those of zinc. 

The oxide of gallium is very soluble in potash, but only slightly 
so in ammonia; but the metal deposited from the latter is solid, and 
from the former it is liquid. 

The metal is deposited upon the platinum negative electrode in 
minute globules, from which dilute hydrochloric acid dissolves it 
with rapid liberation of hydrogen. The hydrochloric solution was 
not coloured by potassium iodide, ammonia, or ammonium sulphide. 

Chemical Reactions of Gallium. Lecoq de Boisbaudran. 
(Ckem. News, October, 1876.) Solutions o? pure gallium, mixed with 
acid acetate of ammonia, are not rendered turbid by sulphuretted 
hydrogen; but if zinc is present the sulphide of this metal is charged 
with gallium, but the liquid is not entirely freed from it. If the 
salts of zinc are not plentiful enough to draw down at once all the 
gallium precipitable by sulphuretted hydrogen, it must be added in 
small portions until these products no longer give the ray Ga a 
•417"0 in the spectroscope. Only slight traces of gallium remain 
then in the liquid. Oa proceeding thus, the amount in the pre- 
cipitates appears to remain at first almost constant, or at least to 
decrease slowly, and then more and more rapidly, thus leaving but 
a small trace of gallium in the liquid These observations point 
to a combination between the two substances, or perhaps more 
probably to a surface-attraction analogous to the fixation of a 
Goloui'ing matter upon a mordant. It is known that salts of zinc 
slightly acid are precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen, the action 
being limited by the quantity of strong acid set at liberty. If the 
experiment is made with a chloride of zinc containing gallium, a 
notable quantity of this metal falls along with the sulphide of zinc. 
An ammoniacal solution of the salts of gallium and zinc is pre- 
cipitated by hydrosulphate of ammonia. An excess of the reagent 
does not remove the gallium, unless, indeed, the sulphide of zinc 
is in such small quantity as to dissolve also. The case is different 
when the salt of gallium is pure. The ammoniacal solution is 


not rendered tnrbid by the sulphide of ammonium. If a neutral or 
slightly acid solution of the chlorides of zinc and gallium is submitted 
to fractionated precipitation with sulphide of ammonium containing 
free ammonia, the gallium is concentrated in the first products. If an 
ammoniacal solution of zinc and gallium is submitted to the same treat- 
ment, the gallium, on the contrary, accumulates in the last precipitates. 

A New Process for the Extraction of Gallium. Lecoq de 
Boisbaudran. (Comptcs Eendus, Ixxxiii., G3G.) The gelatinous 
precipitate obtained by treating acid solutions of tbe gallium-bear- 
ing mineral with excess of zinc, is dis.solved in hydrochloric acid ; 
sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through the liquid ; and after the 
gas has been expelled from the filtrate, the latter is fractionally pre- 
cipitated by sodium carbonate, until gallium ceases to be throwTi 
down, and the precipitate no longer yields the characteristic spectrum 
of the metal. The precipitates are dissolved in sulphuric acid, and 
the solution is evaporated until vapours of sulphuric acid cease to 
be evolved. The residue is treated with cold water, and after 
dilution the solution is heated to boiling, when a sub-salt of gallium 
is precipitated and separated by filtering while the liquid is hot. 
This basic salt is dissolved in a small quantity of sulphuric acid, a 
slight excess of caustic potash is added, and the filtrate is treated 
for some time with a current of carbonic acid gas, by which gallium 
oxide is precipitated. This is dissolved in the smallest possible 
quantity of sulphui'ic acid, a small excess of slightly acid ammonium 
acetate is added, and sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through the 
liquid, which is then filtered, diluted, and heated to boiling. The 
greater part of the gallium is now precipitated, and is separated by 
filtering the hot liquid. The precipitate is dissolved in sulphuric 
acid, caustic potash is added in slight excess, and the solution is 
filtered and submitted to electrolysis. The metallic gallium is easily 
separated from the platinum pole by pressing with the fingers under 
warm water, and the product is purified by treatment with nitric 
acid free from chlorine. 

The Physical Properties of Gallium. Lecoq de Boisbaudran. 
(Covijites Renclus, Ixxxiii., 611.) The author has prepared more 
than half a gram of gallium ; when liquid it has a silver-white 
lustre, but when crystallized it shows a tinge of blue and loses its 
bi'illiancy. Its crystalline form is octohedral. Its melting point, 
averaged from six determinations, is 30'15°. It is hardly acted on 
by nitric acid diluted with its own volume of water. Its specific 
gravity is o'OoG; when crystallized under water, it decrepitates 
slightly when melted. 






Wood Oil. Prof. F. A. Fliickiger. (Pharin. Journ.,Srd series, 
vii., 2). In a note communicated to the Archiv der Pharmacie, for 
May, the author states that he has found that the ethereal oil of 
dipterocarpus balsam, known as gurgan balsam, or wood oil, when 
dissolved in about 20 parts carbon bisulphide, and a drop of a 
cooled mixture of equal parts of sulphuric and nitric acids added, 
takes a splendid violet colour. A single drop of the ethereal oil is 
sufficient to produce the reaction, aud the colour lasts sevei-al hours. 
It is not prevented by the presence of resin or by copaiva balsam; so 
that the reaction takes place with the crude gurgun balsam, or even 
when that is mixed with eight times its volume of copaiva balsam. 
The reaction can therefore be used to detect the presence of gurgun 
balsam in copaiva balsam. Under the same conditions, fish liver oil 
and oil of valerian are also coloured a beautiful violet ; but only 
transiently so. In order to exclude fish oil from the test, it is re- 
commended to distil off" the ethereal oil ; although, on account of its 
high boiling point (2-50° to 260° C), this is not an agreeable task. 
Only a few drops are required, however, for the test. 

Should a wood oil not correspond to this reaction, the author 
thinks it might probably be due to the fact that some dipterocarpus 
trees yield a varying balsam. The balsam is obtained in large 
quantities from the following species : — Dipteivcarpus turhinatus, 
Gaertn. (syn. D. Icevis, Ham. ; D. indiats, Bedd.), D. incanus, Roxb.; 
D. zeylanicus, Thw. ; D. trinei'vis, Bluxae ; D. littoralis, Bl.; D. alatus; 
Roxb. ; D. hespidns, Thw.; D. gra.cilis, Bl. ; I), retusus, Bl. All these 
species occur in India, and in the Archipelago, and the last even in 
the Philippines. Their resinous juice is used very genei-ally as 
varnish, hence the name " -wood oil." It is hardly probable that 
they all yield a resin chemically and physically identical. The 
author has found that the oil distilled by him from undoubtedly 
true dipterocarpus balsam is dextrogyre ; whilst Werner, who first 
examined gurgun balsam in 1862, speaks of it as lievogyre. In all 
the specimens examined by the author to the present time, however, 
he has found the colour reaction constant. 


Another possible ground for failure in obtaining the reaction is its 
confusion with other licjuids used for simihxr purposes. The balsam 
obtained from Hardwichia pi)i)iata, Roxb., a legaminaceous plant, is 
used in Southern India in the same medical cases as copaiva balsam j 
but an authentic specimen in the author's possession is not fluor- 
escent like dipterocarpus balsam, and dissolved in carbon bisulphide 
gives only a yellow colour with the acid mixture. The author does 
not know, however, that it is ever there called " wood oil." 

A fat oil used in enormous quantities in Eastern Asia for paint 
and varnish, and also as a drastic medicine, and very generally 
called " wood oil," is obtained from the seeds of Aleurites cordata, 
Muller (syn. Dryandra cordata, Thunb. ; Elaeococca Vernicia, Sprgl. ; 
E. verrucosa, A. Juss), a euphorbiaceous tree. The tree is common 
in China and Japan, of very characteristic appearance, and is known 
in China as the " tung tree." The oils from the seeds of Ricinus 
and Groton tiglium ditFer in chemical properties and physiological 
action from most known oils ; how far such peculiarities occur prin- 
cipally in the Eicphorhiacece, is a question that yet requires answering. 
That the " wood oil " from the tung tree is a fat worthy of notice is 
shown by the experiments of Cloez. This chemist obtained from 
the seeds of Aleurites cordata, by means of carbon bisulphide, 41 per 
cent, of a fixed oil, forming a solid crystalline mass below 32° C. 
When, on the contrary, the seeds were treated with ether, an oil was 
obtained that did not solidify even at 18° C. But what is most 
surprising, is that when prepared either by pressure or by one 
of the solvents mentioned, and heated in the air to 200° C, it 
changes suddenly into a solid transparent jelly, which is no longer 
soluble in ether or carbon bisulphide. This change takes place 
also after a few days, when excluded from the air, under the in- 
fluence of light alone. The oil dries more rapidly than linseed oil. 
The principal acid in it was obtained in crystals that melted at 44°, 
but very rajDidly resinified, and therefore did not consist of linoleic 

The Therapeutic Properties of Arnica. Dr. Patze. (Neiv 
Remedies, July, 1876.) Strong opinions having been expressed by 
various writers that the external application of arnica is not only 
valueless but sometimes positively noxious, and that arnica lotion 
applied to excoriations may occasion severe outbreaks of acute in- 
flammation, the author offers the following remarks on the subject : — 

Experiments with arnica on horses have, according to Schuchardt, 
rendered the following results : small doses accelerated the pulse, 
raised the temperature of the skin, increased the secretion of urine, 


and caused tremor of the muscles. The violence of these phenomena 
increased with the augmentation of the dose, causing frequent eva- 
cuations of fjeces and urine, violent tremor, accelerated respiration, 
and prostration. Injections of an infusion of arnica-flowers into 
the veins caused considerable excitation, soon followed by intense 
languidness, vertigo, and even death ; and on examination, the organs 
of the chest and abdomen, the cerebrum and spine, were found en- 
gorged with blood. 

In man the series of symptoms are the following : any part of the 
arnica-plant applied to the skin causes an itching, burning sensa- 
tion, accompanied by redness ; though its fragrance is agreeable, it 
will, in closer proximity, cause sneezing, so much so, that the 
Savoyards are using it instead of snuff. Small doses of 4 to 10 
grains exert an irritating effect on the fauces and larynx, on the 
stomach and the alimentary canal, manifesting itself by a burning, 
scratching sensation, cardialgia, abdominal pains, nausea, belching, 
vomiting, frequent evacuations, the circulation is accelerated, accom- 
panied by increase of warmth of the body ; the secretions are in- 
creased, especially those of the urine, the skin, and the lungs. The 
continued use of the arnica will cause numbness of the head, vertigo, 
mental depression, restless sleep, oppression of the lungs, jerking 
pains like electric strokes, in the extremities, etc. ; increase of the 
dose will aggravate all these phenomena, especially the affections of 
the brain. 

The hot infusion acts more severely than the tincture, and the 
flowers are more exciting than the root. This series of symptoms 
indicates that arnica may find its place in all those diseases which 
manifest a character of torpor, wherever an acceleration of the 
circulation is desirable, in order to remove and scatter stagnating 

Arnica is in Germany so extensively and frequently used, that 
some apothecaries have to keep the infusion, by the quart, on hand, 
preparing it every morning fresh (5 j. of the flowers steeped for 15 
minutes in 6 ounces of boiling water). It has maintained its old 
reputation in a variety of cases, especially where the vitality of the 
nerve-centres, brain and spine, is oppressed ; in extravasations, 
paralysis consequent upon apoplectic strokes, rheumatism, catarrh, 
pleurisy and pneumonia, in traumatic commotions of the brain, in 
typhoid fevers with torpor and paralytic affections, etc. 

The external use of arnica is very limited, and especially contra- 
indicated in recent traumatic cases; it should never be applied 
before all tendency to inflammation is removed by the antiphlogistic 


applications ; it can therefore seldom find its place before the lapse 
of seven days after the injury; then, and not before then, the tinc- 
ture, properly diluted in combination with other remedies for the 
stimulation of the capillary vessels, may be applied, perhaps like 
this : — l]i. TinctnriB flor. Aruicce, 3 ss ; Aceti, 5 ss ; Aq. Camphoraj, 
5 vj. d. g. for external nse. 

Olive-tree Bark. L. Thibon. (Bepert. cle Pharm., 187G, 558.) 
This bark, which is favourably spoken of as a febrifuge, contains a 
principle which the author has named oliverine. It is prepared by 
evaporating an aqueous decoction of the bark to the consistence of 
a syrup, precipitating by strong alcohol, filtering, and precipitating 
the filtrate by oxalic acid. The filtrate from the last precipitate 
deposits the oliverine during evaporation. When purified it forms 
yellow granules having a very bitter taste. Dr. Fabry has admin- 
istei-ed the substance in doses of 0"1 to 0"3 gram four or five times 
a day, and speaks highly of its effects. It is recommended in cases 
where quinine is indicated. 

Goto Bark and its Crystallizahle Constituents. J. Jobst. (From 
Ber. cler deiitsch. Chem.-Ges., ix., 633; Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, vii.. 
495). The author reports that the crystallizable body some mouths 
since separated by him from Bolivian coto bark, and named by him 
" cotoin," bas since, on account of its excellent anti-diarrhceic action, 
been used to a considerable extent ; but unfortunately the importation 
of the crude material has not kept pace with the demand. After a 
lono- interval a larger parcel of coto bark came into his possession ; 
but the new bark showed marked ditferences in its exterior, which 
were also manifest in the taste and smell. Upon the extraction of 
the bark by the process given for cotoin, a body similar to cotoin, 
crystallizing in yellow flakes, was obtained, which, however, ^as 
not cotoin, and difi'ered from it essentially in its reactions. 

In the first place, the new body wants the biting taste of cotoin ; 
further, it is much more difficultly soluble in water, alcohol, ether, 
ammonia, and potash solution. Concentrated sulphuric acid does 
not give with it the characteristic reaction of cotoin, but only a 
yellow solution ; lead acetate causes no precipitate. 

The author proposes for this substance the name of " paracotoin," 
and states that in the last imported coto bark several other crystal- 
lizable bodies are contained in smaller quantities. 

Upon making complaint respecting the varying quality of the 
bark, the author was told that the parcel in question came from the 
banks of the river Mapiri, in Bolivia, and represented the best coto 
that it furnished. No further information could be obtained. 


The author's stock of cotoin, pi'epared from the original coto 
bark, being almost exhausted, he was induced by the undoubted 
similarity of the two barks and their principal products, to seek to 
ascertain the therapeutic action of the new body. The experiment 
was made by Herr Burkart. He found that paracotoin exercises 
the same anti-diarrhceic action as cotoin, the difference between the 
two preparations being only of one degree; paracotoin, in accordance 
with its inferior solubility, showing a somewhat weaker action than 
cotoin, consequently the dose slightly varies. In his therapeutic 
experiments, Herr Burkart administered it either in the powder 
form, O'l gram with 0'2 grams of saccharum album every three 
hours, or in emulsion, 0'5 gram. On account of its insolubility, the 
powder form, in the above doses, was preferred ; the patients takino- 
the powder more readily on account of its complete tastelessness. 

A relation appears, therefore, to exist between the two coto barks 
similar to that observed in the case of the cinchonas ; where barks 
have been found within narrow limits in which alternately quinine 
or cinchonidine or cinchouine predominate. 

The author is engaged in an investigation of the relation in which 
cotoin, paracotoin, and the other crystalline constituents of the coto 
bark, stand to each other in respect to their chemical composition. 

The Constituents of Coto Bark. J. Jobs t and 0. Hesse. {Ber. 
cler deidsch. Chem.-Ges., x., 249, from Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, vii., 
1019.) This bai'k has been further examined by the authors, and 
the results have been communicated to the Berlin Chemical Society. 
The powdered bark extracted with ether yielded a yellow-brown solu- 
tion, which left, after evaporation of the ether, a brown resinous residue 
that showed after a time an abundant crystallization. The crystal- 
line mass consisted principally of three bodies, to which the authors 
have given the names "paracotoin," "oxyleucotoin," and "leucotoin;" 
these were separated by fractional crystallization from hot alcohol. 

Paracotoin (C^g A^, Og) forms yellow scales, easily soluble in 
chloroform, ether, and boiling alcohol ; less soluble in cold alcohol, 
benzin, petroleum spirit, and boiling water. From the solution in 
boiling water it is obtained on cooling in almost colourless scales. 
In alcoholic solution it has no reaction on litmus paper, and is taste- 
less. In ammonia it is insoluble ; and from hot ammoniacal alco- 
holic solution it crystalhzes unaltered. In dilute potash or soda it 
dissolves with a yellow colour, but only in small proportion. In 
strong sulphuric acid it forms a yellow solution, but this upon 
heating becomes lighter. Perchloride of iron presents no reaction 
with it. Paracotoin melts at 152" (uncorrected) to a yellow liquid, 


which upon cooling takes a radiating crystallization. At a higher 
temperature it sublimes in yellow shining scales. 

By the action of baryta water paracotoin is converted into para- 
cotoic acid, according to the equation, — 

This acid forms a chrome yellow amorphous powder, readily soluble 
in ether and alcohol, but almost insoluble in hot benzin. The 
alcoholic solution has a decided acid reaction, and upon evaporation 
leaves the acid amorphous. The same acid is formed when para- 
cotoin is boiled with dilute potash solution, or only heated to 80° C; 
but then there is also formed a smaller quantity of another pi'oduct, 
which has been named " paracumarhydrin." When the solution is 
boiled it escapes with the steam. Paracumarhydrin, Cg Hg O3, forms 
delicate white scales, melting at 85° C. (uncorrected), readily soluble 
in alcohol and ether, less so in hot water, from which upon cooling 
it is again deposited in scales. Its formation from paracotoin may 
probably be represented as follows : — 

CigHioOg +2HoO = C02 + 2C9H8 03. 
Paracumarhydrin has a smell recalling that of cumarin ; and when 
it is rapidly heated the odours of oil of winter-green and oil of bitter 
almonds are noticeable. Upon attempting to redistil it with water 
vapour only a small portion passes over, the greater part remaining 
dissolved in the water in the retort. Upon shaking this aqueous 
solution with ether, and evaporating the latter, white crystalline 
scales are obtained, having an extremely pleasant taste, and melting 
at 81° to 82° C. The same substance results upon treating para- 
cumarhydrin with zinc chloride. Apparently in both cases it loses 
water and forms the paracumarin corresponding to paraoxybenzoic 

Comparison of this substance with cumarin shows that it resembles 
it only in smell. Whilst cumarin is deposited from dilute alcohol 
in four-sided prisms, the supposed paracumarin forms shining scales. 
The fusing points also diifer. Zwenger and Bodenbeuder found 
that for cumarin prepared from Melilotus qficinnlis, it was 67° ; and 
Perkins, for that from aceto-salicyl aldehyd between 67° and 67'5° 
C. By treatment of paracotoin with caustic potash, an acid was 
obtained crystallizing in small needles, and melting at 200°, or nearly 
the temperature given by Tiemann and Mendelsohn for paracumaric 
acid. The crystals, however, were yellow, and gave on combustion 
oifly 60"9] per cent, of carbon, and 4U5 of hydrogen ; paracumaric 
acid requiring 65'88 per cent, of carbon, and 4*87 per cent, of 


hydrogen. When fused with potassium hydrate, paracotoin gave 
off a faint smell of paracumarhydrin ; but an acid was formed, with 
evolution of hydrogen, corresponding with protocatechuic acid in 
its behaviour towards ferric chloride, though differing in other 
respects. A volatile acid (apparently formic acid) was also formed, 
and a brown resinic acid. 

Oxyleucotoin (Cji Hng 0-) can be separated from leucotoin by crys- 
tallization from alcohol, in which the latter is very soluble. It 
forms thick, heavy, white, rectangular, obliquely truncated prisms, 
melting at 133°, and solidifying amorphous on cooling. It dissolves 
freely in hot alcohol, ether, and chloroform ; less so in cold alcohol, 
and is nearly insoluble in cold water and alkalies. It is tasteless, 
and neutral, and in chloroform solution does not affect polarized 
light. Strong sulphuric acid colours it dark yellow. Strong nitric 
acid dissolves it upon warming with a blue-green colour, leaving a 
bluish black resin that forms a blue-green solution in alcohol. When 
fused with potassium hydrate, oxyleucotoin yields a crystallizable 
acid, giving a green colour with salts of iron, and also differing 
from pyrocatechuic acid. 

Leucotoin (Co^ Hoq Oq) resembles oxyleucotoin in its behaviour to 
sulphuric and nitric acids ; dissolves very freely in alcohol, benzin, 
and ether; forms very slender white prisms melting at 97°. In 
chloroform solution it has no action on polarized light. It occurred 
in considerable quantity in the bark examined. 

Hydrocotoin (Coo Hoq Oq) remained dissolved in the mother-liquor 
from which the foregoing substances were obtained. This liquor, 
being evaporated, left a brown resin, which was exhausted with very 
dilute caustic alkali, excess of hydrochloric acid added to the solu- 
tion, and the resulting reddish yellow flocculent precipitate dissolved 
in a little hot alcohol, from which the hydrocotoin crystallized on 
cooling in shining pale yellow prisms. From boiling water slender 
white needles were obtained. Hydrocotoin is neutral, tasteless, and 
in chloi'oform solution without effect on polarized light. It dis- 
solves in alkalies with a yellow colour ; and is again precipitated by 
acids, even carbonic. Strong sulphuric acid forms with it a yellow, 
and hot nitric acid a purple red solution ; from which, upon dilution 
with water, a purple red precipitate soluble in cold alcohol separates. 
When heated with manganese and sulphuric acid, or upon combus- 
tion of one of its lead salts, hydrocotoin, gives off an odour resembling 

Cotoin, the substance obtained from the coto bark first examined, 
the authors now represent by the formula. Coo Hjg Oq ; so that para- 



cotoin would appear to be a liomologue differing by C3 H^,. Hydro- 
cotoin appears to differ from cotoin in containing two atoms more 
of hydrogen in the molecule. 

The authors state that Dr. Burkart, of Stuttgart, is making ex- 
periments with paracotoin, oxyleucotoin, and leucotoin ; the results 
of which will be reported in a medical periodical. Meanwhile, para- 
cotoin, notwithstanding its high price, which is probably temporary, 
is finding a daily use as a remedy against all kinds of diarrhoea. 

Adonis Vernalis. F. Linderos. (Liebig's Annalen, 182, 3G5.) 
The dried leaves of this plant are employed on the Continent as a 
drastic purgative. According to the author's investigation, the 
leaves gathered at the time of flowering contain, when dry, 10 per 
cent, of aconitic acid, which appears to be combined with calcium 
and potassium. 

The Chemical Constituents of Angelica Root. C. Brunner. 
(Neues Eepert., xxiv., 641 ; Journ. Chem. Soc, 1876, 939.) The fol- 
lowing analysis of angelica root was given, many years ago, by Johw : 
— 300 parts contain : colourless volatile oil of a penetrating odour, 
2 parts; resin, with sour taste, 20; other extractives, 37"5 ; gum, 
100"5 ; inulin, 12 ; product soluble in caustic alkali, probably com- 
bined with albumen, 22 ; woody tissue, with a trace of matter soluble 
in potash, 90 ; water, 16 parts. Similar figures were also obtained 
by Buchholz and Brandes, who found six per cent, of " angelica 
balsam." This product was afterwards found by A. Buchner to 
contain an agreeably smelling, camphoraceous, essential oil, a vola- 
tile acid, a waxy substance, an amorphous resin, and a crystalliz- 
able principle analogous to imperatorin and peucedanin, to which 
he applied the term angelicin. The author prepared this substance 
from fifty pounds of root grown near Schweinf art. After complete 
extraction with boiling alcohol, and evaporation of the extract, 1090 
grams of " balsam " separated, insoluble in water ; whilst an aqueous 
liquid was also obtained, in which the balsam floated. This liquid 
was found to contain cane sugar, the values 73'2 and 7304< being 
obtained by the polariscope ; whilst the specific rotatory power given 
in text-books is 7'd'S4:. 

The " balsam " thus obtained was heated with aqueous caustic 
potash (500 grams balsam, 180 of solid caustic potash) until a 
homogeneous, brownish red, thick fluid was obtained ; on distillation 
this furnished a small quantity of an ethereal oil. When this ceased 
coming over, the residue was evaporated to a thick syrup, and dis- 
solved in water. After standing all night, and filtering, a minute 
quantity of insoluble matter was obtained, possibly angelica wax. 


The liquid did not deposit crystals of angelicin on standing ; it was 
therefore again evaporated, and the residue treated with alcohol, 
whereby much resin was left undissolved ; the filtrate was saturated 
with carbonic acid, to remove potash; and the filtrate from the crystals 
of potassium carbonate evaporated to a small balk, and then treated 
with ether as long as the latter became coloured. By spontaneous 
evaporation the ethereal extract gave a smeary residue, containing a 
few crystals ; this residue became much more crystalline on stirring 
it up with alcohol, and again leaving it to evaporate spontaneously. 
Finally, the mother-liquors were removed by the filter pump, and 
washing with 80 per cent, spirit. The crystals of angelicin thus 
obtained weighed, after purification by recrystallization, only about 
0"8 gram. This small yield appeared to be due to the fact that the 
roots employed had been dried in an oven ; from thirty pounds of 
air-dried roots a much larger yield was obtained by the same pro- 
cess. Finally, about 4 grams of pure angelicin were isolated, con- 
stituting fine white silky plates, destitute of taste and odour ; slightly 
soluble in cold, more so in hot, alcohol ; and readily soluble in ether, 
choloroform, carbon disulphide, benzin, oil of turpentine, and warm 
olive oil. On analysis this substance gave numbers agreeing with 
the formula Cj^gHgQ 0. From these figures, and the general properties 
of the substance, it appears to be identical with the hijdrocarotin of 
Husemann. It melts at 126'5° to yellowish oily drops, which solidify 
at 118° to an amorphous mass, soluble in alcohol and ether, but not 
crystallizing from these solutions (the original substance crystallizes 
readily in forms belonging to the monoclinic system). Concentrated 
hydrochloric acid does not change angelicin ; but fuming nitric acid 
dissolves it with evolution of gas. Concentrated sulphuric acid dis- 
solves it to a red fluid, depositing brownish white flakes on dilation 
with water. Fusion with caustic potash, and treatment with bromine, 
give rise to the formation of amorphous coloured products. 

The resin insoluble in alcohol, obtained as above described, was 
fused with caustic potash in a silver dish ; the product, dissolved in 
water and acidulated with sulphuric acid, evolved acetic, butyric, 
and other fatty acids ; and the aqueous liquid yielded to ether a 
mixture of two substances, separable by addition of lead acetate. 
The precipitate thus thrown down gave, after decomposition by 
sulphuretted hydrogen, a small quantity of a crystalline acid, colour- 
ing ferric chloride green, the coloi-ation becoming deep red on 
further addition of sodium carbonate. With silver nitrate this gave 
no precipitate ; but on further addition of ammonia immediate reduc- 
tion ensued. Hence this product was doubtless protocatechuic acid. 


The filtrate from the lead precipitate was treated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and evaporated, whereby crystals were obtained consisting 
apparently oiresorcin; they sublimed between watch-glasses, coloured 
ferric chloride violet, reduced silver nitrate on warming, gave a highly 
fluorescent product on treating with phthalic acid and sulphuric 
acid (Baeyer's test), and formed a body which — like diazoresorcin — 
was red, and became blue on adding ammonia, on treating the 
ethereal solution with nitric acid containing niti'ous acid (Weselsky's 

The liquid from which angelicin was dissolved out by ether, as 
above described, contained the potash salt of a volatile acid, which 
appeared to be angelic acid. This was obtained by adding sulphuric 
acid and distilling ; oily drops insoluble in water thus came over, 
and on collecting these and placing them in a freezing mixture, 
crystals separated, which were drained and pressed in filter paper, 
and these possessed all the properties of angelic acid. Valerianic 
and acetic acids came over, together with the angelic acid, on the 
first distillation. 

Some Constituents of Cubebs. E. Schmidt. (Ber. der deutsch. 
Ghem.-Ges., 1877, 188.) The author's statement that the stearopten 
of oil of cubebs is a hydrate of the oil corresponding to the formula 
Ci5 Hog = Ci5 Ho^ + Ho 0, has been called in question by J. Jobst 
and O. Hesse, who regard this body as an oxidation product of the 
oil, the composition of which is represented by the formula C-^- H04, 0. 

The author has therefore resumed his investigation of this sub- 
ject, and has obtained results completely confirming his previous 

Cubeb-camphor fuses at 65° C, and gives off water when heated 
in a sealed tube to 200° C. When kept over sulphuric acid under a 
bell jar, it also parts with water, and is converted into a transparent 
oily liquid having the same boiling point as oil of cubebs (250°-260°). 
Repeated analyses of the camphor yielded numbers establishing the 
correctness of the formula C^j Hoj, + Hg 0. 

Cubebin, which the author formerly described as a cry stall izable 
resin of the formula C33 Hg^ 0^, has also been re-examined, and is 
now regarded by him as an oxidation product of the oil, answering 
to the formula Cgg Hgg Og, which agrees with the formula found by 

An Adulteration of Aconite Root. E. M. Holmes. (Pharm. 
Jour7i., 3rd series, vii., 749.) Aconite root possesses such powerful 
properties, that it is very important the medicinal article should be, 
as far as possible, of uniform strength and quality. Yet this is by 



no means the case, for it is difficult to find in a commercial sample 
one root in a dozen which upon fracture appears sound and in 
good condition. This is due, according to Hanbury, to its being 
gathered indiscriminately by peasants, who regard neither the most 
advantageous time for collection, nor the proper species. From the 
cheapness of the root, and from the fact that few roots have the dis- 
tinctly conical appearance of aconite, it is evident that it would 
scarcely pay to adulterate it. Adulteration then must either result 
from careless collection, or from accidental admixture. 

The root which has lately been found mixed with aconite is that 
of masterwort, Imperatoria ostndhium, L., an umbelliferous plant, 
official in the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia so late as 1792. It is a 


native of mountainous countries, and grows in similar districts to 
those in which aconite is found. As it is still official in the German 
Pharmacopoeia, its accidental occurrence in aconite root from Ger- 
many is not surprising. 

Its value in this country is double that of aconite root, and it is ob- 
vious therefore that it has not been purposely used as an adulteration. 

In the sample examined, the masterwort root amounted to about 
6 per cent. 

The ■woodcuts of this and subsequent illustrations were kindly lent by the 
Editor of the Pharmaceutical Journal. 



The characters by which it may be distinguished from aconite root 
are as follows : — 

The root-stock (Fig. 1), for it is properly so called, is less tapering 
than aconite root, is slightly compressed, and exhibits several warty 
zones, indicating periods of growth. The whole of the root-stock is 
finely wrinkled transversely, so as to give it a somewhat annulated 
appearance. The transverse section presents very marked charac- 
ters. The central portion is of a yellowish white colour, and exhibits 
a more or less complete ring of brownish dots. The portion next 
the bark presents elongated dots of a paler colour, which give this 


portion of the section a radiate appearance. With the aid of a lens, 
these dots are seen to be filled with an oily or resinous substance. 
The cortical portion is very thin. The root-stock has an odour com- 
parable to braised ivy leaves, or to the plant commonly known as 
cow parsley (Chcerophyllum sijlvestre, L.), and a pungent slightly 
bitter taste. 

Aconite root is very variable in appearance internally ; frequently 
the centre is quite hollow. Some pieces have a brownish colour, 
others are white and starchy, and a few present a resinous fracture. 
In a sound root, however, which is usually starchy or slightly resin- 



ous, a faint line may generally be traced, which marks out the medi- 
tullinm. This hne has usually five to nine prominent angles (see 
Fig. 2), the number of angles being larger as the section approaches 
the top of the root. If the root be wetted and examined with a lens, 
the line is seen to consist of an irregular line of vessels, which form 
small bundles in the apex of the projecting angles. The cortical 
portion occupies nearly half of the circumference of the root. 

From the above characters it will be observed that the presence of 
oil receptacles in the masterwort root at once distinguishes it from 
aconite. A spirituous tincture of masterwort when dropped into 
water gives a blue fluorescence resembling that of quinine, and a 
slight milkiness, and communicates to the water its peculiar odour. 
By these characters its presence might probably be detected in a 
mixture containing tincture of aconite. Although the small per- 
centage in the sample examined would lead to but very slight dim- 
inution of strength in the tincture of aconite made from it, yet the 
appearance and odour communicated to a mixture containing such a 
tincture, might lead to much inconvenience in pharmacy, and throw 
discredit upon the dispensing department. 

It is quite time that the attention of cultivators of medicinal 
plants in this country should be drawn to the bad quality of the 
imported root, and that attempts should be made to cultivate it ex- 
tensively in this country. It is very probable that, as in the case of 
henbane, a good article would command a fairly remunerative price. 
It is obvious, also, that until it is possible to obtain a plentiful supply 
of the roots oi Aconitum Napellus, free from any admixture of other 
species, it will not be possible to obtain an accurate knowledge of 
the alkaloids contained in that species. 

Kosin. Prof. Buchheim. {Bepertor cler Phcmn., xxv., 423.) 
The author's previously published observations on the comparative 
merits of Merck's crystallized kosin and Bedall's koussin have led 
Prof. Fliickiger to the conclusion that the anthelmintic action of the 
first named pi-eparation is much inferior to that of the latter (see 
Year-Booh of Phannacy, 1875, pp. 19-22). Prof. Buchheim now 
states that he does not agree with this conclusion. He considers 
kosin as better suited for medicinal administration than koussin, and 
as quite equal to it in its anthelmintic properties. Bedall's koussin 
appears to be kosin which has undergone a partial change through 
the energetic action of the lime employed in its preparation. 

Admixture of White Hellebore with Valerian Koot. Prof. 
Bentley. (Pharm. Journ.,'3vd series, vii., 649.) Having recently 
detected the rhizome and rootlets of Veratricm alhuvi in a parcel 


of valerian, the author calls attention to the principal distinctive 
characters between the two drugs as exhibited in the specimen 
examined by him. 

In the first place, the veratrum rhizomes are either crowned by a 
conical bud of unexpanded leaves, or by the fibrous reniains of 
leaves which they once boro. These leaves at first sight bear some 
faint resemblance to those found at the end of the creeping shoots 
or stolons which are developed from the root-stock of the true vale- 
rian plant, and by which that plant is propagated ; but the leaves 
in the latter plant are opposite to each other, and overlap at their 
base, while those of veratrum form conceutric sheaths, which are 
arranged one within the other. Moreover, in commercial specimens 
of valerian root, such stolons are rarely or ever found. The presence 
and arrangement of these leaves ought, therefore, at once to lead to 
the detection of white hellebore rhizomes when mixed with those of 

Secondly, the white hellebore rhizomes are much larger than those 
of the valerian, and also entire ; whereas the valerian are commonly 
more or less cut. The rhizomes of veratrum are also of a darker 
colour, and when of any length, marked below with the pits and 
scars of old roots. 

Thirdly, a transverse section of white hellebore rhizome presents 
a large central woody or spongy portion of a whitish or pale buff 
colour, which is separated by a fine wavy-crenate ring from an outer 
broad white part which is coated by a thin dark brown or blackish 
bark-like portion. The appearance of this transverse section, par- 
ticularly that of the undulating ring, is very different from a similar 
section of valerian rhizome, which, although whitish at first, presents 
in commercial specimens a dark brown, firm and horny central 
portion, separated by a dark interrupted cambial zone from the 
cortical part, which is also of a brown colour. A vertical section of 
veratrum rhizome is also very characteristic, and more especially so 
from presenting a fine, dark, wavy, conically arranged line running 
nearly its own length, and thus separating the outer from its central 
portion. No such wavy line is seen in valerian rhizome. 

Fourthly, the roots of veratrum, which arise from the upper part 
of the rhizome only, are of a paler colour externally than those of 
valerian rhizome ; they are also commonly larger and more shrivelled. 

Fifthly, the taste of veratrum rhizome and roots is at first sweet, 
then bitter, acrid, and somewhat numbing ; while the similar parts 
of valerian have no acridity, but are evidently aromatic and some-* 
what bitter. 


Sixthly, the veratrum in itself has no marked odour, and although 
by its admixture with valerian root it has acquired the peculiar 
odour of that drug, it is feeble when compared with valerian itself. 
The veratrum rhizome also excites sneezing when cut or bruised, as 
found by its action in making sections to examine its structure. 

There is one chemical distinctive character, which is so marked, 
and at the same time so simple and readily observed, that it will be 
useful to notice it. It is derived from the application of sulphuric 
acid to a transverse or vertical section of the two rhizomes. Thus, 
if the acid be added to a section of white hellebore, a deep orange 
yellowish red colour is at once produced from its action on the con- 
tained alkaloids, which soon changes to a dark blood red ; but its 
application to a section of valerian is simply to heighten the natural 
colour of that drug. 

The sample of valerian root which forms the subject of this 
paper weighed exactly forty-two ounces, of which thirty- four ounces 
were true valerian, and eight ounces white hellebore rhizome ; so 
that the serious nature of the admixture may be seen at once. The 
sample also contained a few pieces of veratrum rhizome without any 
trace of leaves, but with the roots still attached ; such pieces have of 
course a much greater resemblance to valerian root, but they can be 
readily distinguished, with ordinary care, by the different appear- 
ances presented on making a transverse or vertical section of the 
two rhizomes, and by the action of sulphuric acid. 

Although it was impossible to determine with absolute certainty 
the species of veratrum from the specimen of rhizome under exami- 
nation, the author has but little doubt that it was from some form 
of Veratrum album, and that both it and the valerian rhizome were 
gathered together. 

Helianthus Annuus. {Neio Remedies, from Archiv der Pharmacie, 
1876.) The cultivation of the sunflower {Helianthus annuus) is 
carried on extensively in some countries, as central Russia and 
Hungary, chiefly for obtaining the oil of the seeds, which forms an 
excellent salad-oil, while the residuary cakes find employment as 
food for cattle. 

The yield is so large and the labour connected with its cultivation 
so trifling, that it deserves the attention of agriculturists. Each 
acre of land may easily contain 16,000 plants without at all inter- 
fering with each other. Numerous trials have shown that each 
fresh plant weighs on an average 10| pounds, including the seeds, 
which amount to about half a pound. The yield of one acre may 
be stated as 80,000 lbs. of stems, 80,000 lbs. of leaves, flowers (ex- 


eluding seeds), and roots, and 8000 lbs. of seeds. The stems and 
leaves contain a considerable amount of potassium nitrate, and are 
therefore easily reduced to ash, which will yield to water about 
2300 lbs. of potash. There are two varieties of the plant, one con- 
taining white, and the other black and white seeds. The former 
contain from 25 to 28 per cent, of oil, the latter from 16-25 to 26 
per cent. ; but the amount of kernel varies in the two sorts. The 
average yield from 100 parts of kernel is about 44<6 per cent, of 
oil. But it must be understood that this percentage is the actual 
amount existing in the seeds, and extracted with ether. In practice, 
especially when pressure alone is resorted to, the actual yield will 
be somewhat less. Analysis of the ash of the plant (excepting the 
seeds) yielded the following results ; the corresponding figures 
obtained from an analysis of the ash of the seeds, are added after 
each constituent in brackets : — potash, 47-687 (14-475) ; soda, 1-092 
(6-119); lime, O'S-dI (6-811); magnesia, 5-291 (1-0960); alumina, 
0-280 (0-227) ; ferric oxide, 0-170 (1-427) ; chlorine, 5-004 (2-162) ; 
sulphuric acid, 1-344 (2-086); phosphoric acid, 6-968 (31-848); 
silica, 0-687 (10-811) ; carbonic acid, 21-626 (13-074). 

Researches on Mancona Bark. K Grallois and E. Hardy. 
(Journal de Pharmacie ct de Chimie, July, 1876, 25.) The Erythro- 
phloeum Guineense (sassy tree, or red- water tree) is a tall tree gro-w- 
ing along the West Coast of Africa, and belonging to the order 
Leguminosce. A previous notice of its bark will be found in the 
Year-Booh of Pharmacy, 1876, p. 246. The bai'k is used by the 
natives for poisoning arrows and preparing ordeal liquors for crimi- 
nals. By the following process the authors have isolated from it 
a crystalline alkaloid possessing marked poisonous properties : — 

The finely powdered bark was macerated for three days with 
alcohol of 90 per cent, slightly acidulated with hydrochloric acid, 
the tincture pressed off and the residue subjected to second, and 
afterwards to a third, maceration in the same way. After filtering 
the united tinctures, the greater part of the alcohol was recovered by 
distillation from a water bath, and the remainder evaporated at a 
low temperature. A reddish-brown extract was thus obtained, rich in 
resinous matter. This was treated five or six times with lukewarm 
distilled water, and tlie liquor cooled, filtered, and evaporated on a 
water bath. When suitably concentrated it was again allowed to 
cool, decanted, saturated with ammonia, and poured into four or 
five times its volume of acetic ether, from which any acid present 
had been previously removed. After shaking several times the ether 
was removed by means of a funnel having a stopcock. The aqueous 


solution was then exhausted a second time with four times its volume 
of acetic ether. The ethereal solutions were filtered, evaporated on 
a "water bath at a low temperature, and the yellowish residue treated 
several times with cold distilled water. The aqueous solution "was 
filtered and allowed to evaporate in the vacuum of an air pump. 
Another process employed was that of Stas, with the substitution 
of acetic ether for ordinary ether after the saturation with carbonate 
of soda. 

Erythrophleine thus obtained is a colourless crystalline substance, 
soluble in "water, alcohol, acetic acid, and amylic alcohol ; but only 
slightly soluble in ether, benzol, and chloroform. It combines with 
acids to form salts. With potassium permanganate and sulphuric 
acid it strikes a violet colour, less intense than that produced by 
strychnine under the same conditions ; the colour soon changes to 
a dirty brown. Its behaviour with the usual alkaloid reagents is as 
follo"ws : — 

Picric acid : yellowish green precipitate. 
Iodine, in potassium iodide : reddish yello"w precipitate. 
Iodide of mercury and potassium : "white precipitate. 
Iodide of bismuth and cadmium : flocculent white precipitate. 
Potassium bichromate : yellowish precipitate. 
Mercuric chloride : "white precipitate. 
Auric chloride : "whitish precipitate. 
Palladic chloride : "white precipitate. 

The assumption that erythrophleine might be a product from a 
natural glucoside, and not an alkaloid already existing in the drug, 
"was shown to be "untenable by tests applied directly to the infu- 
sion, and by actual separation of erythrophleine "without the inter- 
vention of an acid. 

Physiological experiments made by the authors on dogs and frogs 
show that erythrophleine possesses strong toxic properties, and indi- 
cate that it is a cardiac poison. Whilst curare retards the effects of 
mancona poison, atropine does not restore the movements of the 
heart paralysed by it. 

ErythropliloetiTn cotominga, or Jcoumanga, is also a considerable tree 
of the same genus. All its parts are poisonous, and in the "way 
indicated above the authors have separated an alkaloid which is 
closely related to erythrophleine, if not identical with it. 

Ava, or Kava-Kava. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, vii., 147.) The 
root known under the name of kava-kava has lately attracted some 
attention in France as a remedy for gonorrhoea, and will probably 
be tried in this country. It "was first recommended for this purpose 



in 1857 ; but tliougli notices of the plants yielding it (Piper methy- 
sticum) have appeared in several journals, a full description of the 
root and leaf for the pui'poses of pharmacognosy does not appear to 
have been given in any of the reports hitherto published. 

The ava, or kava-kava plant, is cultivated in Viti, Tahiti, 
HaT\'aii, the Society and Tongan islands. Several varieties of the 
plant are distinguished by the natives. Those which grow on dry 
soil are said to produce the most active roots. 

The Piper methysticum is a shrub about 6 feet high, with stems 
varying from 1 to It inch in thickness. The leaves are rather 
large, varying in size from 4 to 8 inches in length, and being nearly as 
broad as they are long. In shape they are cordate, tapering above 
somewhat suddenly into a very short acute apex. The leaves are 
stalked, the petiole being usually from 1 to H inch long, and dilated 
towards its base. To the naked eye the leaves appear smooth, 
although with the aid of a lens they are seen to have the veins 
covered with minute hairs, while the rest of the leaf has short hairs 
thinly scattered over it. The principal veins of the leaf, of which 
there are usually ten to twelve, radiate from the top of the petiole, 
the three central veins being very close together for about half an 
inch upwards from the base of the leaf. 

The root is large and fibrous, but rather light and spongy in 
texture. When fresh, it is said to weigh usually from 2 to 4 lbs., 
although it sometimes attains as much as 20 lbs. in weight, or even 
more. In drying, however, it loses rather more than half its weight. 
Externally the root is of a greyish brown colour, and has a very 
thin bark, which when sliced off shows a complete network of 
woody tissue, some of the interstices of which are filled with soft 
yellowish white cellular matter, whilst others are quite empty. 
Internally the root is of a yellowish white colour. (In a variety of 
the plant known as " marea," it is citron yellow internally ; and in 
another variety, know under the name of " avini-ute," it is of a 
pinkish colour). A transverse section shows a number of narrow 
lines (woody bundles) radiating from near the centre to the circum- 
ference, the portions of the soft cellular tissue, by which the lines 
are separated from each other, being much wider than the lines 
themselves. The central portion of the root is soft and cellular, 
with a few woody bundles anastomosing with each other and pro- 
ceeding at right angles to the radiating bundles, so that they form 
a network in the centre of the transverse section. The root has a 
pleasant odour, recalling that of the lilac (Syringa vulgaris, L.), 
or meadow-sweet (Bpiroea ulmaria, L.). It has a slightly pungent 


taste, and causes an increase in the flow of saliva, with a slightly 
astringent sensation in the month, and a scarcely perceptible bitter- 
ness. The root and extreme .base of the stem are the parts gener- 
ally used. 

The form in which it has been used for medicinal purposes is an 
infusion made by macerating about one dram of the scraped root 
in a quart of water for five minutes. Unlike most other remedies 
for gonorrhoea, the taste of the infusion is pleasant, while its bitter- 
ness improves the appetite and does not produce nausea. The root 
contains, according to M. Cuzant, an essential oil of a pale yellow 
colour, 2 per cent, of an acrid resin, and about 1 per cent, of a 
neutral crystalline principle called kavahin or methysticin, which is 
obtained in acicular crystals by crystallization from a concentrated 
tincture. Kavahin differs from piperine and cubebin in being 
coloured red by hydrochloric acid — the red colour fading on exposure 
to air into a bright yellow, and in being coloured by strong sul- 
phuric acid a purplish violet colour, which passes into green. The 
root contains also nearly half its weight of starch. 

The action of kava root appears to vary with the amount taken. 
In small doses it is generally stated to act as a stimulant and tonic; 
but when taken in large doses it produces an intoxication, which 
differs from that caused by alcohol in being of a silent and drowsy 
nature, accompanied by incoherent dreams, the drinker not being 
quarrelsome or excited. The roots grown in damp soil, howevei', 
produce a slightly different effect, the drunken person becoming 
irritated by the least noise. 

It appears probable that the medicinal properties of the plant are 
due neither to kavahin nor to the resin, since a watery infusion 
produces the characteristic effects of the drug ; and neither kavahin 
nor the resin are soluble in water. The therapeutical properties of 
the different chemical constituents of the root, therefore, still require 
more accurate investigation. 

The root is stated to have been used with success in erysipelatous 
eruptions (Pharm. Journ. [1], ix. 218), which is rather remarkable, 
since, when taken in excess as an intoxicating beverage, it produces 
a pecu.liar kind of skin disease, called in Tahiti, " arevarea." In 
old drinkers the vision becomes obscure, and the skin, especially in 
parts where it is thick, becomes dry, scaly, cracked, and ulcerated. 
In Nukahivi the natives use kava for phthisis and in bronchitis, a 
small dose being taken at bed time. It has also been recommended 
to be used internally and locally for gout (Medical Times and 
Gazette, Dec, 1854, 591). A figure of the plant and of sections 


of the root ■will be found in the Pharmaceutical Journal, pp. 149, 

Simn Latifolium, Gray. A. R. Porter. {American Journ. of 
Pharm., August, 1876.) Slum latifolium, an umbelliferous plant, 
growing in California and along the Pacific coast, in damp and 
marshy places, commonly known as wild parsnip, was brought to 
tlie notice of the people there, about three years ago, by a man being 
poisoned by eating some of the root. 

Sium latifolium has a short, upright root-stock, varying in size 
from one-half to two inches or more in length, and about the same 
in diameter, so it becomes almost spherical in outline ; bases of 
leaves are still attached to the crown. It presents a very rough, 
wrinkled appearance, and is of a grey or yellowish brown colour. 
It branches at once into a number of large roots, from four to 
twelve, and even more. These are of the same colour, from ^ to i 
or f inch in thickness, and 2 to 6 inches long, very much wrinkled 
longitudinally, somewhat flattened and contorted, and nearly uni- 
form in thickness. On soaking in water they become about twice 
as large. The dried root breaks with a very short fracture, is white 
inside, with a yellowish, spongy meditullium and numerous resin 
cells, which are plainly visible with the naked eye, scattered irregu- 
larly throughout the bark. The root has rather an agreeable aro- 
matic odour, and a sweetish, aromatic and somewhat pungent taste. 

In attempting to separate the proximate principles of the root, 
an alcoholic tincture was made, concentrated and precipitated by 
water. In the clear aqueous solution, Trommer's test indicated the 
presence of much sugar, besides some colouring matter. The pre- 
cipitated oleo-resin was distilled with water, the distillate containing 
some volatile oil, which was colourless, and had the aromatic odour 
and warm, pungent taste of the root. The soft residue was sepai"ated 
by hot petroleum benzin into a fixed oil and resiji. The oil was 
thick, deep-red, of a slight odour and disagreeable taste, soluble in 
alcohol, chloroform, ether, oil of turpentime, benzin, and carbon 

The resin was easily rubbed into a reddish brown powder, which 
had a very slight odour and but little taste ; fusible when heated, 
and uncrystallizable ; soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether; in- 
soluble in benzin and bisulphide of carbon. This resin appears to 
be the poisonous principle, since a small portion of it given to a cat 
produced, in the course of two hours, frothing at the mouth, con- 
siderable pain, and then convulsions, from which, however, the cat 
recovered. The resin was not quite pure, since caustic potash dis- 



solved ouly a part, leaving a portion insoluble, and not fusible by 
heat. The root exhausted by alcohol was found to contain gum, 
albumen, and pectin, but no starch. 

An alkaloid having been searched for with negative result in the 
alcohol tincture, a decoction of the root was distilled with caustic 
potash. The distillate had an alkaline reaction, and its odour re- 
minded of that of conium ; but when neutralized with an acid, the 
distillate was neither precipitated by tannin nor by iodohydrargy- 
rate of potassium ; it was probably ammonia contaminated with 
some odorous product of decomposition. 

Slum Latifolium. N. Rogers. (Amer. Journ. Phann.,l^ov.,lS76.) 
The water parsnip is an aquatic plant very common in the swamps 
and along the water-courses of the valleys of the Pacific slope. Its 
root is creeping ; stem erect, angular ; leaf pinnate ; leaflets ovate, 
lanceolate, sessile, smooth, serrate, sometimes pinnatifid ; flowers 
white, large-rayed ; involucres many-leaved ; umbels terminal. 

The leaves of the plant, when found growing in water, are gener- 
ally bipinnatifid. In appearance, growth, odour, and taste it is 
closely allied to its innocent congener, the Pastinaca sativa. On 
account of this resemblance it has frequently been productive of 
dangerous results, when eaten through mistake for the harmless 
and nutritious root of that edible species. 

The root being considered the most active part of the plant, it 
was deemed proper to subject that to a chemical examination. 

A portion of the root cut up fine was introduced into boilino- 
water contained in a retort, and a volatile oil obtained, which had 
a light straw colour, neutral reaction, and possessed a puno-ent 
odour, resembling somewhat the peculiar odour of carrots. A cold 
infusion of the fresh root, acidulated with hydrochloric acid and 
filtered, to separate a precipitate, failed to give a precipitate with 
iodohydrargyrate of potassium ; but when distilled with an excess 
of potash solution, a perfectly clear and colourless distillate was 
obtained, possessing a strong alkaline reaction and peculiar mouse- 
like odour, somewhat similar to that of conium ; after neutralization 
with hydrochloric acid, however, not the slightest precipitate was 
occasioned by pliosphomolybdic acid, iodohydrargyrate of potassium 
or potassium cadmic iodide. 

The neutralized distillate was next concentrated on a water bath 
and then allowed to evaporate spontaneously over sulphuric acid 
which resulted in the deposition of long, slender, colourless needle- 
shaped crystals. On the addition of milk of lime, a peculiar alka- 
line volatile principle was instantly liberated from its combination 


and distinctly recognised by its disagreeable mouse-like odour, and 
the property of restoring the blue colour to reddened litmus. 

Following Wittstein's process for preparing pastinacina, the alka- 
line distillate was freed from the volatile oil, neutralized with 
sulphuric acid, evaporated, and treated with etherized alcohol to 
remove ammonium sulphate; the filtrate evaporated to a syrupy 
consistency, and distilled with solution of potash, gave a distillate 
which possessed an alkaline reaction, a urinous odour, and a pungent 
taste. After neutralizing with sulphuric acid, needle-shaped crystals 
were obtained. This allcaloid appears to be analogous to pastinacina. 

A spirituous tincture of the root was mixed with water, and the 
alcohol and volatile oil distilled ofi*; the dark reddish brown resin 
removed from the aqueous liquid was soluble in ether and alcohol, 
and produced in the throat an unpleasant burning sensation. 
"Weak ammonia dissolved from this two acid resins, which were pre- 
cipitated, — the one by acetate, the other by subacetate, of lead. The 
portion insoluble in ammonia consisted in part of an indifferent 
resin. It was dissolved in alcohol, precipitated by a spirituous 
solution of lead acetate, the precipitate decomposed by sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and the sulphide of lead treated with boiling alcohol, 
from which, on cooling, shining colourless needles of a neutral 
principle separated, which were insoluble in pure and acidulated 
water, but soluble in ether, and from platinum foil volatilizable 
without charring. The aqueous filtrate from the resin obtained 
above was evaporated, and the residue incinerated ; the ashes 
contained salts of potassium, sodinm, calcitom, and marjnesium. On 
texamining a section of the root under the microscope, starch granules 
we found to be quite plentiful around the medullary sheath and 
near the cortical portion. They polarized but feebly, were oblong, 
different in size, and quite small. Sugar, albumen, and gum were 
found in the cold infusion by appropriate tests. 

Medical Effects. — From experiments made iipon dogs, the volatile 
alkali and the neutral crystallizable principle were both found to be 
perfectly inert ; while the resinous mass, in ten-grain doses, was 
found to lessen the frequency and the force of the heart's beat, 
producing also dizziness, vomiting, and purging, with slight con- 
vulsive movements. These poisonous symptoms having gradually 
disappeared, the animals were left in a prostrate, weakeued con- 
dition, from which they slowly recovered. 

Arrowroot. T. Greenish. (P^a/-»i. Jfj^tr/t., 3rd series, vii., 169.) 
The origin of the term arrowroot is involved in some obscurity, 
and its application to the starch derived from the maranta to 


the exclusion of that from every other source may be called in 

It is generally admitted that the manihot, which yields the starch 
known as cassava starch, is a native of Brazil ; if, therefore, the 
maranta be an introduced plant, which agrees with common report, 
the probability is that the term, " ara-ruta," which is unquestionably 
a native Indian word, originally applied to one or more varieties of 
the manihot ; and if so, cassava starch has certainly equal claims 
with the maranta to the more popular and commercial name " arrow- 
root." The Manihot utilissima, Pohl., yields the cassava starch 
of commerce ; it is also that used in the manufacture of tapioca. 

Another variety of manihot yields a starch having a little 
colour ; this is kept for home consumption. The author thinks 
it probable that at different periods, when a starch has been found 
capable of preparation so as to become an acceptable article 
of diet, the term " arrowroot " has been applied to it ; and thus we 
have other starches which have long been designated by the name 
of arrowroot. 

Brazilian arrowroot (manihot). 

Tahiti arrowroot (tacca). 

Portland arrowroot (arum). 

East India arrowroot (curcuma). 

Some of these are rarely, if ever, found in commerce, although 
extensively used in the countries where they are produced. 

The cassava starch has been found on several occasions mixed 
with that of maranta, and sold as arrowroot. One such case has 
been reported by Dr. Muter, and another by Mr. Jones, of Birming- 
ham. It is beyond question that for some time marantas have been 
imported into this country adulterated with cassava. The author has 
several times detected it as an adulterant of pepper, and has also 
found it mixed with a maranta, but had no means of ascertaining 
whether this arrowroot was " as imported," or had been tampered 
with in this country. 

The starch of the manihot, commonly called cassava starch, is 
one with which every pharmacist who has a microscope (and no 
pharmacy is complete without one) should be familiar. The accom- 
panying woodcut shows the usual forms of this starch. 

They are for the most part muller- shaped, with a fair sprinkling 
of the circular ; some of the muller-shaped have truncate, others 
dihedral bases. If the starch be examined in situ, as in the meal 
of the cassava, there will be found a good many doublets and 
triplets as shown in the drawing ; but these combinations are rarely 



present in a commercial sample of the prepared starcli. The separa- 
tion of the grains composing the doublet gives the muUer-shaped 
truncated granules, and that of the triplet the muller-shaped with 
dihedral bases. The diameter of the granules ranges from 0008 to 
0-022 mm. 

A very interesting and instructive experiment, with the view of 
determining the true forms of these grains to which the names 
muller-shaped and circular are given, may be witnessed with 
advantage. After having examined under the microscope a little of 
the starch, using as a medium a mixture of spirit, water, and 
glycerin, the single forms here given will for the most part be seen 
in the field of the microscope. If now a drop of alcohol be placed 
on the edge of the covering glass, capillary attraction will cause it 

to run in rapidly, and in its course the grains will be rolled over 
several times. It will be observed that a granule which appears 
muller-shaped when seen from the side, with the neuclus indicated 
by a spot or a fissure a little out of the centre, or eccentric, when 
rolled over so as to be seen with its crown towards the observer, 
appears circular ; also that one of the triplet grains with a dihedral 
base, when seen with its base uppermost will give, with other grains 
having polyhedral bases, those angular forms of which the drawing 
indicates one or more examples. Careful illumination will occasion- 
ally show one or two zones indicating the lamination of the grain. 
If when the grains have ceased to revolve, another drop of spirit be 
applied to the opposite side of the covering glass, the movement 
will be repeated. 



The starch of the tacca, called Tahiti arrowroot, is one resembling 
that of the cassava, but it is rarely found in commerce ; the muller- 
sliaped granules are, however, larger, and there are not proportion- 
ately so many circular ones. The diameter ranges from 0'026 to 
0-045 mm. 

The only other starch of this form is that of the Castanospermum 
Australe, or Moreton Bay cbestnut. It was shown at the Paris 
exhibition ; but from that time to the present it bas not appeared as 
a commercial article, so that it is not likely by its presence to com- 
plicate matters, or embarrass the observer. 

The author believes that all the cassava of commerce is the pro- 
duce of Maniliot tdilissima, Pohl. 

The Quinine Flower. D. Palmer. {Araer. Journ. Pharm, 
October, 187G.) The quinine flower is an annual from twelve to 
eighteen inches high, has an erect green stem, linear leaves of about 
one-half to an inch in length, and small white flowers. The root 
consists of numerous slender fibres. 

It is a native of Florida, and is found most abundantly in flat 
pine woods, in a moderately dry soil, making its appearance in 
March or April, and flowering from July to September. The 
specimens furnished me were gathered three or four miles south of 
Monticello, in Jefferson county. In the lower portions of the 
county it is very abundant, and is successfully employed by those 
living in its vicinity for the cure of different types of malarious 
fever, the whole plant being used, either in the form of decoc- 
tion or extract, and given ad lihitum or until the patient feels the 
effects of quinine in his head. It is a curious fact that persons 
brought under the influence of this remedy experience similar sensa- 
tions — such as tension or fulness in the head, ringing in the ears or 
partial deafness — as when under the influence of quinia, and hence 
its name. Its reputation as an antiperiodic was established during 
the late civil war, when, owing to the scarcity of quinine, every 
opportunity was offered for testing the relative value of various 

The quinine flower is intensely and permaneritly bitter, yielding 
its properties to water and alcohol. A saturated tincture in doses 
of one teaspoonful every two hours was found suSicient to break 
the paroxysm of intermittent fever. Larger quantities may be 
given in obstinate cases, or in the remittent form of the disease. 

To the foregoing the following remarks are added by the Editor 
of the American Journal of Pharmacy : — 

At our request Dr. Palmer bas sent us some of the flowering 


plants referred to in the preceding paper. The plants are found to 
belong to the natural order of Gentianaccp, and to the sub-order 
GentianecB, having the corolla lobes twisted (contorted) in the bud ; 
the distinct style being deciduous, it must be placed into the section 
to Tvhich Erythroea and Sahbatia belong. Its botanical characters 
agree with those of the last-named genus, and more particularly 
with the group which has the white or purplish flowers scattered on 
alternate penduncles, and the corolla five-parted. 

On comparing it with the American species in the college 
herbarium of Dan. B. Smith, it was found to correspond with a 
specimen of Sabbatia ElUoUli, Steud., which is marked ex lierbar. 
Chapmani. This plant is described in Chapman's " Flora of the 
Southern United States," as follows : — 

'' Stem low, terete, paniculately much branched from near the 
base, the branches diffuse ; leaves small, sessile, the lowest obovate, 
the upper linear ; lobes of the corolla three to four times as long as 
the short filiform calyx-lobes. (S. paniculata, Ell.) Open pine 
barrens, Florida to South Carolina. August and September. — 
Stems, I to 1| foot high ; leaves, from 3 to 6 inches long ; corolla, 
8 to 10 lines wide." 

In both the herbarium specimen and the plants sent by Dr. 
Palmer, the calyx lobes are more prominent than might be supposed 
from the description given ; but they are evidently described as 
short, in comparison with the much longer calyx lobes of Sabbatia 
stellarus, gracilis and allied species, in which they are about equal 
in length to the corolla, whilst in the species under consideration 
they are about one-third the length. The lowest leaves are obovate, 
those a little higher on the stem obolanceolate with an acute point, 
and become rapidly narrowed to a linear shape. The stems of the 
plants recently received are from 20 to 24 inches in height, and 
consequently rather exceed the height given by Chapman. 

The herb has at first an herbacious taste, which gradually 
develops into a pure and persistent bitter, free from astriugency. 

The popular name quinine flower appears to be confined to a small 
locality, probably to only a portion of Florida. Porcher's "Re- 
sources of the Southern Fields and Forests," p. ttiJG, however, 
mentions Gentiana quimjeflora under the names of Indian quinine 
and Ague weed, and states that "this and the G. saponaria are 
esteemed fully equal to the important gentian ; in large doses they 
are said to be laxative ; Dr. E. P. Wood, of Wisconsin, has given 
this plant with success in intermittent fever." He also gives a 
detailed account of the medicinal properties of Sabbatia angularis, 


the American centaury, and states that 8. stellarus and S. gracilis 
possess properties similar to the former. 

This genus of North American plants is closely allied to Erythrcea, 
of which several species (E. chilensis, E. centaurium, E. linarifolla, 
etc.) are still employed in different countries as tonics, and some- 
times as antiperiodics ; but we do not remember that effects 
resembling quininism have been ascribed to any of those plants, 
such as Dr. Palmer states are experienced from the quinine flower 
of Florida. 

Antiseptic Properties of the Root of Rubia Tinctonun. M. 
Rostaing. (Comptes Rendiis, Ixxxii., 551.) The author observed 
that a piece of meat placed in a jar containing powdered madder 
root kept perfectly good for seven months, during which time the jar 
was opened at least a dozen times. It had merely lost its moisture, 
its weight having decreased from 119 grams to 25 grams; but there 
was not the slightest sign of decomposition. He therefore recom- 
mends madder for the preservation of corpses and the disinfection 
of burial grounds. 

Ergot in Atony of the Bladder. Prof. Langenbeck. (Netv 
Bern., 1877, 207.) The author, at a meeting of the Berlin Medical 
Society, stated that in atony of the bladder, associated with enlarged 
prostate, in elderly men, in which the organ is never completely 
emptied of urine, he had lately tried the hypodermic injection of 
ergotin with most surprising results. In three cases the contractile 
power of the bladder was at once increased so as to enable the 
patient to discharge additional urine, and in a few days it had so 
augmented that very little urine was left behind. After one or two 
injections the improvement was considerable, and even a diminution 
in the size of the prostate seemed to have ensued. Dr. Israel said that 
he had derived the same benefit from the employment of ergotin, 
and referred to the case of a patient who was thus enabled to hold 
his water for three hours, whereas before he voided it every ten 

Persian Insect Powder. R. Rother. (Druggists' Circular and 
Gheriiical Gazette, July, 1876.) The powdered flowers of Pijrethrum 
caucasicum, roseum, etc., have in the course of years attained cele- 
brity as an insecticide. 

The non-poisonous character of the powder widens its range of 
application to an unlimited extent, and places it prominently above 
the numerous, often highly poisonous substances used for the same 
purposes. Its general use has, however, been restricted by reason 
of its costliness. 


Persian insect powder is analogous in its action to Coccuhis indicus. 
Its contact promptly stupefies, and, if prolonged, death rapidly en- 
sues. It appears to be harmless to the larger animals, but if much 
of its dust is inhaled, dizziness will result. That the substance must 
possess medicinal virtues cannot be questioned, and probably before 
loug will be largely employed otherwise than as a vermin destroyer. 
The powder has never been thoroughly investigated. It was found 
not to contain an alkaloid nor santonin, so that its virtues were 
ascribed to the volatile oil it contains. Early last summer, the author 
made a preliminary examination of it, and by operating upon 3500 
grains of the powder, obtained results which were recently confirmed 
by a second experiment upon 20 ounces of the material ; but an 
altogether thorough investigation was cut short by an accident, 
through which most of the material was lost. 

The author found that an aqueous percolate, as also an aqueous 
ammoniacal one, when treated with chloroform, ether, and benzine, 
gave no indications of an alkaloid soluble in these liquids. Three 
acid bodies were, however, isolated. An oleo-resinous greenish 
yellow acid, which the author denominates " persicein," was found, 
having the odour of the powder, and its sub-bitter taste. It is, 
however, not the active principle of the plant. This acid resin is 
soluble in ether, alcohol, and benzine, but insoluble in chloroform ; 
it is instantly dissolved by ammonia and the fixed alkalies, from 
which acids, in not too dilute solutions, precipitate it milky white. 
It is somewhat soluble in water, imparting a greenish yellow colour, 
and its characteristic odour and bitter taste. It forms insoluble 
salts with the heavy metals. 

A second acid was found ; it has a light brown colour, and is 
nearly insoluble in cold water, slightly soluble in hot. It is soluble 
in alcohol with a red-brown colour, but insoluble in chloroform, 
ether, and benzine ; water reprecipitates it from the alcoholic solu- 
tion. It forms soluble salts of dark brown-red colour with ammonia 
and the fixed alkalies ; acids, again, precipitate it from the solutions 
of its salts. Strong sulphuric acid dissolves it with dark brown 
colour ; the addition of water precipitates it from this solution un- 
changed. Strong nitric acid acts on it with great energy, liberating 
nitrogen tetroxide in profusion, yielding a deep yellow solution, 
and an insoluble yellow acid, probably a nitro acid. This new acid 
is soluble in alkalies, from which acids again precipitate it. The 
yellow nitric solution was not examined. The writer designates 
this second acid as " persiretin." Tlie powder was found to contain 
4"3 per cent, of it. It is not the active principle, but a decom.posi- 
tion product of it. 


A third and very soluble acid was found. This body the writer 
names "persicin." It is a glucoside, and is split by boiling with 
acids into persiretin and glucose. It appears to be a polybasic 
acid, forming an insoluble and a soluble lead salt. It is remarkable 
for having a pleasant odoar resembling that of fresh honey. This 
acid is exceedingly unstable ; contact with dilute chlorhydric acid 
in the cold or evaporation of its solution, or of its salts, converts 
it into perseretin and glucose. It is, therefore, almost impossible 
to obtain the free acid dry in a pure state. The colour of persicin 
is, in solution, light wine red, and that of its neutral salts dark 
wine red. 

Plumbic acetate does not precipitate its neutral solutions, but 
diplumbic acetate produces a voluminous greenish white precipitate. 
Excess of persicin dissolves the neutral lead salt, forming a pale 
yellow solution, which on evaporation yields an amorphous mass in- 
soluble in alcohol, which latter also precipitates the salt from its 
aqneous solution in yellowish white curdy flakes. 

The acid potassium salt of persicin can be crystallized ; it is also 
soluble in alcohol. The neutral salt is apparently amorphous, and 
but sparingly soluble in alcohol. Persicin gives a fresh coloured 
precipitate with argentic nitrate, which is insoluble in acetic acid, 
but soluble in ammonia. Persicin is soluble in alcohol, but insoluble 
in chloroform, ether, and benzine. It is apparently the active prin- 
ciple of the plant. The investigation was conducted by percolating 
the powder first with water containing ammonia. The aqueous 
percolate yielded nothing to chloroform. Addition of chlorhydric 
acid threw down the persiretin. After filtration, ammonia gave a 
crystalline precipitate of ammonio-magnesian phosphate. 

The ammoniacal percolate had a ruby red colour. Addition of 
chlorhydric acid precipitated persiretin in great abundance, showing 
that the small amount extracted by water in the first percolation 
existed in combination with some base, but that the most of it is 

The acid filtrate was then ti'eated with ammonia in excess, united 
with the first filtrate, and the whole evaporated on a water bath to 
a syrupy liquid. This residue, now having an acid reaction, was 
treated with alcohol, which produced a gummy precipitate and a 
dark red liquid. The solution was evaporated on a water bath to 
expel alcohol, slightly diluted with water, and shaken with ether. 
The ethereal solution, on spontaneous evaporation, yielded a I'esidue 
of persicin. The aqueous residue was now shaken with chloroform, 
which after decantation and evaporation left no residue. The 


aqueous liquid was then treated with benzine, which took up the 
ether and chloroform held in solution; on evaporation no appreciable 
residue was left, thus showing the probable absence of alkaloids. 

The liquid fx'om which the benzine had been decanted was treated 
with chlorhydric acid, producing a slight turbidness ; shaken with 
ether, it dissolved, and the yellowish ethereal solution yielded on 
evaporation more of the persicin. This result shows that the per- 
sicein taken up by the ether in the first instance had parted with the 
ammonia during the evaporation, and that the remainder could only 
be removed after its liberation by the chlorhydric acid. 

The red acid liquid was now mixed with the filtered solution of 
the matter precipitated by the alcohol, neutralized with ammonia, 
and treated with diplumbic acetate as long as a precipitate formed ; 
this was collected, washed, and treated with dilute sulphuric acid in 
slight excess, whereby the persicin was liberated, and the peculiar 
honey odour at once became perceptible. On evaporation on a 
water bath, a red acid residue was obtained ; however, it was much 
contaminated with insoluble persiretin, into which a part of the 
persicin had been converted. The fresh solution of the persicin, 
neutralized with potassium hydrate and boiled with Pehling's solu- 
tions, yields an emerald green liquid, but no cuprous oxide. If the 
solution is, however, first boiled a few moments with dilute chlor- 
hydric acid until it becomes turbid, then neutralized and boiled with 
Fehling's solutions, cuprous oxide is profusely precipitated. This 
makes it evident that persicin is a glucoside, decomposable into per- 
siretin and glucose. 

XantMum Spinosum. M. Guichard. (Bepert. de Phann. [N.S.], 
iv., 513 ; Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, vii., 249.) The author presents 
the following contribution to the chemical and pharmaceutical his- 
tory of this new medicament which has recently been recommended 
as a remedy for hydrophobia. 

The drug is met with in the form of stalks bearing leaves and 
numerous spines. There is room, therefore, for the study of the 
picked and unpicked drug, and to ascertain which of the two 
should be employed, as probably the activity of all the parts is not 
the same. Their yield in extract is very different, — 20 grams of 
cleaned leaves gave with alcohol 5 grams, or 25 per cent., of green 
extract containing much chlorophyll. 150 grams of the uncleaned 
drug treated in the same way yielded also a green extract, but in 
less quantity, the yield being only 12 grams, or 7| per cent. The 
difierence was due to chlorophyll. 

The two extracts were prepared by coarsely powdering the plant, 


and treating it after twelve hours' maceration by displacement, first 
with 90 per cent., and then with 60 per cent, alcohol. 

128 grams of the unpicked plant were treated by infusion, then 
pressed, and treated a second time. The product was evaporated on 
a water bath, and gave 60 grams, or 39 per cent., of extract. 

The alcoholic extracts were very bitter ; the aqueous extract 
scarcely so. The author therefore thinks that probably the alcoholic 
extract is the most active, and this appears to be borne out by the 
following pi-eliminary experiments : — 

The alcoholic extract redissolved in water was precipitated by 
iodized iodide of potassium, but not by cadmi-potassic iodide. The 
alkalies precipitated iron and alumina. When dried with calcined 
magnesia and treated with ether, an extract was obtained which, if 
redissolved in water acidulated with a few drops of hydrochloric acid, 
gave with the iodized iodide an abundant kermes coloured precipi- 
tate, and with cadmi-potassic iodide a dirty grey precipitate that 
separated rapidly like curdled milk. Ammonia precipitated the solu- 
tion slightly. 

If the above aqaeous solution be allowed to evaporate upon a 
glass plate of a microscope, crystals are obtained of various forms, 
— such as needles grouped in crosses, or three-branched stars, and 
granular crystals; also some green colouring matter. The hydro- 
chloric solution gives large square or rectangular tables, as well as 
acicular crystals. The liquid precipitated by ammonia contains a large 
number of amorphous points and numerous bundles of fine needles. 
The aqueous extract treated in the same manner gives no results. 
But the author considers that the preceding experiments demon- 
strate the presence of an alkaloid which he hopes soon to be in a 
position to isolate. 

The mode of employment of the drug previously indicated was to 
administer 60 centigrams of the plant, finely pulverized, several 
times a day. 

Xanthium Spinosum. Dr. Grzymala. The author has com- 
municated to the Journal cles Debats a most favourable report on the 
value of Xanthium spinosum as a remedy for hydrophobia. Up- 
wards of one hundred persons were cured by it of this terrible 
disease. 0'3 gram of the powdered leaves is administered three 
times a day for several weeks. Of twelve hydrophobic patients in 
the hospital at Olschanka (in the district of Balta), six were com- 
pletely cured by the administration of this herb ; the other six died 
in spite of the application of cantharides, faba tonca, genista tinc- 
toria, etc. 



The Mineral Constituents of Xanthium Spiuosum. Dr. R. 
Godeffroy. {Zeitschr. des oesterr Apoth. Ver., 1877, 'ol .) The 
statement occurring in the Pharmaceut. Zeitschrift fiir Eussland, 
1876, 4U3, that the ash of Xanthium spinosum contained nitrates is 
contradicted by the author, who found in 100 parts of the ash, — 

Calcium Carbonate 


„ Sulphate 


„ Phosphate (CasPO^) 


Magnaeium Carbonate 


Chloride . 


Potassium Carbonate . 

25 00 

,, Chloride 


Sodium Carbonate 




Ferric Oxide 


Aluminium Oxide 


Fncus Vesiculosus, and Allied Species. J. M. Maisch. (Amer. 
Journ. Pharm., September, 1876.) Though Theophrastus already, 
in his history of plants, mentions several species of marine algee, the 
sea -wrack does not appear to have been employed medicinally be- 
fore the first half of the eighteenth century ; at least no mention is 
made of it in the new " London Dispensatory " of 1676. Russell 
seems to have been instrumental in introducing it into medicine 
through his essay, " De talie glandularis'" which was published in 
1750, and in which he specially recommended Fncus vesiculosus in 
the form of charcoal and jelly ; the former, known afterwards under 
the name of JEthiops vegetabilis, being prepared by heating the 
plant in a crucible closed with a perforated cover until smoke ceased 
to be given off, while the latter was made by expressing the muci- 
laginous liquid, and also by macerating the fucus in an equal weight 
of sea water for two weeks, or until it was converted into a kind of 
jelly, which was employed both externally and internally. Upon 
the strength of these observations, Fucus vesiculosiis was admitted 
into several pharmacopoeias, but was afterwards dismissed, the last 
one dropping it being the Dublin Pharmacopoeia, in the edition of 
1850. The beneficial effects in scrofulous swellings and goitre of 
the vegetable ethiops and of the sponge charcoal, which had been 
introduced by Arnaud de Villeneuve near the close of the thirteenth 
century, and the discovery of iodine in the ashes of sea plants, 
induced Dr. Coindet, of Geneva, in 1819, to study the effects of 
iodine, and led to the introduction of this element into medicine. 
Subsequently, Duchesne Dupare, and after him Godsfrey, stated 


(1862) that they had found this fucus to possess valuable properties 
as a remedy for morbid obesity, an observation which, by later 
investigators, does not appear to be confirmed to the fall extent 
mentioned by the first recommenders in this complaint. 

Of late, the bladder wrack, it seems, has been employed medici- 
nally to some extent in the United States; so that a brief description 
of this and some allied species may be desirable. 

The genus Fucus belongs to the sub-order Fucoidece, or melano- 
sporea3, of the natural order Algce. As originally constituted by 
Linnceus, it embraced several genera which have been separated 
by later authors, and among which are the genera Laminaria, 
Sargassum, and Ci/stoseira, the last named having the thallus usually 
inflated into vesicles which often show a moniliform arrangement, 
while the vesicles of 8argassum are stipitate. Fucuf: has either a 
cylindrical (filiform) or flat, usually forking thallus, and the sporo- 
carps inflated and usually terminating the branches. In their fresh 
state they have an olive or brownish green colour, becoming black- 
ish on drying. Several species have portions of the thallus inflated 
so as to form hollow vesicles. 

Fucus vesiculosus, Lin., attains the length of one to three feet, and 
has a flat thallus one-half to one inch wide, with the margin entire, 
and a distinct midrib running the entire length of the thallus ; the 
vesicles are always in pairs, one being placed on each side of the 
midrib, spherical or oblong globular in shape, and occasionally 
attaining the size of a hazel nut. It grows on rocky sea-shores of 
the Atlantic Ocean, near high water mark, and in marshes which 
are occasionally overflowed by the tide. Formerly it was known by 
the name of Quercus marina, or sea oak, its common English names 
being bladder wrack, sea wrack, sea ware, kelp ware, and black 
tang. In Scotland and other northern countries it is used in winter 
for feeding horses, cattle and sheep, and is eaten by deer when 
other food is scarce. 

F. nodosus, Lin., knobbed sea wrack, grows in similar localities, 
but at or near low water mark. It attains a length of four to six 
feet, and has a narrower veinless frond, with the branches almost 
filiform at the base, the vesicles single in the centre of the thallus, 
or frond, ovate in shape, and usually quite large. 

F. serrafus, Lin., has a veined and serrate frond, and is destitute 
of vesicles. 

F. slUquosus, Lin. (s. Ci/stoseira siliquosa, Agardh), has a very 
narrow frond, two to four feet long, with short branches, articulated 
vesicles, and lanceolate flattened sporocarps. 


F. natans, Lin. (s. Sargassum bacciferum, Agardh), the gulf-weed 
of the Atlantic Ocean, is often found in immense masses floating in 
the sea. Its frond is terete, with the branches linear and serrate, 
and the vesicles globular and aculeate. 

All these and many allied species appear to be very similar in 
their constituents, of which they contain mucilage, mannite, odorous 
oil, bitter principle, and a considerable proportion of saline matter, 
varying from 14 to 20 per cent., calculated for the dry plants. 
According to Godeschen, James, and others, the variation is just as 
great for the bladder wrack as collected in different localities, and 
it is not impossible that this may be, at least in part, accounted for 
by having been collected in different seasons, the plant being as- 
sumed to be most active when collected after the sporocarps have 
formed, about the month of July. E. Marchand found (1865) in 
the ashes of F. vesiculosus 719 per cent, iodine and 0'603 per cent, 
bromine ; in F. siliquosus nearly the same amount, and in F. serrntus 
0834 iodine and 1'007 bromine; while the ashes of the fucoideoe, 
Laminaria agitata, Lamx., contained 5'3o2 iodine and 0" 7 74 bromine, 
and Lam. saccharina, Lamx., about one-half these amounts. (See 
also American Journal of Pharmacy , 1854, p. 438.) 

Bladder wrack has been employed in France in the form of 
extract, prepared, according to Dannecy, by exhausting the plant 
with 54 per cent, alcohol ; it is stated to represent fifteen parts of 
the fucus {Proc. Am., Phar. Assoc, 1863, p. 66) ; also in the form of 
syrup, suggested by Potier {Ibifl.), by exhausting 150 parts of the 
powdered plant with 14 per cent, alcohol, evaporating the tincture 
to 230 parts, and dissolving in it 370 parts of sugar. 20 grams (one 
tablespoonful) of this syrup represents 0'6 gram of the extract and 
5 grams of the fucus, which is the average dose. A fluid extract 
might doubtless be prepared by a process similar to the ofiicinal one 
for fluid extract of chimaphila ; the average dose of such a prepara- 
tion would be about a teaspoonful. If, however, the virtues depend 
mainly upon the iodine and bromine present, the dose would have 
to be increased very considei-ably. 

A New Alkaloid in Angostura Bark. MM. Oberlin and 
Schlagdenhauffen. (Bepert. de Pharm., 1877, No. 9.) The 
authors have isolated from the bark of Galipea Cusparia a crystal- 
lizable alkaloid which is soluble in ether, chloroform, and benzoline, 
and entirely different from Saladin's cusparine. They have adopted 
the same name (cusparine) for their own alkaloid. 

Note on Sumbul. K. Wittmann. (Pharm. Journ., from Pkar- 
maceut. Zeltschr. fdr Russland.) After referi'ing to a notice which 


appeared last year in the Pharmaceutial Journal (vol. vi., p. 43), 
respecting the blooming of the sumbal plant at Kew, the author, 
who is Secretary to the Military Medical District Administration of 
East Siberia, gives the following information : — 

The Eurijangium sumhul is found in large quantities in the 
neighbourhood of Chabarowka, a military post on the river Amur, 
in the province of Kiisten, East Siberia, 9000 versts from St. 
Petersburg!!. It is a perennial umbellifer, and grows to the height 
of from three to five feet. Its root is branched, fleshy, about eleven 
inches in circumference at the base, and three and three-quarter 
inches in diameter, with numerous rootlets, and covered with a 
brown bark. The root has a strong smell of musk, which by 
moistening with water is considerably increased. The stalk of the 
plant is always fleshy, equal in circumference at the base with the 
x'oot, becoming gradually more slender towards the top. The leaves 
are more than twice pinnatifid ; the pinnge lancet-shaped, sharply 
serrate ; the umbels with thirty to fifty rays ; the flowers white and 

Besides the Euryangium sumhul, the author has met with an- 
other umbellifer which resembles it vei'y much in its entire habit, 
but may be distinguished by its smaller size, lighter leaves, and the 
absence of the musk-like smell of the root. 

The Eastern Russian inhabitants call the Eiiryangmm sumhul 
"bararklane " (bear's claw), and use the root as a medicine. The 
Chinese living in the district use the root of the plant against 
various diseases, and call it " Isoumal-tschen-tuk." It is also used 
by the natives internally as a remedy for swellings ; with them it 
bears the names " ofuokgi " and " ouchi." The author promises a 
future communication, giving the results of an examination of the 
separate constituents of the root as it is found in the district of 

Ailanthus Glandulosa in Dysentery. Dr. J. Dudgeon. {Med. 
Times and Gazette, October 28th, 1876.) The Ailanthus is a very 
common tree in north China, growing readily and rapidly, and 
attaining a considerable height. The Chinese note two varieties, 
the fragrant and the fetid. Two synonyms for the latter tree are 
given — " tiger's eye," from the resemblance of the facets, when the 
branches fall off from the main stem, to that animal's eye; and 
" great eye varnish," from which circumstance the French name 
" vernis du japon " may be derived. The Chinese name has no 
connection with the word ailanto, which is supposed in Europe to 
be its native name in China and India, and is thought to mean 


"tree of tbo gods." It is intensely bitter and astringent, of a 
Avarm taste, free from poison, and emits a disagreeable smell, from 
which latter circumstances its Chinese name is derived. The 
Chinese medical works recommend it as an antidote against 
sulphur, arsenic, and gold poisoning. It is said, also, to possess 
anthelmintic properties, and to be used in demonology against 
the supposed transfer of disease from a corpse. It is also useful 
in diarrhoea, prolapsus aui, and leucorrhoea. It is frequently pre- 
scribed alone ; at other times in conjunction with other remedies, 
particularly Eadix hedysari and the fruit of TerminaUa chehula, — 
favourite remedies in diarrhoea and dysentery, — which increase its 
efficacy. It is strongly recommended in all cases of htemorrhage, 
from whatever cause or locality. It is used, too, in gonorrhoea and 
spermatorrhoea, and in short, in fluxes in general. The part used is 
the inner white bark of the root and stem of the non-fragrant 
species. Whether taken in infusion or in a pill, it is invariably 
prescribed to be taken on an empty stomach, in congee or with milk 
or soft boiled rice. In the most severe cases it is taken in conjunc- 
tion with Castus amainis and vinegar. 

Pumpkin Seeds and their Active Principle. (From Phann. 
Zeitunrj, 1877, No. 55.) The nature and location of the active 
principle of the pumpkin seeds appears to have been determined by 
Heckel, of Nancy, who has published an interesting memoir on this 
subject. In the French drug trade pumpkin seeds are derived from 
Gucurbita viaxima, C. Tepo, and C. moschata, which are equally 
serviceable against tape- worm, while the black seeds of G. vielano- 
carpa, or the seeds of the closely related genus Giicuviis, are entirely 
devoid of medicinal value, since the tAvo latter lack the very mem- 
brane in which the active principle resides. The seeds of the thi-ee 
first-mentioned species differ chiefly in dimensions and colour. Those 
of C. Pepo (pumpkin) are the smallest, having an average length of 
6-7 millimetres, rarely as much as 20-25 mm.; they are oblong- 
ovate, have a groove along both edges, where they are thickened, 
and have a dirty white colour. The seeds of C. maxima are 18-25 
mm. long, by 10-15 mm. broad, are regularly oval, and vary in 
colour from white to orange. G. moschata has slightly smaller seeds, 
16-22 mm. long and 9-12 mm. broad, pure white, grooved, and the 
surrounding thickened edge of darker colour. These three varieties 
of seeds consist of a perisperm made up of four coats, and an embryo 
with two thick oily cotyledons. The most external coat of the 
perisperm is an exceedingly fine membrane, constructed from a single 
layer of oblong cells, which imparts to certain varieties a character- 


istic silver-grey appearance. Below this lies the tougher testa, made 
up from singularly polyedric, finely incrusted cells filled with starch. 
Both of these coats are removed by washing the dried seeds, while 
the washing o^ fresh seeds removes also the next two coats. The 
first of these — the third coat, counting from outside — is dirty-white, 
of a loose and spongy texture, and consists of spherical reticulated 
cells. The fourth and innermost coat, finally, which has a dark 
green colour when fresh, changing gradually to greenish yellow, 
has a chartaceous appearance and consists of two layers : the outer 
one made up of hexagonal or pentagonal cells with moderately thick 
walls, including chlorophyll and a resinous mass; the inner one 
formed by elongated cells, including starch. The resinous mass in 
the outer layer of the fourth or innermost coat of the seeds is, ac- 
cording to Heckel, the active tsenicidal principle, and not, as has 
been supposed, the fatty oil residing in the cotyledons. Owino- to 
the absence of this papyraceous membrane, which alone contains 
the resin, in other cucurbitaceous seeds, these latter are inert. At 
the same time it is shown that even active seeds become inert, when 
they are blanched in a fresh ^ state, as all the coats are thereby 

Mate, or Paraguayan Tea. Dr. Bialet. (Abstract of a report 
in the Mevista Farmaceutica; Pharm. Jown., 3rd series, vii., 4.) The 
mate, or Paraguay tea tree (Ilex mate paraguayensis) is a small tree 
belonging to the family of Celastrinece, which reaches at tlie most 
a height of seven metres ; ordinarily it does not exceed four or 
five. Its trunk is about twenty centimetres in circumference, and 
is covered by a whitish bark. The leaves are oblong, cuneiform, 
obtuse, and finely dentate. It has axillary multipartite peduncles ; 
calyx tetrasepalous ; the corolla with four petals in the form of a 
crown; stile, none; stigma, four-fid; fruit, a four-seeded berry. The 
plant grows very abundantly in Paraguay, North Corrientes, Chaco, 
and South Brazil, where it forms woods called "^er&aZes." 

According to Dr. Mantegazza, mate is prepared in Paraguay in 
the following way : — The entire trees are cut down, and the small 
branches and shoots are taken with the leaves and placed in the 
tataciia, a plot of earth about six feet square surrounded by a 
fire, where the plant undergoes the first roasting. From thence 
it is taken to the barbaciia, which is a grating supported by a 
strong arch, underneath which burns a large fire ; here it is sub- 
mitted to a particular torrefaction, determined by experience, which 
develops the aromatic pi'inciple. Then it is reduced to a coarse 
powder in mortars formed of pits dug in the earth and well rammed. 



It is next put into fresh bullock skins, well pressed, and placed in the 
sun to dry. The packages (tercois) thus obtained, which weigh 90 
to 100 kilograms, are very compact ; and have an average value in 
commerce of one to two dollars the kilo., according to quality; those 
of Paraguay and Missiones being the better, or least hurtful, those 
of Oi'an and Paranagua being much more prejudicial to health. 

Of all the analyses of mate that have appeared in books. Dr. Bialet 
considers not one, up to the present time, deserves much credit. 
Senor Arata, however, who has devoted much time and skill to the 
subject, has placed the following data at his service : — 

Mate contains in 100 parts : — 

Organic combustible substances 

The ash contains : — 

Calcium Oxide 

Magnesium Oxide 

Sodiiim Oxide 

Potassium Oxide . 

Manganese Oxide 

Ferric Oxide 

Sulphuric Acid 

Hydi'ochloric Acid 

Phosphoric Acid . 

Carbonic Acid 

Sand, Silica, Carbon, and loss 



It will be understood that the enormous relative quantities of 

sand found in the analysis is a result of the mode of preparation in 
excavations made in the soil. 

The plant contains : — 

Principles soluble in Ether .... 9-820 

Alcohol . . . 8-432 

Water .... 26-208 
,, ,, Water acidulated with 

Hydrochloric Acid 7-260 

In solution of Caustic Soda .... 16-880 

Cellulose 13-280 

Water 9000 

Sand . 9-120 


' Among the soluble principles is an average of 1'300 of caffeine. 
The quantity, however, was found to be very variable in different 
plants analysed ; the Paraguay and Missiones contained the most, 


and the Paranagua and Argentine the least. Senor Arata has made 
a careful search for caffeic acid, and the cafFeates that some say they 
have found in mate, but hitherto always with negative results ; the 
same remark applies to the examination for a volatile acid. 

The tannin of mate is peculiar ; it does not tan hides, and requires 
a special method for its estimation. The average amount obtained 
by the ordinary method is not more than 12 per cent. ; but the 
whole quantity present amounts to about 16 per cent. 

Mate contains also a large quantity of a peculiar fatty matter, not 
entirely saponifiable by potash, besides pectic matters. 

Comparing mate with the other cafFeic substances, it ranks 
between coffee and tea for the proportion of caffeine it contains, and 
has the largest proportion of mineral salts. 

The action of mate, like that of all other caffeic substances, is 
upon the nervous system, but though it contains a large quantity of 
caffeine it does not exalt the peripheric nerves like tea, nor the 
cerebric like coffee ; but rather contributes in a high degree to the 
indolence and drowsiness of the ordinary drinkers of mate, whose 
mental faculties become at length disarranged and impoverished to 
a lamentable degree. It accelerates the cardiac conti-actions, produc- 
ing many more affections of the heart than tea or coffee. Upon the 
digestive organs, it acts variously; no other beverage disturbs them 
so much, though there are persons who can tolerate its use. It ac- 
celerates the peristaltic movements, and produces an irritation of the 
organs generally. These effects are produced in whatever way the 
mate may be taken; but the most injurious effects are produced 
upon the mucous membrane, when the mate is taken hot and is 
sucked through a " bombilla," as it then passes into the stomach 
uncooled by previous contact with the mouth. 

"When the use of mate is prolonged, it becomes an impei'ious 
necessity, such a gloominess following abstention from it, that 
habitual drinkers would rather go without food than without mate. 
The moderate use of two or three doses a day dui'ing the summer 
heats or great fatigue is convenient, but it should be taken from 
a cup. It adds to the disadvantage of the " bombilla," that by 
indiscriminate use of the same bombilla by different persons, it 
may become the vehicle of contagion for the most repulsive com- 

The Seeds of Eicinus Communis. E. L. Boerner. (From an in- 
augural essay: Amer. Journ. Phartn., Nov., 1876.) The acrid princi- 
ple of ricinus seeds is but in a slight degree extracted in the 
expression of the oil ; and the residual marc, as left by the manu- 


facttirer of castor oil, -svould, therefore, contain the greater portion 
of it, and was the material operated upon. 

The coarse particles which were liable to interfere with perco- 
lation being rejected, four different portions, of 1000 grains each, 
were treated respectively with gasolin, bisulphide of carbon, ether, 
and alcohol, until exhausted ; the various menstrua evaporated, and 
the residues weighed, yielding from gasolin, 6'9 per cent. ; bisul- 
phide of carbon, 11-77 per cent. ; ether, 14 per cent. ; and alcohol, 
21"2 per cent. The first three appeared to be pure oil, and were of 
a light yellow colour, while the alcohol residue was much darker, 
and contained considerable colouring matter, which was deposited 
upon standing. 

The marc which had been exhausted with gasolin was further 
treated with bisulphide of carbon, resulting in an additional 6-o7 
per cent, of oily residue, from which, after a few days' standing, 
acicular crystals separated, which were insoluble in gasolin, partly 
soluble in ether and in alcohol. A second attempt to obtain the 
crystals was unsuccessful. That portion of marc which had been 
treated with bisulphide of carbon yielded nothing to gasolin upon 
subsequent treatment with this menstruum. 

A portion of exhausted marc was macerated with water until 
decomposed, requiring for the process about fourteen days. It was 
then strained, to, separate coarser particles, and distilled ; the dis- 
tillate, having an acid reaction and an odour resembling that of 
decayed cheese, was treated with carbonate of zinc, and filtered ; 
upon concentration of the filtrate, crystals of butyrate of zinc sepa- 
rated. Both crystals and mother-liquor, when shaken with sulphuric 
acid and alcohol, immediately developed in a marked degree the 
odour of butyric ether. A portion of this ethereal liquid, neutralized 
with ammonia, was unaffected by the addition of ferric chloride, thus 
indicating the absence of an acetate. 

An experiment was made similar to the one of Professor Tuson, in 
which he found a crystallizable substance supposed to be an alkaloid. 

A portion of the marc was boiled with successive portions of 
water, the several liquids strained through muslin, and the result- 
ing decoction evaporated to the consistence of a soft extract, which 
was exhausted with boiling alcohol. Upon standing, a substance 
of a resinous appearance," but soluble in water, separated from the 
filtrate, and was removed by a second filtration. The filtrate was 
concentrated, and, as no crystals separated, magnesia was added, the 
mixture evaporated to dryness, again exhausted with boiling alcohol, 
and filtered, when, upon concentration and a few days' stranding. 


colourless crystals, having the form of rectangular prisms and tables, 
separated, answering to the appearance of those obtained by Pro- 
fessor Tuson. These crystals were slowly soluble in hot water. In 
an acidulated solution of the crystals, phosphomolybdic acid, tannic 
acid, and iodohydrargyrate of potassium produced neither a pre- 
cipitate nor a coloration ; while in the mother-liquor precipitates 
were at once formed by the two first-named reagents, but by the 
last one only after some houi's, and in amount about one-eighth that 
formed by the phosphomolybdic acid. The mother-liquor, when 
heated with solid hydrate of potassium, developed the odour of 
ammonia. From these results the writer concludes that the crys- 
talline substance in question is not an alkaloid. 

A substance resembling emulsin was obtained by forming an 
emulsion of the marc with water, adding an equal bulk of ether, 
and agitating repeatedly for twenty-four hours, when, upon stand- 
ing, the liquid separated into two layers ; the supernatant liquid 
being removed, alcohol was added to the other, which precipitated 
the emulsin. This emulsin, with amygdalin, in the presence of 
water, developed the odour of hydrocyanic acid after several days' 
standing. The result of Mr. H. Bower (American Journal of Phar- 
rnacij, 1854, p. 208) is confii'med by this experiment. 

The residue obtained from the alcoholic percolate having deposited 
a semi-solid portion largely composed of colouring matter, was 
agitated with ether, which took up the oil. The part left undis- 
solved by the ether was treated with successive portions of alcohol 
until but a few grains were left ; this, containing a number of 
minute crystals, and having a very sweet taste, was dissolved in 
water. The application of Trommer's test proved the presence of 
sugar. A drop of the aqueous solution, placed on a microscope slide 
and evaporated, plainly revealed the presence of cane sugar. 

As the best authorities agreed in placing the amount of fixed oil 
obtained from the kernels of the seeds at less than -jO per cent., it 
would seem that, as more than 11 per cent, is obtainable from the 
marc as rejected by the manufacturer by treatment with bisulphide 
of carbon, the latter oil could be produced at a less cost than an 
inferior quality of the expressed article, and answer the same pur- 
pose for use in the arts. 

The writer intends making further experiments to determine the 
amount of butyric acid obtainable from the marc, by a process 
similar to the one above described. 

New Italian Variety of Liquorice Extract. A, Peltz. (Pharm. 
Journ., from Pharmaceut. Zeifschr. fur E^tssland, xv., 257.) The 



author reports on a new variety of liquorice extract which he had 
received for examination from a Russian wholesale house. It occurs 
in irregular masses, is rather tough, but can be cut with a knife ; 
has a dull appearance, and possesses a purely sweet, uot burnt, 
taste. On dissolving it in water it left but a very small residue ; 
and the solution, when evaporated on a water bath yielded 75 per 
cent, of extract dried at 00° C. The undissolved residue was washed 
with a weak solution of ammonia, then boiled with watei',' and the 
liquid tested with tincture of iodine, which gave a distinct indication 
of starch. 

To ascertain the amount of glycyrrhizin 10 grams of the liquorice 
were dissolved in water, filtered, the filtered solution mixed with a 
sufficient quantity of dilute sulphuric acid, and the precipitate col- 
lected on a filter and washed. As this did not give the glycyrrhizin 
sufficiently pure, the precipitate was again dissolved in weak solu- 
tion of ammonia and reprecipitated with sulphuric acid. This pre- 
cipitate was dried, triturated with one-third of its weight of barium 
carbonate, and extracted with hot absolute alcohol. The alcoholic 
extract evaporated to dryness gave 1"5 gram of glycyrrhizin. 

The amount of sugar was ascertained by means of the copper 
solution to be 10 per cent. ; the loss in moisture when dried at 
100° amounted to 14 per cent. 

The following table shows the position of the new substance in 
relation to other commercial liquorices : — 


per cent. 

per cent. 

per cent. 

per cent. 

per cent. 

English . 












Bayoune . 












Spanish . 












SiciMan . 






Baracco . 






Morean . 












It will be seen that though the Morean variety yields more ex- 
tract, it is accounted for by the amount of sugar ; whilst the Kasan 
variety, which contains almost the same amouut of glycyrrhizin as 
the Italian, has the disadvantage of an unpleasant, almost tarry 
taste. The new article, notwithstanding its good qualities, is said 
to have been offered at a low price. 


Megarrhiza Californica, Torrey. J. P. Heaney. (Abstract of an 
inaiig^ural essay: Amer. Journ. Pharm., October, 1876, 451.) This 
plant, better known by the synonyms of the " big" or "giant root " 
and "manroot,"is a herbaceous, climbing, and succulent vine, grow- 
ing abundantly throughout the State. It is closely allied to the 
echinocystis of the Eastern States, and also to a new species called 
Marah mvricattts, or California balsam apple, which has been de- 
scribed by Dr. Kellogg in the proceedings of the California Academy 
of Natural Sciences (vol. i.). It is found both in dry, sandy, and 
rich soil. In the former it grows in bushy tufts, about two feet high 
and four or more wide, being evidently somewhat stunted ; but in 
rich soil, when well shaded, its annual stem climbs thirty to forty 
feet over trees, and acquires its largest growth. It flowers in 
March and April. 

The most remarkable feature of this plant is its gigantic root, 
which is perennial, tubero-fusiform, externally of a yellowish grey 
colour, and rugose ; within white, succulent and fleshy, of a nause- 
ous odour, which is lost in a great measure by drying, and of a 
bitter, acrid, and disagreeable taste, which leaves a feeling of acridity 
5n the fauces. The Indians are said to use this root as a drastic 
■purge in dropsy. It has also been used by domestic practitioners, 
in the form of decoction, both as a laxative and cathartic, with good 
results. On drying, the root lost from 70 to 75 per cent, in weight. 
The dried root is externally of a yellowish brown colour, and longi- 
tudinally wrinkled ; internally of a white colour, becoming some- 
what darker by age, concentrically striated, light, brittle, and 
readily pulverizable, yielding a whitish powder. 

A preliminary examination made with aqueous, alcoholic, and 
ethereal extracts of the fresh root, led to the following conclusions, 
namely : — 

That the root contained a bitter principle soluble in water 
and alcohol, but more readily in the latter ; also a resinous, fatty 
matter and an organic acid, probably of a fatty nature, which was 
soluble in and extracted both by alcohol and ether. The probable 
presence of gum and pectin was likewise indicated, as well as the 
absence of albumen, sugar, and volatile oil. 

Examination of the Dried Boot. — A quantity of the powdered dried 
root was first treated with ether until thoroughly exhausted by this 
menstruum, in order to remove the fatty and resinous matter. The 
ethereal tincture had a lemon yellow colour, and left, on evaporation, 
a yellowish brown residue, which possessed the characteristic odour 
of the root, a slight bitter taste, was brittle, and had an acid reaction. 


To dcteT'iniuc tlio natiii'c of the free acid, the residue was treated 
with a weak solution of sodic carbonate, and filtered from the in- 
soluble portion. To the filtrate a sufficient quantity of tartaric acid 
was added, when whitish oily globules were observed on the surface 
of the liquid. These had an acid reaction, possessed a disagreeable 
odour, and gave to paper a stain unafi'ected by heat. The author 
names it megarrhizic acid. The portion insoluble in sodic car- 
bonate was treated with a solution of caustic potash, in order to 
effect the saponification of the fatty matter, and the insoluble resin- 
ous substance was removed by a filter, washed, dried, and reserved 
to be examined subsequently. To the solution of soap obtained was 
added a sufficient quantity of tartaric acid to decompose it. Ether 
was now added, and the mixture agitated. After a few hours the 
supernatant ethereal liquid was removed and allowed to evaporate 
spontaneously, when it was found to possess properties character- 
istic of fatty acid bodies. The insoluble resinous substance obtained 
before was first boiled with water, then thrown on a filter, well 
washed and dried. It was afterwards dissolved in ether, and the 
solution decolorized by animal charcoal. The filti'ate was evapo- 
rated, the residue redissolved in alcohol, and then allowed to 
evaporate spontaneously, when it left a deposit exhibiting under 
the microscope a rhomboidal crystalline structure ; it is evidently a 
resin. This mefjarrhizitin is soluble in alcohol and ether, and is un- 
affected by alkalies and solution of cupric sulphate. 

The root, previously exhausted by ether, was next treated with 
alcohol (sp. gr. 0'835), until deprived of its bitter taste. The tinc- 
ture was evaporated to a small bulk, then thrown into water to 
remove traces of fat or resin, and afterwards filtei'ed. The liquid 
was heated to expel the spirit. To the resulting aqueous fluid was 
added a concentrated solution of tannic acid. A bulky, gelatinous 
precipitate was obtained. This, being removed by a filter, was well 
washed and dried. It was now dissolved in alcohol (95 per cent.), 
the tannin thrown down by plumbic subacetate, the excess of lead 
removed by H, S, and the liquid filtered and evaporated. The resi- 
due well washed with ether yielded the bitter principle pure. This 
process was adopted from that of Dr. "VValtz, as mentioned in his 
analysis of colocynth. 

To the principle thus obtained the name of megarrhizhi is given. 
It is of a brownish coloui", somewhat transparent, brittle, and friable, 
yielding a yellowish brown powder. It is fusible below 100° C, in- 
flammable, more soluble in alcohol than in water, both solutions 
being intensely bitter. It is insoluble in ether. The following re- 


actions with reagents were obtained : Hg S 0.^ dissolved it slowly, 
with the production of first a bright red, and afterwards a brown 
colour; H CI gave a faint violet colour ; H N O.,, a yellow dull colour. 
An aqueous solution of it produced with ferric chloride a deep 
colour, but no precipitate ; with plumbic acetate and subacetate, 
mercuric chloride, solution of iodine, potassa or its carbonate, or 
argentic nitrate, no change ; with tannic acid, a bulky, gelatinous 
precipitate, and with bromine water, a white, insoluble precipitate. 
Boiled with baryta water, decomposition ensued; treated with dilute 
Hn S 0.J or HCl, no change was observed in the cold, but upon boiling, 
immediately decomposition took place, yielding glucose and an 
insoluble substance, which may be called megcvrrhizioretin. 

This megarrhizioretin, when washed and dried, possesses a dai'k 
brown colour, a resinous appearance, and is somewhat brittle. 
Alcohol dissolves it, but ether is only a partial solvent of it, leav- 
ing an insoluble portion behind. It is therefore a complex body. 

The ashes showed, on analysis, the presence of magnesia, lime, 
iron, potassa, soda, chlorine, sulphuric and phosphoric acids, also a 
silicious residue. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that megarrhizin belongs to 
that class of substances known as glucosides, to which belong 
also colocynthin and bryonin, and that it agrees with these two in 
many of their chemical and physical properties. But megarrhizin 
difiers from colocynthin in the fact that colocynthein, the insoluble 
resinous substance obtained from the boiling of it with diluted 
acids, is soluble in ether, while megarrhizioretin is but partially 
soluble in that liquid, thereby agreeing with bryoretin. But it 
dilfers from bryonin principally in the behaviour to sulphuric acid, 
which dissolves megarrhizin, yielding a brown colour; while 
bryonin produces with it a blue colour. Therefore it was concluded 
to be a distinct principle. 

Physiological Properties. — A sample of the extract prepared from 
an alcoholic tincture, and also some of the bitter principle, were 
examined physiologically, with the following results : — The extract 
in large doses is a powerful irritant, causing gastro-enteritis and 
death. It produces griping pains in the stomach, nausea, vomiting, 
and profuse diarrhoea, violent strangury, with other symptoms of 
renal and vesical irritation. Given in a quarter to half grain doses, 
the extract is a drastic hydragogue cathartic, causing nausea, some- 
times vomiting, griping pains, and copious watery stools. In smaller 
doses, frequently repeated, it is a diuretic and laxative. Notwith- 
standing its activity, it is a safe and convenient purgative, and 


useful in all cases where it is desirable to produce an energetic 
influence on the bowels, to obtain large evacuations. Its hydragogue 
properties must prove beneficial in dropsies. It also augments the 
urinary discharges. In intestinal inflammations it should not be 

Cortex Radicis Granati. (Pharm. Zeihmg, Sept. 23rd, 1876, 659.) 
This bark deserves the first place among the remedies for tape- 
worm. It is true that some practitioners have given it up in 
favour of konsso, but the cause of this must be sought in the age 
of the bark employed by them. The fresh bark only, and especially 
that of the roots of trees not less than ten or twelve years old, can be 
thoroughly depended upon for its effects. 60-80 grams of the fresh 
bark should be digested with 750-1000 grams of water for 12 hoxirs, 
then boiled for an hour, and the decoction evaporated to 300 grams. 
The resulting strong decoction is mixed with 30 grams of castor oil 
and a sufficient quantity of gum for emulsifying the oil, and the 
whole taken first thing in the morning, a suitable diet having been 
observed during the previous day. It is useful to touch the worm 
now and then with a drop of a mineral acid during its elimination. 

According to an analysis by Cemedella, the bark contains in 100 
parts : wax, 0"8; resin, 4"5; mannite, I'S; uncrystallizable sugar, •2"7 ; 
gum, 32; inulin, 1"0; vegetable mucus, 0"6; tannic acid, 10"4; gallic 
acid, 4"0 ; extractive, 4'0 ; malic acid, pectin, calcium oxalate, 4'5 ; 
cellulose, 51*6. It is occasionally adulterated with the bark of 
Berheris vulgaris. The true root-bark of Pnnica Granahim, when 
fresh, is pale yellow, or greenish yellow internally, and greyish yellow 
externally. To water it imparts a yellow tint, which changes to 
blackish blue on the addition of ferrous sulphate, and to pink pass- 
ing to yellow on the addition of acids. The stem bark and the 
rind of the fruit are useless as anthelmintics, but possess tonic and 
astringent properties. 

Adulterations of the Rhizomes of Imperatoria Ostruthium. 
(From Pharmaceut. Zeitnng, 1877, 224.) The rhizomes of master- 
wort, Imperatoria Ostruthium, which were formerly officinal in the 
Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, and are still so in the Pharmacopceia 
Germanica, are liable to frequent and extensive adulteration in con- 
sequence of the careless and indiscriminate manner in which they 
are collected in Switzerland. The admixtures most frequently 
detected by the writer wei'e those with aconite root and veratrum 
rhizome. As small particles of these are more difficult to distin- 
guish from masterwort than the larger pieces, any such particles 
which do not permit of a proper identification ought to be rejected. 



Tlie roots of Gentiana p^mctafa, Gentiana purpiirea, Pimpinella 
saxifraqa, Meiim athamanticum, Libanotis montana, and the rhizomes 
of Poh/goimm Bistorta, have also been obseiTed as occasional admix- 
tures in this drug. 

The Gums of Senegal. Dr. A. Corre. (Pharm. Journ., from 
Jonrn. de Pharm. [4], xxiv., 318.) In commerce the gums of Senegal 
are distinguished according to the district which yields them, or 
the port from which they are exported. They are: — (1) gomjies 
Bas-du-fleuye (Bas-du-fleuve, Degana, and Podor : gums from the 
desert of Bounoun and the country of the Braknas) ; and (2) Galam 
r,uMS, or GOMMES Haut-du-fleuve (Galam, Podor, Bakel, and Medina). 
These gums, when carefully sorted, yield very different products, 
■which the author classifies as follows : — 

A first group includes the gums in round pieces (en icndes, so-called 
because of their form). The subdivisions of this group are regulated 
by the degree of consistence and resistance, size and colour, of the 

A. Hard Gums (Gommes dures), of firm consistence, with large, 
clear, shining fracture : — (1) grosse blanche : pieces large or medium, 
sized, entire, white or yellowish white ; (2) petite blanche : pieces 
small, entire or in fragments, generally whiter than the preceding ; 
(3) grosse blonde : pieces large or medium sized, entire, yellowish or 
reddish yellow ; (4) petite blonde : pieces small, entire, or in frag- 
ments, yellowish or reddish yellow ; (5) deiircieme blonde : pieces 
more or less large, entire or in fragments, reddish ; (6) fabrique : 
pieces more or less large, entire or in fragments, reddish or brownish, 
moderately limpid, grumous or tearlike on the surface, with a frac- 
ture often resinoid, uneven, and dull. 

B. Soft or Friable Gums (Gommes molles ou friahles). — (7) 
blanche; (8) blonde ; (9) fabriqite. 

In a second group the author places the gums occurring in elon- 
gated masses, a form which results, doubtless, through delay in the 
solidification of the gum upon the tree, caused by rains or humidity 
of the atmosphere: — (10) larmeuse: in mamillated or undulated 
masses, clear light yellow colour, shining at the surface, fracture 
clean, hard; (11) vermicelle : rather dull white, surface corrugated, 
fracture pretty clean and shining, friable ; this gum is remarkable 
for its convolute form, which resembles that of vermicelli. 

To a third group belong the gums in fragments and powder, the 
debris and residue of the preceding: — (12) gj-os grabeaux ; (13) 
moyens grabeaux; (14) mentis grabeaiix ; (15) grabeauoi tries; (16) 
grabeaux frabrique ; (1 7) poxissiere. 


To a fourth group is allotted (18) viarrons or hois, a largisli gum, 
freqaeutly of resinoid aspect, yellowish or brownish, mixed with, or 
adherent to, fragments of bark. 

The Senegal gums are collected from a great variety of plants. 
The acacias {Acacia nilutica, Verek, Adansonii, albida, dealhata, Sing, 
Seijal, etc.) yield the greater part, and the finest qualities They 
are also obtained from the Khayd senegalensis, certain Sj)ondias, 
some Sferculiacece, and perhaps Bassia, etc. 

As the result of the study of the mode in which the gum is pro- 
duced from the verek, the author is of opinion that the starting- 
point is certainly in the cambium. When a transverse incision is 
made in a young branch, there is observed at first a sort of exuda- 
tion, badly defined, between the wood and the bark. As the exuda- 
tion becomes more considerable it raises the bark, and makes its 
way to the exterior through any cracks or fissures. But as there 
are two layers in this zone — a ligneous and a cellular layer — the 
question arises in which layer does the gum take its origin ? For 
the followiug reasons, the author believes it to be formed in the 
ligneous layer at the expense of the crude sap circulating therein: — 

1. Upon difi'erent specimens of verek he has observed that at 
the level of the base of the gummy exudations the exterior woody 
bundles become deviated in the form of a capsule, and present traces 
of an erosive or destructive action. In very young branches, by the 
aid of a microscope, these bundles may be distinguished, dissociated 
and jagged, in the midst of the gummy matter. 

2. The balls of gum are frequently marked with very regular 
cavities, similar to those produced in a viscous mass by blowing air 
into it through a slender tube. These cavities cannot be due to the 
penetration of a gas coming directly from without, for they face 
inwards, i.e., towards the base of the exudations ; they could only 
be produced by the air from the vessels of the sap wood, ruptured 
and dissociated at the same time as the woody fibres. 

3. The mineral elements of gum (lime, etc.), belong to the crude sap. 
Gum, however, is not simply water charged with salts, neither is 

it a highly concentrated saline solution. It is a product that pre- 
sents great analogy of chemical composition with lignose. The 
author, therefore, considers gum to be the result of a kind of lique- 
faction of the elements of the sap wood by the crude sap. 

It is incontestable that the formation of gum is connected with 
an anomalous state due to excess of nutrition. It is observed more 
particularly at the points of budding, and at the bifurcation of the 
branches, and it acquires a remarkable development upon abnormal 



nodosities ; in fact, wlierever the nutritive action exists in the 
greatest intensity. Beyond certain limits, tliis energy in the rising 
of the sap is accompanied by a slackening of the circulation, which 
leads to a stagnation of the liquid through the engorgement of the 
channels ; hence, perhaps by absorption, leading to the softening 
and liquefaction of the fibrous and vascular element of the sap -wood. 

In this phenomenon the easterly winds have a share, their high 
temperature and dryness favouring the determination of the sap to 
the extei'ior. Their influence is not, as often stated, limited to the 
production of cracks in the bark. It will be seen that there is a 
great analogy between the mode of the formation of verek gum and 
that of the gum of rosacese, as described by Trecul. 

Recently an important part in the pi'oduction of Senegal gums 
has been attributed to a loranthaceous parasite, which is met with 
frequently in eastern Africa, not only on gum trees, but also on 
guava trees, palms, etc. The author has never observed the least 
exudation of gum at the points of implantation of this parasite, 
which itself takes up sap and leaves no excess for the plant on 
which it is developed. The nodosities, which have probably been 
attributed to the action of this parasite, and thus led to the sugges- 
tion, the author considers to be the result of insect punctures. 

The Preparation and Toxic Effects of Gelsemine. T. Gr. Worm ley. 
(Arner. Jouni. Pharm., April, 1877, 150.) The author has formerly 
shown that Gelsemium sempervlrens contains an organic acid, gel- 
seminic acid, and a nitrogenised alkaloid, gelsemine, to the latter of 
which the plant owes its activity, (See Year-Booh of Pharmaoj, 
1876, 194-197.) 

The method thei'e pointed out for the preparation of these two 
princii^les was to concentrate the fluid extract of the root (contain- 
ing the soluble matter of 480 grains of the root to the fluid ounce) 
to about one-eighth its volume, dilute the concentrated extract with 
several times its volume of water, and after subsidence of the resinous 
matter and filtration, to again concentrate the liquid to the original 
volume of the extract employed. The liquid was then acidulated 
with hydrochloric acid, and the gelseminic acid extracted with ether, 
after which the liquid was rendered alkaline, and the gelsemine 
extracted by chloroform. 

More recent investigations have shown that by the former part of 
this process a large proportion of both the principles in question 
are separated with the resinous matter, and thus escape recovery. 
After trying various methods for the moi'e complete recovery of these 
principles from the fluid extract, the author finds the following to 


give the best results. A given volume of the fluid extract, acidulated 
■with acetic acid, is slowly added, with constant stirring, to about 
eight volumes of water; after the separated resinous matter has 
completely deposited, the liquid is filtered, and the filtrate concen- 
trated on a water bath to something less than the volume of fluid 
extract employed. The gelseminic acid is then extracted from the 
concentrated fluid by ether, after which the liquid is treated with 
slight excess of carbonate of sodium, and the gelsemine exti'acted 
with ether or chloroform. For the extraction of the first of these 
principles it is not essential that the liquid should be acidulated, 
but in the presence of a free acid the results are more satisfactory. 

A series of examinations of a number of samples of the fluid 
extract of gelsemium, prepared by several of the more prominent 
manufacturers, showed that, as found in commerce, it quite uni- 
formly contains about 0"'2 per cent, of gelsemine, and 0"4 per cent, 
of the non-nitrogenised principle. The only marked exception to 
this was found in the case of a fluid extract furnished a physician 
as a sample, which contained just double the ordinary proportion of 
the alkaloid and acid. Two samples of fluid extract, prepared by 
the same firm, as obtained from the shops, contained the ordinary 
quantity of the alkaloid and acid. Within the last few years, 
thirteen cases of poisoning by the preparation of gelsemium, have 
been reported, nine of which proved fatal. In the fatal cases the 
dose of the fluid extract varied, in the case of adults, from about 
one fluid dram to one tablespoonful ; and the time of death from 
two hours and a half to seven hours and a half. In one instance 15 
grains of the resinoid " gelsemin," proved fatal to a woman in one 
hour after the dose had been taken. 

Fifty minims of a tincture prepared from four ounces of the root 
to one pint of dilute alcohol, proved fatal to a child aged three 
years in two hours. And in another instance a much less quantity 
of the tincture, taken in two doses, caused the death of a child in 
one hour after the second dose had been taken. 

In one of the non-fatal cases a tablespoonful of the fluid extract 
had been taken ; but it was soon followed by vomiting, induced by 
an emetic. 

In another instance, in which from one to two teaspoonfuls of 
the ordinary fluid extract produced most profound symptoms, 
recovery took place under the administration of three grains or 
more of morphia, employed hypodermically, in half -grain doses, 
repeated every few minutes. From the report of this case by Dr. 
Geo. S. Courtwright {^Cincinnati Lancet and Observer, Nov., 1876), 


it would appear that the morphia was the means of saving the life 
of the individual. 

In the cases thus far reported there seems to be only one, or at 
most two, instances in which the poison was administei'ed with 
criminal intent. 

The Active Principles of Calabar Bean. (Pharm. ZeU., 1877, 
Nos., 16, 30; Neiv Remedies, June, 1877, 103.) There is scarcely 
another modern di-ug which has been subjected to such frequent 
and exhaustive investigations as the seeds oi Physostigmavenenosum; 
bat at the same time there is a surprising difference of views and 
theories in regard to its physiological action. All authors are agreed 
on one property of the drug, namely, that of contracting the pupil, 
but in all other respects they differ widely. Ever since Fraser's 
classical investigations (1863), it has been customary to regard the 
calabar bean as a poison directly paralysing the spinal cord, and 
from this view arose its employment as a remedy in tetanus, where 
it was found (by Watson and others) to be so exceedingly effective 
that most other previously-used remedies were henceforth dis- 
carded. But lately statements have been published, in reference to 
the action of the commercial extract of calabar and of " physos- 
tigmin," which would make their usefulness in tetanus appear 
exceedingly problematical. Rossbach and Nothnagel, for instance, 
assert that extract of calabar is not a paralyzing but a tetanizing 
poison ; and the latter adds that it resembled strychnia, in so far as 
its paralysing effect was a secondary symptom depending upon an 
exhaustion of nerves and muscles, by preceding violent convulsions. 
Martin Damourette thought he had solved the problem by supposing 
that the drug excited the spinal mari-ow, and paralysed the peripheral 
nerves. But such compromises, unsupported by evidence, are in- 
admissible in exact science, and Rossbach was unable to obtain any 
paralysing effects upon the peripheral nerves with Merck's physos- 
tigmin. It was left to chemistry to throw light upon these apparent 
discrepancies. Hitherto it had been supposed that calabar contained 
only o/ie alkaloid, namely, physostigmia, as Hesse called it, or eserina, 
as Ve and Leven termed it. But, according to the researches of 
Harnack and Witkowsky, conducted in the pharmacological labora- 
tory at Strassbourg, calabar bean contains tivo alkaloids, one of 
which entirely resembles strychnia in its effects, while the other 
produces the previously known central paralysis. The new alkaloid, 
named by the discoverers calabarin (calabaria), differs from phy- 
sostigmia by its insolubility in ether, and easier solubility in water ; 
it is also soluble in alcohol. A farther difference is the fact that 


the precipitate produced by potassium iodobydrargyrate in calabarin 
solutions is insoluble in alcohol. The commercial preparations of 
calabar are, according to the same authorities, mixtures of the two 
alkaloids in varying proportions, and therefore produce such dis- 
cordant effects. Whenever physostigmia preponderates, it appears 
to suppress the effects of calabarin. This fact explains why most 
investigators merely took notice of the paralysing effects. On the 
other hand, there are preparations in the market which scarcely con- 
tain any physostigma at all, as was proved directly by Harnack and 
Witkowsky in the case of an English specimen. The purest com- 
mercial preparation was Duquesnel's eserine, which appears to be 
absolutely free from calabarin. Since, therefore, commercial pre- 
parations of calabar may contain comparatively large per centages 
of calabai'in, the administration of which is positively injurious and 
highly dangerous in tetanus, it is desii'able to possess a means of 
control, or to employ preparations which make the pi'esence of the 
dangerous alkaloid impossible. As the latter is absolutely insoluble 
in ether, it appears advisable to introduce, in place of the present 
officinal alcoholic extract of calabar, an ethereal extract, although the 
same drawback, which Hager points out as inhering to the officinal 
preparation, is not unlikely to attach to this, namely, a process to 
speedy deterioration. Indeed, physostigmia is very readily decom- 
posed with formation of Duquesnel's rubeserin, which appears to 
be formed not only under the influence of alkalies, but even spon- 
taneously, as may be suspected from the change of colour observable 
in old calabar beans. Duquesnel's eserine has an especial tendency 
towards this decomposition, according to Harnack and Witkowsky. 
But rubeserin cannot contaminate the ethereal extract prepared 
from the beans, since it is insoluble in ether. 

In No. 21 of the same seinal we find a communication by 0. Hesse, 
commenting on the above article, in which he states that he has 
succeeded in extracting from calabar beans a substance crystal- 
lizing from alcohol in probably the same form as the so-called 
crystallized eserine, and appearing to be a much more definite and 
stable substance than the latter. It crystallizes from ether, chloro- 
form, and petroleum ether in white silky needles, melts at 133- 
134° C, is indifferent, and greatly reseaibles cholesterin and iso- 
cholestcrin in appearance, though not in properties or composition. 
Hesse also adds that the substitution of nn ethereal instead of an 
alcoholic extract would be of but little use, as calabar beans contain 
physostigmia in such a combination that it appears insoluble in and 
incapable of extraction by pure ether. 


Tlie Tvell-known mannf.actnring chemist, E. ]\Ierck, in Darmstadt, 
has heretofore prepai'od and sohi a substance which was supposed 
to be the only active principle of calabar, and which he called cnla- 
barin, but which was really eserine or physostigmin. He now 
accepts and confirms the results of Harnack's and Witkowsky'.s 
researches ; and has introduced both of the active principles into the 
market labelled with their correct names, namely, j^hysosfigmin (or 
eserine, being the same substance which he formerly sold as cala- 
barin), and calabarin, distinguished by the addition of Harnack's 
name (" Harnack's Calabarin.") The attention of ijhysicians and 
pliarmadsts is 2iarticnlarh/ directed to this change of ajypellations. 

Carobse Folia. Dr. A. Alt. (Pharmaceut. Zeitmig, 1877, 289.) 
The author's attention was directed to this drug by Mr. C. Weber, 
whose long experience as an apothecary at Rio de Janeiro and Monte 
Video had made him familiar with its valuable therapeutic properties. 
It is used in Brazil as a diaphoretic, diuretic, and tonic ; but chiefly 
and most successfully as an alterative in the various forms of syphilis. 
The author has tried it extensively, and expresses himself much 
pleased with the results, especially in old standing cases of syphilitic 
eruptions, and after a course of mercurial treatment. 

The drug is known under the name " Caroba " in Brazilian com- 
merce, and has hitherto met with little attention in Europe. It 
consists of long ovate leaflets, which are dark green on the upper 
and pale green on the lower surface, and have very conspicuous 
lateral veins. Its botanical source, according to Spreugel, is Jaca- 
randa procera, a tree belonging to the family Bignoniaceoi, and 
growing to a height of thirty to forty feet. Its root is dark red ex- 
ternally, and whitish yellow internally ; its stem is much branched, 
and densely covered with unequally pinnate leaves. The flowers 
vary in colour between white and red, and emit a pleasant, honey- 
like odour ; the fruit is a two-celled woody capsule. The drug was 
introduced to the notice of European practitioners by Dr. Joan 
Alves de Carneiro, who placed it before the Medical Academy of 
Paris. The experiments conducted with it by Carron de Villards, 
Bompani, Souto, Barros Pimental, Level, Spicks, and Martin, the 
last named of whom called the plant " Cyhistas antisyphilitica'^ 
proved veiy successful. A decoction of the leaves is much used bv 
the natives as a stomachic tonic and for improving the appetite. In 
syphilis and in skin diseases the drug is employed both internally 
and externally. The preparations generally used are the decoction 
and the powdered leaves. The author recommends a liquid hydro- 
alcoholic extract containing three to four per cent, of dry extract. 


Tiinbo. M. Martin. (New Beviedies, from Bull. Gen. de Therap.) 
Plants belonging to tlie Stxpindacece, the same to which PaulUaia 
sorhilis (the botanical source of guarano) belongs, are very common 
in Brazil, and comprise both trees and climbing shrubs. Some have 
such poisonous properties that the natives use their juices as arrow- 
poisons, while others are innocuous or simply narcotic. The timbo 
(PaidUnia pinnata, Lin.) belongs to the latter class. The timbo is 
a tree found in Brazil, Mexico, the Antilles, and in Guiana. The 
leaves are composed of five leaflets, oval, lanceolate, and crenulated. 
The flowers are polygamous, dioecious, and have five, or rarely four 
pai'ts ; an imbricate calyx ; four unequal petals furnished with scaly 
appendices ; eight stamens situated around a disc with notched 
edges ; ovary with three cells, surmounted with three styles, and 
containing three seeds, and commonly one which has aborted, which 
is provided with an arillus and contains under its envelope an 
embryo without albumen. The bark of the timbo root is the only 
part used in Brazil; it is of a yellowish grey colour, and variable in 
length and thickness. In transverse sections there is observed from 
outside inwards : (1) An exterior layer of periderm, composed of 
numerous masses of corky or woody tissue ; (2) on reaching the 
central parenchyma, there are seen here and there small masses of 
hardened cells (that is to say, having early incrustations), — this 
element is frequent in the bark and in this situation ; (3) a very 
thick layer of cortical parenchyma, in which the cells are distended 
with starch ; (4) in the midst of this parenchyma cells containing 
a resinous material ; (5) bundles of liber arranged in interrupted 
lines and mixed with rays of the medulla. This bark is Avithout 
difiiculty reduced to powder. Five grams of it will absorb, cold, 
fifteen grams of distilled water. 

The bark of timbo root has an agreeable aromatic odour, slightly 
resembling musk. In Brazil it is only employed externally. Poul- 
tices are made from it with boiling water, which are applied to the 
side in afiections of the liver. It often causes intense eruptions, in 
which case the application is discontinued. 

M. Martin has isolated from the root-bark starch, resin, an essen- 
tial oil, chlorophyll, tannin, an organic acid, traces of glucose, and 
an alkaloid to which he gives the name of " timbouiue." 

By first treating the finely powered bark by carbon disulphide, 
the extraction of the alkaloid and other principles is facilitated. 
The sulphate of timbonine crystallizes in white needles. 

Note on a Piper Jaborandi from Rio Janeiro. Dr. A. Gubler, 
(Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim. [4], xxv., 12b; Pharmaceut. Journ. 


3rd series, vii., 7ol.) Besides the jaborandi of Dr. Coutlnho (Pilo- 
carpus jmnnatif alius) , the sialogogue and sudorific properties of 
which are so remarkable, there exists in Brazil, as is known, a large 
number of plants bearing the same popular name, which are used 
against the bites of serpents, etc. All the botanical species, however, 
are included in two families, Butacece and Piperacece. Among the 
latter. Piper citrifolium and P. reticidatum have been mentioned as 
particularly efficacious. A jaborandi from the province of Rio 
Janeiro, which has been the subject of a note in the Journal de 
Therapeutique, for November 25th, by Professor Gubler, appears to 
be referable to either of these species, which perhaps should be com- 
bined in one. 

The plant is a shrub, usually attaining, but sometimes consider- 
ably exceeding, a metre in height. The stems are fasciculated at the 
base, simple, and denuded for half their length, cylindrical, very 
straight, and articulated like the bamboo; towards the top they bear 
dark green leaves that are alternate, shortly petiolate, oval-lanceo- 
late or slightly obtuse. In the axils of these are sometimes found 
catkins of male flowers. A supply of the plant collected by Dr. da 
Veiga, of the Brazilian navy, has been investigated chemically, 
physiologically, and therapeutically. 

According to Professor Gubler the entire plant exhales a slightly 
aromatic odour, which becomes more pronounced upon bruising the 
leaves between the fingers. When chewed the taste is at first 
slightly acid, then warm and aromatic, and finally very piquant, and 
comparable to that of pyrethrum root. This taste is met with in 
the stems and especially in the roots, where it attains a high degree 
of intensity, chiefly in the moderately large portions, about the size 
of a crow quill, which are externally of a rather decided grey colour. 
The more slender and whitish portions are rather insipid, and the 
finest have hardly any taste at all. These differences are dependent 
upon the constitution and thickness of the cortical layer, which 
appears to be the seat of the active principle. 

When a picked fragment of the root is chewed, at first no sensa- 
tion is produced on the palate ; the prickling is first manifested at a 
short interval after the vegetable tissue becomes impregnated with 
saliva. It would appear that the active principle of the drug does 
not exist ready formed in the plant, but is due to a special fermen- 
tation "in the presence of water, similar to that which sets free oil 
of bitter almonds or oil of mustard. When once manifested the 
piquancy rapidly acquires great energy, being accompanied by pain- 
ful shootings and vibratory tremblings of the tongue and lips, as 



though these organs were traversed by an electric discliarge. At 
the same time a very active secretion of all the buccal glands 
becomes developed, and especially an extraordinarily abundant sali- 
vation. These phenomena persist for a few moments after the 
sapid pulp has been rejected, but then decrease and disappear, 
leaving a sensation of freshness and a certain degree of anee.sthesia 
of the palate. After a few minutes, however, all the parts return to 
their normal state. 

Upon swallowing the saliva charged with the active principle, an 
impression of heat is produced at the back of the throat, which 
extends to the oesophagus and stomach, where it gives rise to a sen- 
sation resemblino: huno^er. 

The chemical composition has been studied by M. Hardy, who in 
some preliminary experiments with infusions was able to demon- 
strate the presence of an alkaloid. 

Some leaves and stalks were therefore powdered and left tu 
macerate for four days with three times their weight of 90^ alcohol, 
acidulated with eight grams of hydrochloric acid per litre. The 
alcohol was then decanted and fresh alcohol added, and this was 
repeated three times. The alcoholic solutions were concentrated by 
distillation, and the aqueous solution evaporated and decomposed 
by ammonia in the presence of excess of chloroform. Upon evapo- 
ration of the chloroform the base was left free, but still impure. It 
was therefore treated with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, 
which dissolved the major part of it ; the solution was filtered, eva- 
porated, and ag lin decomposed by ammonia in the presence of 
excess of chloroform. Upon evaporation of the chloroform solution 
the base was deposited, having a crystalline appearance and slightly 
yellowish tint. 

The base presents the characteristic reaction of alkaloids ; its 
solution gives a white precipitate with iodide of mercury and potas- 
sium, and with iodine in iodide of potassium. Another portion of 
the leaves was distilled with water to obtain the volatile oil, but 
only a small quantity was collected, insuffijient for investigation. 

The alkaloid dissolved easily in water slightly acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid, and such a solution was used by Dc. Bochefon- 
taine to study its physiological action upon animals. He found 
that it did not act upon the heart, or influence the muscular 
contractility ; it was not a convulsivant. It appeared to have the 
]iower to prevent the mechanical or electric excitations of the 
mixed nerves, such as the sciatic, from being transmitted to the 
muscles. It appeared even to postess the parahsing power at the 


outset, and this property would seem to distiuguisU it from curare. 
Indeed, the paralysing aetion of curare is usually preceded by some 
slight spasmodic movements, which have not been observed in frogs 
poisoned with the alkaloid of false jaborandi. 

Professor Gubler remarks that the effects observed after the admin- 
istration of the plant to the human subject, although in small doses, 
had not led him to expect so violent an action from the alkaloid of 
the Rio piper. The first experiment, in 1875, with the compara- 
tively fresh plant, did not reveal any great activity compared with 
the excessive power of Pilocarpus penaatifulius. Besides the peppery 
sensation on the mouth and throat, and the heat in the stomach, 
doses of four to six grams of the leaves in infusion only caused 
slight salivation and diaphoresis. More recent experiments have 
been still less fruitful. In a case of acute albuminous nephritis its 
effects were absolutely nil ; whilst in the same patient on the follow- 
ing day an infusion of four grams of Pilocarpus jaborandi in 20U 
grams of water caused abundant salivation and sweating, and an 
increased excretion of urine. 

From these negative facts Professor Gubler draws the following 
conclusions : — 

1. That there exists a striking difference between the mode of 
action of Pilocarpus pennatifolius and of Piper reticulatum. With an 
insignificant topical action, the Pilocarpus manifests a diifused action 
of great energy ; the second, though very aggressive to the organs 
at the entrance to the j^rimce vioi, appears to be nearly inert when ic 
once enters the circulation. 

2. That this inertia of the Piper is more apparent than real, and 
due to the insufficiency of the doses employed. In future it will be 
desirable to administer larger doses of the leaves, or better still of 
the root, to obtain physiological effects. 

But if the alkaloid discovered by M. Hardy is a certain test of 
the efficiency of the Pipjer reticulaluni, the experiments of M. Boche- 
fontaine show that it will be advisable not to seek to obtain the first 
manifestations through the secretions, as the new agent is a poison 
of the motor system closely allied to curare. 

Rssina Gaaiaci Peruviana, Aromatica vel Oiorata. A. Kopp. 
(Arcliiu der PJiarmacie, Sept., 1876.) Some time ago the firm of 
Gehe & Co. purchased a resin in Paris which they have since been 
selling to perfumers, and the origin of which could not be ascertained. 
It is entirely difi"orent from true guaiac resin, yields in distillation 
with water about 4 per cent, of volatile oil, having an odour resem- 
bling a mixture of peppermint and citron, and yields in dry disLil- 


lation various oils of different boiling points, -whicli exhibit very 
peculiar colours. The portions distilling below 210° C. were 
brownish yellow to brown, strongly dichroic, and became green 
■with ferric chloride. Addition of aqueous ammonia or soda turns 
them deep red, the ammonia-water itself becomes red, and on 
neutralization with an acid changes to blue. The portion boiling 
between 255° and 270° distils over of a pure and deep azure colour, 
resembling ammonio-cupric solutions. This is probably identical 
with the blue oil of matricaria and galbanum. 

Tayuya. (Pharm. CenfralhaUe, 1877, 211.) A previous notice of 
this drug will be found in the Year-Boole of Pharmacy, 1876, 167. 

Tayuya or tayuia, is the name of a vegetable drug which has been 
employed for a very long time by the natives and physicians of 
Brazil, as a remedy in various diseases. Taijuia de ahohrinha, or 
ahobra, is the common name of the plant in question, which is Der- 
mophyUa pendulina, Manso, nat. fam. Cucurbitaceas-Bryonieae, and 
whose synonyms are Brianosperma Jicifolia, Mart., Bryonia ficifolia, 
Lam., Bryonia tayuya, Velloso. The root is the most active portion. 
It is said to be a most valuable remedy in malarious fevers, dropsy, 
syphilis, mental disorders, elephantiasis, skin diseases, etc. It has 
also been used with tolerable success externally, in form of a lotion, 
particularly in an affection common to Brazil, namely an inflammation 
of the sphincter ani (bicho do cu), according to Rosenthal, in his 
" Synopsis Plantarum." 

Stanislaus Martin states (in L" Union Pharm.') that he had received 
specimens of the root in slices 5 cm. (2 inches) broad and 2-3 mm. 
(about \ inch) long. According to Martin's description, it does not 
seem to be much different from that of the European Bryonia 
root. He extracted from it a green resin (tayuyin) ; a citron- 
yellow fat, and brown extractive matter, both of very bitter, aromatic 
taste ; tannin, pectin, traces of glucose, starch, and volatile oil ; and 
he found the ash to contain magnesia, lime, alumina, potassa, and 
iron. He could find no alkaloid in it. Prof. Luigi Gabba, of Milan, 
extracted the root with alcohol, and obtained by evaporation a brown 
extract, of neither acid nor alkaline reaction, very stable, and drying 
up to an amorphous mass, which -was only partially soluble in cold, 
but more so in boiling water. The latter solution, mixed with dilute 
sulphuric acid and heated, did not exhibit any remarkable change, 
but gave indications of glucose. As this reaction failed to make its 
appearance before the addition of the acid, Gabba concluded that the 
root contained a glucoside. Prof. Zenoni states, that on exhausting 
the root with ether and then treating it with acidified alcohol, he 



obtained a substance which appeared to give him the reactions of an 
alkaloid. Yvon, who subjected Martin's investigation to a control, 
found in it a wax-like resin, soluble in ether and chloroform, of acid 
reaction, greenish yellow colour, and very bitter taste. Its melting- 
point is said to be at 49° C. (120° F.), and its solution in alkalies or 
ammonia developed microscopic crystals. This resin is said to be 
the active portion. An alcoholic tincture of the root deposited, after 
concentration, a small qaantity of prismatic crystals, but they were 
devoid of alkaloidal properties. 

The explorer Luigi Ubicini brought the root to Europe, and caused 
a strong tincture to be prepared from it, of the strength of 1 part 
dry root to 3 parts of 80 per cent, alcohol. This was directed to 
be diluted with 3 times its weight of dilute alcohol before using, 
and this diluted tincture is used internally, as Tlnctura Dermophyllce 
diluta, in doses of 2 to 12 drops, 3 to 4 times a day. The daily dose 
should not exceed 24 drops. For external use in syphilitic or 
scrofulous skin diseases, it is to be diluted with twenty or thirty 
times its weight of water; although it maj' be used in concentrated 
form upon indui'ated glands. For hypodermic use 03-0"5 gram of 
the tincture are to be diluted with water to 1 gram, which constitutes 
one dose. 

Note on Dickamali Resin. Professor Fliickiger. (Pharm. 
Juurn. 3rd series, vii. 589.) This substance, the resinous exudation 
of Gardenia lucida, Roxb., Bubiacece, is much, used in India, both 
internally and externally. It contains, according to Stenhouse, a 
crystallizable resin, described by this chemist "as one of the most 
beautiful substances of that kind." It has a marked, peculiar odour, 
somewhat resembling rue and aloes ; it looks crystalline and has a 
yellowish colour, being decidedly yellow when powdered ; the solu- 
tion has a fine yellow colour with a greenish hue. It assumes an 
intensely greenish brown colour on addition of ferric chloride, and 
on addition of a little soda it turns brown. It belongs to the 
aromatic class of organic compounds, as it yields, by fusing with 
caustic potassa, protocatechuic acid. 

Indian Hemp and its Active Principle. (Pharm. Zeit. fUr Buss., 
1876, 705; New Bemedies, March, 1877.) The home of hemp is 
Persia and the high plateau of northern India, whence it has gradually 
spread to other countries, so as to be domesticated everywhere. 
Its narcotic properties, however, are only developed fully in its 
native home in Asia, and in certain parts of Africa, where it is used 
as a narcotic stimulant and intoxicant by nearly 300,000,000 of 

214 year-book: of prarmact. 

A preparation, called madjonn, is sold in Alc^iors, -nliich is pow- 
dered Ca7uinhis safira boiled with honey for a lonGfor or shorter 
time, according to the desired consistence. Usually it is kept mixed 
with a certain portion of raa-el-lianoiif, a spice compound contain- 
ing nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, various peppers, ginger, galangale, 
and Guinea grains. This mixture is also called Iclf. The dose varies 
from the size of a hazel nut to that of a walnut, according to the 
acre, sex, and tolerance of the person using it. ]\rost eaters of 
hashish also smoke the dried leaves of the plant, either alone or 
mixed with the so-called " tobacco of the desert," which, according 
to Dr. Gnyon, is a species of hyoscyamus. 

Dr. Preobraschensky, who accompanied the expedition to Chiwa 
in 187o, furnishes the following information on the hashish of Cen- 
tral Asia: — "This article occurs in the bazaars of large cities of 
^riddle Asia in the form of plates or cakes of various shapes, mostly 
five to fifteen inches long, five to ten inches broad, and one to three 
inches thick ; externally they are dark brown, internally greenish 
or brownish, of firm consistence, very tough, and almost incapable 
of being broken, but easily cut into fine shavings. They are pre- 
pared as follows : The resinous juice from the fresh unripe flower- 
tops is collected during spring, mixed with sand and water to a 
doughy mass, which is spread upon a surface of clay, and dried 
until it can be curt with a knife into plates. In a few days more the 
excess of water has evaporated and the substance is ready for use. 
It is called hashish by the Russians, nascha hy the natives, bang 
and gunjah by the Persians, and is exported from Bochara to Chiwa, 
Tashkend, Kokant (Chokand), and other places. 

The active principle of hashish has been supposed to be resin. 
Dr. Preobraschensky has, however, lately subjected hashish to a 
chemical analysis, and has found an alkaloidal body not only in tho 
commercial substance, but also in the flower-tops of hemp itself, 
and the pure extract prepared from it, which was recognised as 
nicnfine. 150 grams of the herb, distilled with water, furnished 2.V-1- 
milligrams of nicotine ; 50 grams of the herb, distilled with caustic 
lime and potassa, yielded 335-28 milligrams; 5 grams of the ex- 
tract of Cannabis indica, dissolved in alchohol and distilled, yielded 
a distillate containing 91"14 milligrams of nicotine ; and 2 grams of 
the extract, distilled with caustic lime and potassa, furnished 63"'> 
milligrams of the same alkaloid. 

Notes on the Genus Teucrinm. .7. 1\[. Maisch. (Amer. Journ. 
Pharni., Sept., 187G.) Teucrknn scordiitm, Lin., r/ermnndree aqnatiqiip 
of the French, Lnclxenhnohlauch. of the Germans, is usually called 


water germander in English, because it grows in moist, swampy 
meadows, near ponds, etc. It is found in western Asia, and through- 
out a large portion of Europe. Forty years ago it was officinal in 
most pharmacopoeias of continental Europe, but since then has been 
dismissed in the revised editions of nearly all, retaining a place in 
a few only. 

The plant belongs to the natural order of Lnblahf;, a family oc 
plants which is characterized by the complete absence of deleterious 
properties, the active constituents found in them being chiefly vola- 
tile oil, associated in many with more or less of a bitter, non-alka- 
loidal principle, and occasionally with a little tannin. The medical 
prrrperties of the Lnhinhv are therefore mainly carminative and stimu- 
lant, and frequently tonic and stomachic. They are mostly in- 
digenous to the temperate regions of the old world, the number 
indigenous to the United States being comparatively small ; but 
many species have been introduced here from Earope, and com- 
pletely naturalized in some sections of the United States. 

The genus Tcncrhun is classed with the tribe Ajvjgoidcm, which 
has the upper lip short, or deeply notched and turned forward, so 
as to appear wanting, the four ascending stamens projecting through 
the slit in the upper lip. Several of the European species formerly 
enjoyed a high reputation, among them the one mentioned, which, 
together with the allied species, T. scordloules, Schreb., is regarded 
to be the "SKopBiov of Dioscorides. The plant is softly pubescent, 
attains a hciglit of twelve to eighteen inches, has sessile, oblong, 
serrate leaves, and rose-coloured flowers, two or three of which are 
found in the axils of the leaves. The second species differs mainly 
by being villous, and having cordately ovate, somewhat clasping, 
leaves. Both possess a bitter taste, and, in the fresh state, a dis- 
tinctly alliaceous odour. It was formerly in repute as an antiseptic 
and diaphoretic internal remedy, for gargles, and as a dressing for foul 
ulcers. " The New London Dispensatory," printed in 1676, says 
of it : — " It is lyptintick, abstersive, traumatic, alexipharmick, sudo- 
rific, anodyne, and pectoral ; it opens obstructions of all the prin- 
cipal parts, cleanseth the entrails and old ulcers ; provokes urine 
and the terms ; expectorates rotten matter out of the chest ; helps 
old coughs, asthma, pleurisies, inward ruptures, biting and stinging 
of serpents ; and potently resists poison, plague, and all pestilential 
diseases. It exhilarates the heart, cures the bloody flux, comforts the 
stomach, and drives out the small-pox and measles. Outwardly, it 
cleanseth and heals wounds and ulcers, and cures pain of the gout. 
The essence is most effectual to the intentions aforesaid." 


Similar but more feeble virtues were attributed to T. scorodomia, 
Lin. (syn. Scorodina veteromcdla, Moench), likewise a European plant, 
whicli differs from the former in having petiolate, cordate-ovate 
leaves, a more distinctly two-lipped calyx, and yellow corolla. 

The fluid extract of water germander may be made by the U. S. 
oflBcinal process for fluid extract of chimaphila, and may be given 
in doses of one-half to one teaspoonful. 

The following European species were formerly employed medici- 
nally for their stimulating and tonic properties, and some still 
enjoy some popularity as domestic remedies in localities where they 
occur: — 

T. polium, Lin., with sessile, linear-lanceolate, crenate and tomen- 
tose leaves, and terminal white flowers. 

T. montanum, Lin., leaves similar, with a revolute margin and 
terminal yellowish flowers. 

T. creticum, Lin., resembling the preceding, but the bluish flowers 
axillary and single. The closely allied T. rosmarl ni folium, Lam., has 
the branches longer and more slender, and the flowers in cynules of 
three in the axils of the bracts. 

T.flavmm, Lin., has its greyish yellow flowers similarly arranged, 
but the petiolate leaves are ovate and crenate. 

T. frudicans, Lin., is the erha di S. Lorenzo of southern Italy, and 
has entire, oblong or oval sub-coriaceous leaves, and single axillaiy 
flowers with bluish coi-olla. 

T. chamcEdnjs, Lin., the x^MO'^P^^^ of Discorides; leaves short 
petiolate, ovate to obovate, cuneate at base, crenately serrate ; 
flowers, one to three, axillary, with purplish red corollas. 

T. hotrys, Lin., leaves triangular-ovate in outline, pinnatifid ; 
flowers axillary, in threes ; corolla pale red, punctate in the throat. 

These, and a few other species, indigenous to southern Europe 
and the basin of the Mediterranean, most probably do not differ in 
their medicinal properties from Teucrium Canadense, Lin., the wood- 
sage or germander of the United States and Canada. 

Somewhat diff'erent properties are met with in T. inarum, Lin., 
cat thyme, or Syrian herb mastich, which is found in the countries 
bordering on the Mediterranean. Its leaves are petiolate, ovate or 
ovate-oblong, rather acute, white tomentose beneath ; the rose red 
flowers are single in the axils of the bracts, and form a terminal 
one-sided raceme. It has a strong aromatic, somewhat camphor- 
aceous odour, and an aromatic, bitterish and acrid taste. It has 
been employed internally in doses of twenty to sixty grains, in vari- 
ous spaemodie and other nervous disorders, aud externally chiefly 


for its errhine properties. It constituted the active ingredient of tlie 
Fulvis sternutatorius of some old European ph.armacopceias, wLicli 
was composed of sweet marjoram, 3 parts ; cat thyme, lily of the 
valley, and orris root, of each 1 part. Cat thyme is prescribed in 
Europe under the name of Herba marl veri. 

Tannin in Gentian Root. M. Ville. {Repert. de Phai-m.) Since 
the presence of tannic acid in gentian root asserted by Mr. E. L. 
Patch in a paper read before the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy 
has been disputed by Prof. Maisch (see Year-Booh of Pharmacy, 1876, 
228), the author has been induced by Pi'of. Leon Soubeiran to re- 
investigate this subject. In the course of his experiments with cold 
infusions of the roots of Gentiana Burseri and Gentiana lutea he 
obtained unmistakable indications of the presence of tannin with 
ferric chloride, gelatin, and albumen. He also observed that in 
decolorizing the cold infusion with animal charcoal the colourless 
filtrate was free from bitterness, and ceased to give indications of 
tannin with the reagents named. Further experiments were then 
made with the view of ascertaining whether the tannin found formed 
part of the colouring matter or of the bitter principle of the root. The 
I'esultsof these experiments prove the absence of tannin in the latter, 
but seem to establish the tannine; nature of grentianin, the colourings 
principle of gentian root. In consideration of the chemical proper- 
ties of the colouring matter, the author suggests that gentiania 
should in future be called gentiano-tannic acid. In his opinion 
there is much analogy, from a chemical point of view, between gen- 
tianin and the colouring matter of rhatany root. 

The Constituents of Cotton Root Bark. C. C. Drueding. (Amer. 
Journ. Pharm., 1877, 386.) The constituents isolated by the author 
are a red and a yellow resinous colouring matter, a fatty oil, gum, 
glucose, tannin, chlorophyll, and 6 per cent, of mineral matter. 

Chicle Gum and Monesia Bark. J. R. Jackson. (Pharm. 
Jonrti., 3rd series, vii., 409.) So long ago as 1839 an article was 
published in the Paris Medical Gazette on a vegetable substance 
known as monesia. This article was reprinted in the Pharmaceutical 
Journal, vol. iii. (1843-i4), p. 292. It pointed out that monesia, 
as then known, was in the form of hard, thick cakes, covered 
with yellow paper, each weighing about 500 grams ; and in this 
form it was, at the date given above, a recent introduction into 
France. The substance consisted of an extract prepared from 
the bark of the tree, the botanical source of which was at that 
time unknown, though it was supposed to be a species of Chry- 
soplijjllnm. It was known, however, to travellers as goharem or 


hnranhcm. The bark was described as smooth and grejish, in 
appearance bke that of the plane tree, but much thicker, show- 
ing' an imbricated fracture and having a sweet taste. The extract 
wag in colour a deep brown, very friable, and when broken 
having the appearance of a well roasted cocoa-nnt ; entirely soluble 
in water ; at first sweetish to the taste, like liquorice, but after- 
wards becoming astringent, leaving a well marked and lasting 
acid taste in the mouth, which is particularly felt in the tonsils. 
The ailments in which monesia was administered were diarrhoea, 
leucorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage, inflammation of the mucous mem- 
brane, etc. Such is a brief re.«7ni?e of what has been already pub- 
lished on monesia, which will be found in detail at the reference 
given above, as well as at pp. 125, 187, vol. iv. (1844-45), of the 
PharmaceuiicalJournal, the latter being a quotation from the" Sys- 
tema Materia? !Medic£e Vegetabilis Braziliensis." In this the plant 
is referred to as the Chn/sopJujIlum hiranhnn of Riedel. 

Quite recently the plant has been brought to notice again, as 
" chicle," in New York, whence it is imported from Mexico for 
manufacturing purposes, such as mixing with rubber for insulating 
telegraph cables. Some experiments have also been made with it 
with a view of manufacturing a paint for the bottoms of vessels; 
beside which an essential oil, adapted for perfumery purposes can, 
it is said, be extracted from it. A specimen of this chicle gum has 
recently been received at the Kew Museum. In appearance it is 
somewhat like crude gutta-percha, but more friable or brittle. It 
it easily made plastic in warm water ; but from experiments made 
in this country it does not seem .suitable for mixing with india- 
rubber for telegraphic purposes, as it makes the rubber itsilf more 
brittle. Besides the name of chicle, the substance seems to be 
known in the New York market as " jNIexican gum " and "rubber 
juice." The identification of this gum with the plant yielding 
monesia is founded as yet only on the fact that the plant yielding 
the former is known as zapota or zapote, and is described as a 
saponaceous tree; and further, that it yields a medicinal product 
known as monesia. Specimens of the plant itself have not yet been 
received; therefore, though all the circumstances indicate them to 
be one and the same thing, it cannot be decided as a certainty until 
the reception of actual specimens yielding chicle gum. 

With regard to the curanhem or guaranhem of Brazil, which is 
also known as the imiracem, mohica, and cusca doce (sweet bark), 
it is conclusive that the plant furnishing them is the Chry.^oplujUum 
(jhjcophJocum, Gazar. (C. buranhem, Riedel). It is one of the com- 


monest trees in Brazil, and is met "with even in the environs of TJio 
de Janeiro, where Cazareth studied it (on the Corcavado), as vreU as 
Telloso and Peckholt in Cantagallo. Both in tlie provinces of the 
north as well as in the Antilles, it is well known and employed in 
Tnedicine and in veterinary practice. The ])ark is carried to market 
in fragments of from two to throe millimetres thick, and five to 
twenty centimetres in length. It is of red or brownish colour, 
according to the season iu wdiich it is gathered, and according to 
the age of the plant. When recently collected, the hark is abund- 
antly milky, and has a strong astringent and sweetish taste. 

Monesia as now met with presents under the form of transparent 
plates of a yellowish white colour a substance easily pulverized. 
When reduced to powder it has a white colour. It is soluble iu 
alcohol and in water, but barely so in sulphuric acid. When put into 
water and shaken it produces a froth like soap-suds. In Brazil the 
preparations of the bark of this plant are used both internally and 
externally. It is considered an excellent astringent, applied in the 
same cases as the ratanhia. Iu Bahia, Leigipe, and sundry other 
provinces, it is the usual medicine for cases where an energetic 
astringent is required. The preparations employed are, the decoc- 
tions for baths and clysters; the extract for pills and to put on 
cataplasms ; and the syrup or wine. The disorders in which this 
medicine is most efficacious are diarrhoea, intermittent fevers, 
dysentery, hemorrhage, ulcerations of the gastro-intestinal canal, 
quinsy, etc. 

With regard to the physiological action of monesia., it is said that, 
notwithstanding its sweetish taste, it belongs strictly to the astrin- 
gents and tonics. Its astringency becomes less sensible by the pre- 
sence of the saccharine principle contained in the bark. On ulcers 
it produces a sensation of pain, accompanied with great heat, which 
lasts for hours, and sometimes even for days, afterwards accom- 
panied with a rapid formation of numerous fleshy pimples. On the 
fibres of the uterus it acts with the same effect as ergot of rye. 

^[onesine, the acrid principle, is applied in doses of 1 to 3 decigrams. 
The syrup has a great reputation against haemoptysis, the extract 
in ulcerations of the mouth and the gastro-intestinal canal, as 
has already been said. Externally the extract, either with gly- 
cerin or pure, is considered very efficacious for wounded breasts, 
lips, and arms; the powder is also used for similar purposes. 
With regard to the industrial applications of the bark of Lucuma 
ijlycyjihlcciim, it is, on account of its astringency, used both for tan- 
ning leather and for dyeing purposes; further than this, it is said to 


coutain a quantity of saponaceous matter which might be employed 
for cleaning, but which does not seem capable of development to 
any extent so as to make it commercially profitable. 

The foregoing remarks on the products of Lacuma ghjcyphlceum, 
or monesia, are abstracted from a report recently drawn up for the 
Brazilian G-overnment by some of the best authorities on the subject. 
Although monesia is not now used in Brazil so much as formerly, 
it still has a reputation. 

Examination of the Rhizome of Iris Versicolor. C. H. Mar- 
quardt. (Abstract from an inaugural essay: Amer. Journ. Fharm., 
1876, 406.) 

Eight troy ounces of the rhizome, in moderately fine powder, was 
exhausted by alcohol, sp. gr. 'SST), and the alcohol distilled off. 
The residue had a very acrid taste, and separated into an upper, 
dark brown, perfectly transparent layer, and a lower one of a more 
yellowish colour; the former was soluble in alcohol, petroleum 
benzine, chloroform, and ether; the latter dissolved completely in 
alcohol, partly in ether, and not in chloroform or benzine. The 
entire residue was exhausted with the ether, and the solvent evapo- 
rated, leaving a dark brown oleo-resin, of a slightly disagreeable 
odour and a very acrid, persistent taste. Ammonia water dissolved 
a small portion of it, but effected no separation. Treated with cold 
solution of potash, a yellowish white emulsion was formed, from 
which an oily liquid separated, which was purified by dissolving in 
ether, and had then a light colour and a pleasant bland taste, which 
after awhile became acrid. 

The potash solution was carefully neutralized with sulphuric acid, 
concentrated by evaporation, and treated with ether, which dissolved 
a brown, soft resin, possessing the acrid taste in a very marked 
degree, and yielding with nitric acid a beautiful purple coloured 
mass, becoming yellow and tough after some hours. 

The residue left by treating the alcoholic extract with ether was 
of a yellow colour, had a sweet taste, was soluble in water and 
alcohol, and by Trommer's test proved to be glucose. 

The dregs, exhausted by alcohol, were extracted with diluted 
alcohol, sp. gr. '941 ; the light yellow tincture was evaporated to a 
syrupy consistence and set aside for a week, when a sweet, solid 
mass remained. Its solution in water was precipitated by subacetate 
of lead, and after removing the excess of lead by sulphuretted 
hydrogen, Trommer's test indicated in the filtrate the presence of 

The precipitate on being suspended in warm water and treated 



■with snlpHuretted hydrogen, yielded, on evaporating tLo water, a 
yellow viasf!, having a peculiar, not unpleasant, bitter taste. 

The exhausted powder yielded to cold water some albumen, separ- 
able by heat, and. gummy matter, precipitated by alcohol, and the 
solution of which formed a jelly with ferric chloride. Hot water 
dissolved mainly starch from the exhausted powder. 

On distilling the fresh rhizome with water, an opalescent dis- 
tillate, of a peculiar odour, was obtained, from which a white cam- 
2)horaceous substance separated, scaly in appearance, of a faint 
odour, nearly tasteless, and soluble in alcohol. 

The Detection of Admixtures in Colocynth Powder. Wm. J. 
Clark. (Abstract of a paper read before the North British Branch 
of the Pharmaceutical Society, Dec. 13th, 1876.) The microscope 
affords a ready means for the recognition of an admixture of seed 
or rind with the true pulp of colocynth. The most general and 
characteristic test for the former is to be found in the cells of the 
cotyledons. If a small portion of the suspected powder be placed 
on a glass slip, a drop of water added, and the cover glass gently 
rubbed on it, so as to extend the drop, these granules will be readily 
noticed. In the true powder no granules are to be seen, or at the 
most but one or two, but in proportion as more or less seed is pre- 
sent, so are the granules more or less numerous. Unless these con- 
stitute a considerable bulk of the powder, their presence should only 
be considered accidental, and the powder not be condemned on this 
account. It will be evident that when the seed is powdered the 
tissues will be also broken up, and fragments of these may be 
noticed. The commonest and most easy of detection is the double 
walled sac enveloping the embryo, showing on the outer side elon- 
gated, more or less hexagonal cells, and in the inner side a charac- 
teristic structure shown in the woodcut. (See Pliarm. Jouru., 
p. 509.) Besides this, the spiral vessels are sometimes present, 
but these cannot be with certainty distinguished from those of the 
pulp. Stomata may and do occur, but their presence is so difficult 
of detection that they cannot be depended on. The episperm again, 
although, it shows a characteristic structure on section, yet, in the 
state of powder, cannot be recognised. The rind, on the other 
hand, is still less frequently met with, but the characteristic stomata, 
in this case easily seen, would furnish a ready means of detection. 
In none of the examples examined by the author was any rind de- 
tected. Besides the admixture of the seed, powdered colocynth is 
liable to contain starch as an adulterant, but this of course is readily 
detected both by iodine and a microscope. 


The author's lepurt in the I'liarmaceatlcal Juurual is illastrateJ 
by au excellent ^Yoodcut, showiug the microscopic appearance under 
u power of 470 diameters of the inner layer of embryo sac, the 
outer layer of ditto, cells of palisaded layer with granules, stomata 
from cotyledon, granules from cotyledons, epidermis of rind, aud 
starch granule. 

Pitliry. Baron Mueller. (British MedicalJournal.) Aprevious 
notice of this drug will be found in the Year-Boole of JPJiannacy, 
1874, 62. Baron Mueller gives in an Australian journal an account 
of his recent examination of the leaves of the " pitury," said to be of 
great power as a stimulant, and to be found growing in desert scrubs 
from the Darling River and Barcooto to West Australia. It 
is his opinion that it is derived from Duboisii Hojnvoodii, described 
by him in 1861, the leaves of which are chewed by natives of Central 
Australia to invigorate themselves during long foot-journeys. The 
blacks use it to excite their courage in warfare ; a large dose infuri- 
ates them. The Sidney Herald is informed also that some dry 
leaves and stems, said to come from far beyond the Barcoo country, 
aud called " pitcherine," are used by the aborigines as "we use 
tobacco, for both chewing and smoking ; and it is stated also that a 
small quantity causes agreeable exhilaration, prolonged use result- 
iug in intense excitement. It is observed, that the blacks, after 
chewing the lea;ves, plaster the quid so formed behind the ears, 
believing that this increases its eS'ect. 

The Root of Euphorbia Ipecacuanha. P. H. Dilg. (Amer. Journ. 
Pharm., Nov., 1870.) The author collected the root in New Jersey 
late in September, and on repeating some of Mr. Petzelt's experi- 
ments (see Year-Booh uf Bhanuacy, 1874, 125) did not obtain any 
reaction for glucose until after the decoction had been boiled with 
an acid. 

The alcoholic extract obtained by spontaneous evaporation was of 
a light brown colour, and contained some crystals ; ether extracted 
from it some oil and waxy matter, and a compound, which, on 
evaporation from petroleum benzine, yielded clusters of radiating 

On percolating the root with petroleum benzine and evaporating 
the menstruum, a yellow tenacious mass, intermingled with thin 
colourless needles, was obtained. This benzine extract was com- 
pletely dissolved by chloroform and bisulphide of carbon, the latter 
solution being turbid ; ether dissolved it partially, leaving a white 
flaky residue, and alcohol acquired a yellow colour without affect- 
ing the shape of the extract, which appears to consist mainly of 



caoutclione. From tlie alcoliolic solution a wartj crystalline mass 
was obtained, which responded to the test for euphorbon as given 
by Fliickiger ("Pharmacogi-aphia," p. 504). 

The author did not succeed in isolating the emetic principle; and 
in concluding his essay he states that only two houses in this city 
quote Eaphorhla ijjesacuanha in their price lists, but one onlv had 
it in stock, chai'ging for it 75 cents per pound. On examining a 
dozen price lists from eclectic druggists in diSei-ent parts of the 
country, one from Boston was the only one quoting it, and fi-om 
that house a package was obtained, marked Euphorbia A)uericana, 
but containing the root of Gillenla stipulacea. If it was ever used 
to any extent, the drug has evidently become obsolete, and might 
well be dropped from the Pharmacopoeia. 

Potalia Amara. A. Halle r and E. Meckel. (Juuru. de Phanu. et 
de Cktin., xxiv. 247.) The authors have received and examined a 
few fruit-bearing specimens of this plant, which is a native of Cayenne. 
Aublet, who has given a short description of it in his "Histoire de la 
Guyane Fran^aise," ii., 394, says: "All parts of the plant are bittei-. 
The young stems exude a yellow, granular, transparent resin, which 
when burnt emits an odour resembling that of benzoin. Infusions 
of the leaves and of wood of young stems are employed in small 
doses as a remedy for syphilis; in larger doses they act as emetics." 

The statement that all parts of the plant have a bitter taste is con- 
tradicted by the authors, who found that the leaves, bark, and root, 
are devoid of bitterness ; whereas the wood is both aromatic and 

As potalia belongs to the Strychnece, various parts of the plant 
were examined for strychnine and brucine, but no satisfactory evi- 
dence of their presence could be obtained. The authors intend to 
resume their investigation on the receipt of larger quantities of 
material. The results thus far obtained point to the presence of a 
bitter poisonous principle possessing powerful emetic properties. 

Hoang-Nan. M. Planchon. (Joum. de Pharm. et de Ghlm., 
1877, 384.) Hoang-Nan is the name of a bark which is said to be 
much esteemed in Tong-King (in Eastern Asia) as a remedy fur 
hydrophobia. Specimens of it received by the author correspond in 
every particular with the bark of Strychnos nux vomica. Missionaries 
report that the brow^nish dust which covers the bark is the part em- 
ployed by the natives, who regard the woody portion of the bark as 
inert, but believe the external dust to contain a strong poison. From 
Pelletier's investigation of false angostura bark, it is known, how- 
ever, that the poisonous constituents (strychnine and brucine) are 


located, not iu tlie outer corky layer, but in the woody tissue 

Some Constituents of Gelsemium Sempervirens. F. L. Sonnen- 
schein. (Pharm. Journ., from Ber. der deufsch. Ghem.-Ges., xi., 
1182.) For several years past various preparations of the so-called 
Carolina jasmine {Gelsemium sempervirens, Pers.) have been usxl 
in medicine in North America, the two principal being the fluid 
extract and "gelseniin." The first of these is a concentrated alco- 
holic extract, the latter is a dried alcoholic ethereal extract, contain- 
ing much resin. Notwithstanding that different chemists, and more 
recently Wormley, have been engaged iu the investigation of this 
drug, hitherto no exact information has been given as to the com- 
position and nature of the two principal constituents, namely, a 
non-nitrogenous body approaching to an acid, and a non-nitro- 
genous basic compound. In a paper lately read before the Berlin 
Chemical Society, Professor Sonnenschein gives the following in- 
formation, which is based upon a series of experiments carried out 
in his laboratory with a suitable supply of material, by Mr. C. 
Robbins, of New Tork. 

The powdered root was extracted to exhaustion with a mixture of 
equal parts of alcohol and water ; the extract was concentrated, and 
after separation of the resin thus thrown out of solution basic lead 
acetate was added, as long as any precipitate was formed. This 
precipitate served especially for the preparation of the indifferent 
compound. A mixture of one part of ether and three parts of 
alcohol used instead of the aqueous alcohol for extraction gave a 
larger yield. The filtered liquid was used for the separation of the 
nitrogenous body. 

The lead precipitate was suspended in water, decomposed by sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, filtered, the filtrate concentrated by evapora- 
tion, and the liquid so obtained was shaken several times with ether. 
The ethereal solution, upon spontaneous evaporation, left behind 
some light acicular crystals, which had to be separated from adher- 
ing resinous matter by treatment with absolute alcohol. The same 
compound may be obtained direct by shaking the commercial fluid 
extract with ether, a method that was adopted by Wormley. 

Thus purified, this substance is white, crystallizes readily in tufts, 
is without smell, and almost tasteless, and possesses feebly acid pro- 
perties. The acicular crystals are best obtained after slow crystal- 
lization from an alcoholic-ethereal solution. If heated to about 
1G0° C, this substance melts, and solidifies upon cooling to an amor- 
phous mass. Upon heating it above the melting-point it is decom- 



posed and turns brown, and upon raising the temperature still 
higher, it is at last completely volatilized. If heated very carefully, 
a portion can be sublimed. The compound is soluble with difficulty 
in cold, but much more readily in hot water ; it is soluble in about 
100 parts of cold alcohol, almost insoluble in pure ether, but easily 
soluble in ether containing alcohol. 

The aqueous solution is distinguished by its fluorescence, which can 
be observed even after very considerable dilution. In an alkaliue 
solution this appearance becomes yet more manifest ; the solution 
then appears yellow by transmitted light, and by reflected light blue. 

Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves this substance mth a red- 
dish yellow colour ; carefully heated, the solution becomes chocolate 
browTi. Hydrochloric acid causes no particular change of colour. 
If the substance be shaken with a small quantity of nitric acid a 
yellow solution results, which upon the addition of ammonia takes 
a deep blood red colour. This reaction is so delicate that 0'00002 
gram can be detected by it. 

The same results were obtained by Wormley, who named the com- 
pound " gelseminic acid ; " principally because of its acid reaction, 
but also because the compound with an alkali produces precipitates 
in the solutions of most of the heavy metals. These precipitates 
Wormley considered to be insoluble gelseminates. Careful experi- 
ments and examination under the microscope have, however, proved 
that with the exception of the lead compound they consisted of the 
hydrated oxides of the metals mixed ^ath the supposed acid. 

It was, therefore, thought probable that this substance instead of 
being a new acid would prove to be identical with assculin (formerly 
called polychrom), obtained from the bark ^sculus Hippocastanum. 
An agreement was observed in its external characters as well as its 
chemical behaviour, especially in the blue fluorescence of the aqueous 
solution, the dichroism of an alkaline solution, the reaction with 
nitric acid and ammonia, and its behaviour at high temperatures. 
This agreement was established by pf^rallel experiments with com- 
mercial aesculin. Also, by digestion of sesculin prepared from gel- 
semium with dilute sulphuric acid sugar and separated and detected 
by Fehling's test. 

In order further to establish the identity of the two substances a 
combustion was made with some of the prepared substance that 
had been dried at 115° until it ceased to lose weight. There was 

found — 

I. II. 

C 52-04 51-82 

H 5-18 4-98 



According to Rochleder, sescalin has the formula C30 Hg^ O^g, which 
would give a percentage composition of C, 51'57 ; H, 4" 8 7. 

A further confirmation was found in the hydration. The air- 
dried substance obtained from gelsemium lost at 110° C. 473 per 
cent of water, -^sculin = Cg^ E.^ 0^^ + 2 aq. lost by drying 4-90 
per cent. 

Professor Sonnenschein, therefore, thinks there can be no doubt 
that the acid reacting body prepared from gelsemium is perfectly 
identical with sesculin. 

The solution from which the lead precipitate bad been sepai^ated 
was freed from dissolved lead by sulphuretted hydrogen ; then from 
the still acid liquid any yet remaining aesculin was removed by shak- 
ing with ether, the ether was chased off by heat, and potash added 
up to an alkaline reaction. A light flocculent precipitate was thus 
thrown down, which was collected on a filter, and after washing, 
which could not be continued long on account of it being slightly 
soluble, it was dissolved for purification in hydrochloric acid. The 
filtered solution was, after the addition of potash, several times 
shaken with ether, which was left to evaporate spontaneously, when 
a colourless, transparent, varnish -like coating was left on the sides 
of the vessel. It was found that the largest yield of this substance 
was obtained from the aqueous alcoholic extract. 

When the dish was gently warmed the residue puffed up strongly 
whilst parting with entangled ether, and then appeared as an 
amorphous, transparent, brittle mass, which could be rubbed to an 
almost colourless, perfectly amorphous powder. Upon gently heat- 
ing this it melted, under 100° C, to a colourless liquid ; at a higher 
temperature it was partially decomposed. In water it was with 
difficulty soluble, more readily in alcohol, and very freely in ether 
and chloroform. Its reaction was strongly alkaline, and its taste 
very bitter. 

The behaviour of this body, which has all the characters of an 
alkaloid, and has been named gelsemine, was briefly as follows : — 

It completely neutralized acids, but hitherto no crystallizable salts 
have been prepared. The combination with hydrochloric acid, upon 
evaporation over sulphuric acid, leaves an amorphous mass, which is 
white in the centre, red towards the periphery, and bkie-grey at the 
outer edge. 

The residue readily formed a solution with water, which only 
when concentrated gave a white precipitate with tannin, but when 
diluted gave it first with ammonia. Gold chloride gave a yellow 
precipitate that was not altered by heating. Iodine in iodide of 


potassium gave a flocculent red-brown turbidity, wbicli became 
somewhat conglomerated by beating. Potassio-mercuric iodide 
gave a white flocculent precipitate, which dissolved upon heating, 
and again separated on cooling. Phosphomolybdic acid gave a 
flocculent yellow precipitate. Platinic chloride gave an amorphous 
citron yellow precipitate, soluble in water, especially upon heating. 
It was also readily soluble in alcohol. An aqueous solution of the 
platinum salt left upon spontaneous evapoi*ation transparent square 
octahedra, which upon the addition of water immediately took the 
amorphous form, with separation of platinum chloride. 

The pure alkaloid dissolves in concentrated nitric acid with a 
yellow- green colour. In concentrated sulphuric acid it gives at 
first the same colour, but this passes immediately to a reddish 
brown, and upon heating to a dark dirty red coloui*. 

If gelsemine be dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid and 
potassium bichromate be added, it takes, especially at the line of 
contact, a cherry red colour, changing a little to violet, which soon 
forms a bluish green spot. This reaction cannot be confounded 
with that of strychnine, although it shows some similarity. If 
instead of potassium bichromate ceroso-ceric oxide be added to the 
sulphuric acid solution there is produced a bright light cherry red 
colour, especially at the point of contact, which by stirring is dif- 
fused through the mass. This reaction takes place so sharply with 
the smallest trace that it may be looked upon as the best test for 
the presence of gelsemine. 

The amorphous platinum precipitate left upon incineration 16'25 
and 16'85 per cent, of metallic platinum. The hydrochloric acid 
compound contained 8" 73 per cent, of chlorine. Upon incineration 
with soda lime the nitrogen in two experiments was found to equal 
7"26 and 7"23 per cent. The carbon found in two experiments was 
66-10 and 66"41 per cent., and the hydrogen 9"44 and 10"05. This 
allows of the construction of the following formula for gelsemine — 

Calculated. Found. 



C 11 = 132 


66-41 . 

, 66-10 

H19= 19 


10-05 , 

, 9-44 

N = 14 


7-26 . 


02 = 32 


16-28 . 


This formula, however, has to be doubled if it depends on the 
hydrochloric acid compound, since this contains 8-73 per cent, of 
chlorine. {0^ H^g N 03)2 + H CI requires 8-24 per cent of chlorine. 



According to the platinum left after incineration the platinum 
compound must have a composition represented by [(Cj^ H^gNOo)^ 
H CI] Pt Cl^, which would explain its behaviour in water by the 
formation of a basic salt. 

0"012 gram of the hydrochloric acid compound injected into the 
leg of a strong pigeon caused manifestations of cramp, followed by 
death in thirty-six minutes. Similar results were obtained with frogs. 

The Relative Value of ColcMcimi Root. Prof. Beckert. (From 
an inaugural essay: Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1877, 433.) This sub- 
ject was suggested by several pharmacists, who of late have found 
it a difficult matter to obtain colchicum root which on breakinsr 
presented a clear white colour. The article, as obtained from the 
wholesale druggists, consisted of tubers which had been sliced very 
irregularly. Out of a pound lot not less than seven whole tubers 
were taken, the remainder varying from one-sixth to one-half inch 
in thickness. These pieces, when broken, presented quite a varied 
appearance, their colour being all shades between white and black ; 
and it was noticed that the lighter coloured roots were mostly easy 
to break, and many of them of a mealy character, whereas the darker 
ones were diflBcult to break, and had a somewhat resinous appear- 
ance. A quantity of the root was broken piece by piece, and then 
separated into three grades, according to colour, white, slate-coloured, 
and brown or blackish, particular care being taken in the sorting. 
Upon weighing, it was found that the white root constituted only 
one-sixth, while the gi'ey root comprised not quite two-sixths, and 
the black root a little over three-sixths of the article examined. 
These results also agree with the observations of several resident 

The methods used to determine were as follows : — Two troy ounces 
of each of the three grades of roots Avere exhausted by means of 
alcohol, yielding in each case about twelve fluid ounces of tincture ; 
these tinctures varied in colour according to the grade of root used, 
that from the white root being lightest. This indicates the solu- 
bility in the alcohol of the foreign colouring matter present in the 
grey and black roots. In preparing these tinctures, care was taken 
to percolate them under as similar circumstances as possible. 

The tinctures obtained were separately evaporated by means of a 
water bath, the residue was treated with distilled water, and poured 
upon a filter, in order to separate resinous matter ; the filtrate was 
washed with slightly acidulated water until each filtrate measured 
100 c.c. Dilute sulphuric acid was used for acidulating the solu- 
tions, which were volumetiically tested with Mayer's solution, in 



qaantities varying from 5 to 15 c.c. In the preliminary experiments 
the solutions were variously diluted, and it was observed that the 
results were very considerably influenced thereby, an observation 
previously made by Dragendorff. To serve as a basis for compari- 
son, the experiments were afterwards made with solutions of uni- 
form strength, as stated above, partly without any other addition, 
and partly as recommended by Dragendorff, after the addition of 
a concentrated solution of chloride of sodium, to increase the dis- 
tinctness of the reaction. The three grades of the root required for 
1 c.c. respectively "O-IOS, •0414, and "0462 of Mayer's solution. 

Five troy ounces of each of the roots were next exhausted by alco- 
hol, percolation in each case being carried on until the liquid passed 
tasteless. The alcohol was evaporated, and the residues were treated 
with water, filtered and precipitated by a solution of tannin. These 
tannates of the white, grey, and black roots, which, after having been 
dried, weighed respectively "32, '265, and "27 gram, were decomposed 
by oxide of lead, and then treated with alcohol, in order to separate 
colchicia. The three alcoholic solutions were carefully evaporated 
to dryness, then placed over sulphuric acid for several days, and 
then their weight taken ; the product from the grey root weighing 
•115 gram, the black yielding ^104 gram, while the product from 
the white root was unfortunately lost. 

The author next obtained some colchicum root from Profes- 
sor Maisch, which was not less than ten years old, it having been 
in his possession at least nine years. It had quite a handsome 
appearance, very little dark root being present, and in all respects 
was a much better looking article than that previously employed. 
Two troy ounces of this root were treated as above stated, and an 
acid solution obtained measuring 100 c.c, and which, when treated 
with ]\Iayer's test, in a similar manner as before, required '0300 for 
the precipitation of 1 c.c. 

The various results thus obtained are more concisely presented in 
the followinof table : — 




Very old 

Mayer's solution required to precipitate 
1 c.c. of the solution 

Percentage of alkaloid in air-dry root . 

Tauuate precipitate obtained from 5 
troy ounces of root 

Amount of crude alkaloid from the 












From this table it will be seen that the results obtained with tannin 
and Mayer's solution do not agree as to the amount of colchicine 
indicated. This may be due to the slight solubility of the tannate 
in water, as observed by liiibler and others, and to the yaiying 
amount of water used in the last experiments. But the results 
appear to indicate that it matters little whether the root has a white, 
grey, or black colour ; but that the age is of primary importance, 
and that none but a root of fresh appearance should be used by the 

ColcMcuni Seed. N. Rosen wasser. (From an inaugural essay : 
Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1877, 435.) The author prepared the active 
principle of the seed, and found it to have a neutral reaction to test 
paper, and to be not precipitated from aqueous solutions or solutions 
acidulated with organic acids, by potassio-mercuric iodide, sodium 
phospho-tungstate, auric chloride, phosphomolybdic acid, and solu- 
tion of iodine, all of which reagents afforded precipitates after the 
solution had been acidulated with a mineral or oxalic acid, or had 
been boiled for a few minutes with acetic acid. [Ludwig (1862) 
obtained a thick precipitate with auric chloride, readily soluble in 
excess, and Eberbach (1874) found the aqueous solution of his 
colchicia, which had a distinct alkaline reaction, to be precipitated 
by the three last reagents mentioned above.] The author argues 
from this that .the principle is naturally neutral, and is converted 
into an alkaloid by the influences mentioned. The neutral sub- 
stance, colchicin, was with some difficulty obtained in crystals by 
the slow evaporation, in deep vessels, of its solutions in fusel oil and 
benzol, and found to be insoluble in pure ether, carbon bisulphide, 
and petroleum benzin. 

It having been asserted that the active principle resided chiefly 
in the outer integuments of the seed, and that for this reason they 
could be almost completely exhausted without being ground, the 
author experimented with 5000 grains of unbroken seeds, macerated 
them in dilated alcohol in a warm place for ten days, and washed 
them well with diluted alcohol ; the tincture and washings were 
used for preparing colchicin by Carter's process (^Amer. Journ. 
Fharm., 1858, p. 205), of which five grains were obtained. The 
same seeds afterwards crushed to an uniform powder, yielded eleven 
grains of colchicin. 5000 grains of seeds of the same lot were 
ground, and yielded sixteen grains ; and 14,000 grains of the same 
seeds, rolled and crushed, yielded forty-five grains of colchicin. It 
follows, therefore, that only less than one-third of the colchicin 
present can be exhausted from the unbroken seeds. In preparing 


colchicin, particularly in warm weather, it is found unnecessary to 
remove the fixed oil by filtration previous to precipitating the col- 
chicin by tannin ; it is better to collect the precipitate, dry it care- 
fully by means of a water bath, and then exhaust the oil by gasolin. 
For the decomposition of the tannate, aluminium hydrate seems to 
possess decided advantages over ferric or plumbic hydrate, it serv- 
ing at the same time as a decolorizing agent. 

When distilling the alcohol for the tincture, the odour of the 
ground seed was distinctly recognised in the distillate, which turned 
milky upon the addition of water. On distilling a pound of the 
ground seeds with water, an aromatic distillate was obtained ; but a 
volatile oil, which probably exists in minute quantity, could not be 
separated. The distillate was tested for alkaloids with a negative 

Fliickiger and Hanbury give G'G per cent, as the amount of fixed 
oil present in the seeds ; the author obtained 14 drams (8-4 per 
cent.) from 10,000 grains of the seeds. After purifying it by treat- 
ment with benzin and animal charcoal, it had a light brown colour 
and a bland taste. It was found to be readily sapouifiable. 

Pao Pereira. MM. Rochefontaine and De Freitas. 
(Pharm. Journ., from Compfes Eendiis, Ixxxv., 412.) The pao-per-eira 
tree is a native of Brazil, and its bark has been much used by the 
physicians of that country since Professor Silva, about the year 1830, 
made known its febrifuge and antiperiodic properties. It belongs 
to the Apocynacese, and has been variously designated as Picramnia 
ciliata, Vallesia 'punctata, Talerncemontana Icevis, and Geissospermum 
Vellosii. Professor Baillon is, however, of opinion, after a recent 
examination of leaves and stems received from Brazil, that it should 
bear the name of Geissospermum Iceve. 

The bark of this plant contains an alkaloid in great abundance ; 
this was first extracted in 1838 by Santos, and called by him " perei- 
rine," but the authors propose to change this name to " geissosper- 
mine," after the generic name of the plant. 

The dried leaves at the disposal of the authors had an extremely 
bitter taste, analogous to that of Quassia amara, which became 
manifest after chewing them for a few seconds. This state being 
similar to that of the stem bark suggested the presence of a certain 
pi-oportion of alkaloid in the leaves. Some leaves were therefore 
macerated in dilute alcohol, and from the liquor thus obtained an 
alkaloid was obtained, as was a similar one also from an aqueous 
macei-ation of bruised leaves. It seems therefore that the leaves 
contain the alkaloid, though in less quantity than the bark, and this 


is confirmed by the physiological action of the aqueous extract of 
the leaves on frogs. 

The alkaloid of Geissospermnm, as employed in Brazil, is rot a 
chemically pure product ; it occurs under the form of a brownish 
yellow amorphous powder, the bitterness of ■which resembles that 
of the leaves and the bark. Although daily employed in Brazil for 
many years past, the physiological action of neither the alkaloid nor 
the bark appears to have been studied experimently. The authors 
therefore took up the investigation, using geissosjiermine dissolved 
in -water or alcohol, and alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the 
powdered bark. 

The experiments showed that geissospcrmine is a toxic substance, 
exercising no local irritant action when administered subcutaneously. 
Two milligrams introduced under the skin caused the death of a 
frog ; paralysis was produced by half a milligram. A full-grown 
guinea-pig v?as killed by one centigram, and fourteen centigrams 
completely paralysed a small dog. The symptoms were a slacken- 
ing of the cardiac beats, and of the respiratory movements. The 
voluntary movements were first paralysed, the reflex movements 
gradually ceasing subsequently. The sensitive nerves appeared to 
preserve their functions as long as the motor nerves. The muscular 
contractility was not affected. The authors therefore consider 
geissospei'mine to be a poison which acts by destroying the physio- 
logical properties of the central nervous grey matter. 

Indian Bmgs. W. Dymock. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, vii., 
3, 109, 170, 190, 309, 350, 450, 491, 549, 729, 977.) This is a most 
important contribution to pharmaceutical literature, embracing as 
it does a description of a very large number of Indian medicinal 
plants. Owing to the great length of the report, which is not yet 
concluded, and its unsuitability for useful abstraction, we must 
confine ourselves here to a mere reference to the original. 



Emulsions. E. Gregory. (From a paper read before the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association.) The following are the results of 
the authoi''s experiments made with the object of testing the merits 
of the various processes employed in making emulsions : — 

1. The method which directs that equal parts of mucilage of acacia 
and oil should be put into a bottle and well shaken together, the 
requisite quantity of water being gradually added. If the mucilage 
be fresh, the bottle only partially full, and the shaking very vigor- 
ous, tolerable results can be obtained "with castor oil, moderate re- 
sults with balsam copaiba, and -with oil of turpentine a total failure. 
But in all eases the oil globules are distinctly visible to the naked eye. 

2. Equal parts of oil and mucilage are put into a mortar together, 
and briskly triturated. This gives barely tolerable results with the 
balsams and thicker oils ; but "with oil of turpentine it is a total 
failure, no amount of labour producing the slightest effect. 

3. Equal parts of oil and mucilage, the oil to be gradually added,, 
triturating briskly after each addition until the portion added is 
emulsified. A fair result can be obtained by this process if the 
operator have plenty of patience and a liberal supply of muscle; but 
the product is too dark in colour. The oil globules are not -visible 
to the naked eye, but can be easily seen with a magnifying power of 
three diameters. It separates into two layers in two and a half hours, 
the lower layer being dark but not watery. 

4. The next process is that wherein equal parts of mucilage, water, 
and oil are put into a suitable vessel, and agitated with an egg-beater 
until emulsionized. This yields a tolei'able result, is simple, and 
requires no skill, but is rather laborious, and yields a product very 
dark in colour. The oil globules are not visible to the naked eye, 
but quite distinctly under a power of three diameters. It separates 
into two layers in three hours, the lower layer being very watery. 

5. The next process tried was that of Mr. Charles P. Hartwig 
(published in the Pharmacist, October, 1875), in which one part of 
mucilage and one part of water are put into a suitable], 
thoroughly mixed by being drawn up into and ejected from a small 


vaginal syringe, and one part of oil having been added, tlie emulsion 
is produced by the use of the syringe alone in the same way. This 
process yields excellent results, but the emulsion is not quite as 
white as it should be ; the process is rather tedious, and the after- 
cleaning very troublesome. It is the best of the processes in which 
oflBcinal mucilage is employed. The oil globules are invisible to the 
naked eye, but are distinctly seen with a power of three diameters. 
It separates into two layers in twenty hours, the lower layer being 
milky in appearance. 

G. A process published in the Journal of Pharmaaj, in February, 
1872, by ^Ir. J. Winchell Forbes, and apparently designed more 
especially for oil of turpentine, in which he directs that one part of 
oil shall be put into a bottle and shaken, then one-eighth part of 
pulverized acacia, and after thorough agitation, half a part of water 
added, the whole to be then vigorously shaken until emulsified. 
The resulting emulsion is deficient in whiteness. The oil globules 
are distinctly visible, as a multitude of gem-like points, under a mag- 
nifying power of three diameters, and are also visible to the naked 
eye if a drop be placed on a piece of glass and held up between the eye 
and the Hglit. It separates into two distinct layers in fifteen minutes, 
the lower layer being quite watery, but it easily reunites on shaking. 

7. If, however, in the preceding process, three-eighths of a part 
of pulverized acacia be used instead of one-eighth, a very good re- 
sult is obtained, the product being much whiter, the oil globules 
about half the size, and quite invisible to the naked eye. It now 
takes twelve hours to separate into two layei'S, the lower layer, how- 
ever, being still watery. 

8. The next process for consideration is described on page 343 
of " Mohr and Redwood's Pharmacy," English edition of 1849, in 
which one part of pulverized acacia and one and a half part of water 
are put into a mortar, and after thorough trituration three parts of 
oil are added gradually, each separate portion being emulsified before 
another is added. The results are admirable, the product being 
white as milk. The oil globules are not visible to the naked eye, 
but slightly so under a power of three diameters, and it does not 
separate into two layers under twenty-four hours, the lower layer 
having the appearance of milk. 

9. The last process referred to is recommended by Mr. Hans 
M. Wilder, in the Druggists' Ciradar for December, 1874. One 
pai"t of pulverized acacia and two parts of oil are put into a 
mortar and rubbed together; one and a half part of water is 
then added at once, and with a few revolutions of the pestle the 


■whole is emulsified. It appears to yield tlie very best results. The 
emulsion is beautifully white, scarcely to be distinguished from 
milk, and the necessary manipulations are very speedy and simple. 
The oil globules are totally invisible to the naked eye, and not very 
perceptible with a power of three diameters. It separates into two 
layers in twenty-four hours, the lower layer being quite like milk, 
whilst the upper would pass for cream ; and at the time of writing 
this, four days after making, retains the same appearance, and is by 
far the best out of six samples that are standing undisturbed before 
the author. 

In summing up his results, the author states that the use of muci- 
lage should be abandoned in favour of powdered gum. He thinks 
that three drams of acacia in fine powder are necessary to emul- 
sify one ounce of any of the volatile oils, and that a little less (about 
two drams) will answer for the fixed oils and balsams. And that 
to this quantity of gum four drams and a half of water must be 
added (no more and no less), and that either the water or the oil 
may be added first to the gum, but it is quickest to add the oil first, 
and well triturate before adding the water. Less gum can be made 
to yield a good result by a careful operator; but as a general practi- 
cal working rule, it may be said that three drams are necessary 
for one ounce of oil. 

Officinal Tinctures. B. F. Mclntyre. (A contribution to the 
literature of the proposed International Pharmacopoeia. From a 
paper read before the Alumni Association of the College of Phar- 
macy, N^ew York.) Percolation, in the writer's opinion, is an unex- 
ceptionable process, if conducted with care and skill. The British 
Pharmacopoeia directs maceration of the drug with only a portion 
of the menstruum, the residue to be freed from tincture and extrac- 
tion by percolation with fresh spirit until a prescribed measure is 

The German process, which like that of the French Codex, con- 
sists in the maceration of the drug with the full quantity of men- 
struum, would be more in harmony with other authorities if a definite 
measure or weight of tincture could be got from the specified parts 
of the drug ; the diiference now is considerable where force from 
handscrew or hydraulic press is applied to the expression of marc or 
residue. This, however, is only an economic point for consideration. 
The loss may be seen in the annexed table, by comparing the actual 
weight of tincture obtained from the drug after maceration with the 
theoretical quantity, or the proportional medicinal strength of the 
finished tincture given in the next column. 



In the experiments tabulated below, the manipulations directed 
by, and characteristic of, the several pharmacopoeias were followed, 
though the menstrua for the exhaustion of the drug were disregarded, 
except when they were of the same spirit strength as that designated 
in the U. S. P. This was necessary in order to sustain the object of 
this paper, the finding of the exact parts by weight of tincture ; the 
determinations being based on repeated experiments and calculations 
made from weighings of hundreds of gallons of officinal tinctures. 

As the German Pharmacopoeia specifies that tincture of belladonna 
and digitalis be prepared from the fresh herb, calculation was made 
for loss in the drying of the hei"b, and the powdered drug was used 

Parts by Weight of Tincture containing the Soluble Portion of 

One Part 

BY Weight of Drug. 


U. S. P. 

B. P. 

German Pharm. 


Aconite Eoot .... 












Cannabis ludica . . . 






Calisaya Bark .... 






Cautharides .... 






Colchicum Seed . . . 












Ginger . . . ." . . 


















Nux Vomica 






Veratrum Viride . . . 



Ext. of 







Stramonium Seed . . . 











Ext. of 

Opium Camphorated. 


Opium, Powdered . . 






Benzoic Acid .... 






Gum Camphor .... 






Oil of Anise 












Cinchona Compound. 

Cinchona Bed .... 






Orange Peel .... 
































Aloes Soct 






Liquorice Extract. . . 








Benzoin Compound. 


Soct. Aloes .... 


Balsam Tolu .... 

Cardamom Compound. 

Cardamom .... 






Aloes and Mijrrh. 





Cinnamon .... 

Gentian Compound. 


Orange Peel .... 
Cardamom .... 





Rhubarb and Senna. 







u. s. p. 

B. P. 






13 09 






























77-98 1 


















Iodine Compound. 


Iodide of Potassium . 

Assafoetida .... 



Bloodroot .... 
Black Hellebore . . 
Capsicum .... 



Cardamom .... 
Cinnamon .... 




Guaiac Ammoniated. 









Opium Deodorized . 
Opium Acetated . . 


Orange Peel . . 


Serpentaria . . . 



Valerian .... 
Valerian Ammoniated 

U. S. P. 

28 07 




7 13 




I One fluid dram of tincture of iron, U. S. P., contains 3-53 grains of oxide of 
iron. One fluid di-am of the same tincture, B.P., contains 3*90 grains of ferric- 

[\ Parts by weight of tinctm-e actually obtained from one part by weight of 
the drug. 

+ Parts by weight containing the active principles of one part by weight of 
the drug. 

* Tinctures directed to be made by maceration. 

A New Application of Dialysis. R. Rot her. {Pharmacist, 
January, 1877.) In the article on " The Inverse Synthesis of the 
f=o-called Tasteless Iron Componnds " {American Journal ofFliarmacy, 
April, 1876), the author pointed out the important fact, that in 
particular cases of colloidal compounds the endosmotic current is 



the most prominent feature of the movement. On such occasions 
the inward course of the outer liquid appears to be the only force 
of the phenomenon, since exosmosis prevails so feebly that practically 
its effect is reduced to zero. The rapidity of the endosmotic current 
gives promise that a new development of this interesting and re- 
markable process will lead to great advantages in numerous and 
important pharmacal operations. This peculiarity presents a new 
means of concentrating solutions where the absence of heat is not 
only desirable, but often imperative. In its practical bearing this 
method of transcendental filtration presents a wide range of applica- 
tion, which must be classified, however, as entirely distinct from the 
present sense, and the theoretical action in which the process is 
usually considered. The residue, technically called the diffusate, is, 
according to the original idea of this process, a solution of the 
diffused substance. The residue of the new modification differs 
from the diffusate proper in the particular that it practically contains 
nothing originally introduced into the dialyser, but that it simply 
represents that portion of the original outer liquid which refused 
to pass inwards through the membrane. Therefore, according to 
the new construction, the process resembles filtration more closely 
than its primitive process from which it is derived. In some 
instances it is even more rapid than ordinary filtration. Absorption 
in this operation corresponds with volatilization in the usual method 
of concentration by means of heat. As the action of heat produces 
undesirable and often destructive changes in many substances, 
even at the lowest possible degree, the process of dialytic filtration 
must naturally commend itself on all such occasions, where its ap- 
plication is available. If the point of a parchment dialysing cone 
containing a concentrated solution of strongly colloidal substance 
be immersed in a dilute solution of a ci'ystalloitl, the superabundant 
water of the latter is more or less rapidly absorbed into the dialyser, 
leaving, after due action, the solution of the crystalloid in its utmost 
concentration. It is possible that this process may become useful 
in the industrial production of alkaloids, where in the usual method 
laro-e volumes of water must be expelled by means of heat, the action 
of which, in many cases, greatly reduces the yield by the generation 
of inert modifications or worthless disruption products. This pro- 
cess, with its accompanying apparatus, is more congenial to the 
surroundings of modern pharmacal laboratories in which the routine 
is less interspersed with the manipulation of distrustful retorts, 
precarious capsules, and fuming crucibles of the empiric era. It 
would be hardly proper to designate this process dialysis, since that 


term specifically denotes an operation not exactly similar. Absorp- 
tion also does not strictly convey the true meaning of its action ; 
however, in case the new process should prove itself of such general 
value as the first indications seem to promise, a more appropriate 
term will readily be found. 

The Preparation of Pyroxylin for Photographic and Pharma- 
ceutical Purposes. W. Godeffroy. (Zeltschrift des oesterr. Apoth. 
Ver., 1877, 209.) Most of the published formula? for the pro- 
duction of pyroxylin yield a preparation which does not form a 
perfectly clear solution with ether, or a mixture of ether and 
alcohol. From the author's experience it appears to be advan- 
tageous to employ the acid mixture at a slightly elevated tempera- 
ture. He uses potassium nitrate and sulphuric acid in the pro- 
portion of 350 grams of the former and 700 grams of the latter to 
35 grams of cotton. A porcelain mortar is gently warmed on a 
sand bath, and the powdered saltpetre triturated in it until it is 
perfectly dry ; the sulphuric acid is then added, and intimately 
mixed with the saltpetre, and the cotton immersed without remov- 
ing the mortar from the bath. The cotton is first freed from fatty 
matter by heating it in a solution of sodium carbonate, then boiling 
it with water to which a minute quantity of caustic potash has been 
added, 9,nd finally washing it with pure water until the alkali is 
completely removed. Thus purified, and again dried, it is intro- 
duced into the acid mixture, well kneaded with it by means of a 
pestle, and left immersed for seven minutes. After this time it is 
quickly transferred to a large vessel containing hot water, then 
washed under a stream of cold water until the acid reaction has 
entirely ceased, and finally with distilled water. After removing 
the water by strong pressure, the pyroxylin is ready for use, and 
may be at once dissolved without further drying. 

Mustard as a Deodorizer. F. Schneider. (Pharm. Zeltung, 1877, 
119.) The author calls attention to the value of black mustard as 
a deodorizing agent. The odours of cod-liver oil, musk, valerian- 
ates, and many other drugs, can be rapidly removed by it from 
the hands, utensils, scales, etc. The farina is mixed with a little 
water before it is applied. 

The Dispensing of Copaiba Resin. A. Balkwell. (Pharm. Journ., 
3rd series, vii., 481.) The following form of exhibiting copaiba resin 
has been found to give satisfaction both to prescriber and patient. 
It is easily prepared, and the mixture in appearance, permanence, and 
therapeutic action is said to be preferable to that of any form the 
writer has met with : — 



9. Eesinfe Copaibre . 


01. Amygdal. Dulc. 


Mucil. Acaciaj 


Liq. Potassre 


01. Cinnamomi . 

gutta; vi 

Aqnam .... 

. ad 5vi 

i. sixth part three times a day. 

Dissolve the resin in the almond oil with gentle lieat, then add 
the liq. potassa), and form an emulsion. 

An Improved Method of Making Mistura Guaiaci, and Similar 
Mistura. T. Greenish. (P//a/-»2.. /o?tr?i., 3rd series, vii., 309.) The 
excipients suggested by the author are sugar of milk and alcohol, 
and answer well with resin of copaiba, guaiacum, and other resins. 
For mistura guaiaci, he recommends to rub the resin with surjar of 
milk, then to add alcohol and to produce a homogeneous mixture by 
trituration ; to this is to be added powdered gum arabic, the tritu- 
ration to be continued, and the' water gradually added. The formula 
for mistura guaiaci would then stand thus : — 

R Guaiacum Resin in powder 
Sugar of Milk 
Gum Acacia in powder . 
Rectified Spirit 
Cinnamon Water . 

\ ounce. 

^ ounce. 

^ ounce. 
5 fluid drams. 
. to one pint. 

The following formula affords an example of a good emulsion 
of copaiba resin : — 

9> ResiniB Copaibse 
Sacch. Lactis 
Spirit. Vini Rect 
Pulv. Acaciae 
Aquae ad 


Jvj. Misce. 

Pepsin and its Preparation. Dr. 0. Liebreich. (Neiu Bemedies, 
from the Practitioner, March, 1877.) In a valuable paper on "The 
Use of Pepsin in Medicine," the author refers to the attempts that 
have been made to employ the peptones as therapeutic digestive 
agents, and their failure owing to the rapidity with which they under- 
go decomposition. He expresses his belief that the field of usefulness 
of pepsin in practical therapeutics is very great, and that it may be 
still further extended with very great advantage. But the success 
of this remedy has been greatly hindered, and the result of clinical 
and of scientific experiment as to the results which may be obtained 
have been much confused by the number of comparatively worthless 
preparations which have been employed, and by the instability and 


nncertainty of some of those preparations wbich in their most 
active states have from time to time yielded excellent results, and 
have thus attained a good reputation. The uncertainty of a potent 
remedy is almost as injurious and even more misleading than the 
inertness of a popular remedy, and the treatment of disorders of 
digestion by pepsin has suffered greatly from both these drawbacks 
and from both these sources of fallacy. 

Following the description of a number of conditions in which the 
employment of pepsin as a remedy is calculated to be of benefit to 
the patient, the author remarks that there are certain counter indi- 
cations of the use of pepsin, to which it may be well to refer. Among 
them are carcinoma and ulceration of the stomach. When there is 
an ulcer of the stomach it is an object of treatment to afford a smooth 
covering to the ulcer by bismuth, or by the administration of nitrate 
of silver ; to administer pepsin is to incur the risk of hastening the 
process of thinning, which there is already too much reason to fear 
from the action of the normal pepsin of the stomach. 

To fulfil the therapeutical indication of pepsin it is, however, 
necessary to have a pure and. reliable sample. There are various 
methods of obtaining the article. Thus, there is the method of 
Brlicke, by treating the gastric juice (obtained by well-known 
methods), with a solution of cholesteriue in ether; the cholesterine, 
being precipitated, enters into naechanical combinations with the 
pepsin, and pure pepsin is obtained by removing the cholesterine by 
the further addition of ethei'. 

This form of dry pepsin is absolutely pure, and from it may be 
learned the qualities and powers of pepsin. But the method is too 
costly for general use, and its advantages are mainly for scientific 
purposes. There are various dry preparations of pepsin in powder 
and cake, which are well known, and much used in medicine. Bat 
these preparations are very far from stable or reliable, and however 
active some of them may be when perfectly, they do not re- 
main active, and a large part of the pepsin powders pre,scribed are 
absolutely inert. Pepsin, although an albuminoid, differs, among 
other things, from ordinary albumen in being soluble in diluted 
alcohol. Advantage has been taken of this to prepare pepsin wines, 
but the alcohol does not prevent the ferment from undergoing 
change, and if a " pepsin wine " be examined after some time, it will 
be found not to contain a trace of pepsin, and to be absolutely de- 
void of digestive power. The author found, many years ago, that 
to preserve the ferment of pepsin there is only one reliable agent, 
that is glycerin, the powerful preserver of vaccine-matter and other 


animal ferments. His first researches on this subject, made many 
years ago, have been amply confirmed by a great number of obser- 
vations, and for all scientific experiments on digestion he has now for 
many years employed only these solutions. He strongly recommends 
practitioners, for all therapeutical purposes, to employ such a solu- 
tion. In this way they will avoid the fallacies and disappointment 
due to the employment of deceptive and unequal preparations, and 
they will the more readily define the true limits of pepsin as a 
therapeutic agent, and its place in the armoury of medicine. It is 
not to be reckoned among the most powerful and heroic remedies, 
but it is one which is of very agreeable and efficacious action ; which 
very frequently gives exceedingly good results in large classes of 
ordinary and troublesome complaints, and which may be employed 
with confidence and advantage when its powers are stable and re- 

The Constituents of S3rrup of Phosphate of Iron. E. B. Shuttle- 
worth. (^Canadian Pliarm. Journ., August, 1876.) During the 
past few years there have appeared in the pharmaceutical journals 
numerous papers and notes on phosphate of iron and the syrups 
containing it. The author in the present essay reviews this litera- 
ture, with the object of representing in as concise a form as possible 
the main points of the subject, omitting all unessential details. 

Phosphoric Acid. — Of this substance there are several varieties. 
The trihasic acid, having the composition Hg P 0^, combining weight 
98, is that used in medicines. In order to distinguish this form 
from the others add a little tincture or solution of perchloride of 
iron; if the mixture remains clear the tri basic acid is present, other- 
wise a whitish precipitate is produced. The official form of this acid 
is the Acid. Phosphoric. Dilutiim, but, in order to avoid disappoint- 
ment it is always well to submit this preparation to the above test. 
If a precipitate is produced, boil down the acid to the consistence of 
syrup, allow it to cool, and add water up to the ordinary bulk. ] f 
the official acid is not at hand the glacial acid may be substituted, 
being previously treated with nitric acid after the manner of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia. This will not always furnish the 
tribasic acid, and simple solution and evaporation of the glacial acid, 
without the addition of nitric acid, often gives as good results. 
Neither method can be relied upon with all samples of acid. The 
prepai-ation of phosphoric acid from phosphorus should never be at- 
tempted by the pharmacist. The process requires much care and 
experience, is not economical, except with large quantities, is at- 
tended with the evolution of poisonous and disagreeable gases, and 


like all operations with phospliorus, is always more or less 

For preparing syrups, and indeed for most purposes, an acid 
stronger than that official (10 per cent, anhydrous acid) might be 
advantageously employed. The so-called sijrvipy acid, which can be 
obtained from some manufacturers, and which is about five times 
stronger than the other (49 per cent, anhydrous acid, and of sp. gr. 
1"5) will be found very useful. 

Phosphate of Iron. — Five methods have been recommended for 
preparing this substance : — (1) By mixing together solutions of 
sulphate of iron and phosphate of soda ; (2) by using these salts 
with the addition of acetate of soda ; (3) by substituting carbonate 
or bicarbonate of soda for the acetate ; (4) by employing an excess 
of phosphate of soda ; (5) by forming the phosphate by direct com- 
bination of phosphoric acid and metallic iron. By the first method, 
which is that of the United States Pharmacopoeia and Parrish's 
" Pharmacy," about 30 per cent, of the phosphate of iron escapes 
precipitation, as the free sulphui-ic acid, liberated in the reaction, 
dissolves or holds this amount. The framers of the British Pharma- 
copoeia sought to escape this loss by employing acetate of soda for 
neutralizing the free sulphuric acid, as in the second method. This 
addition has been shown to be an improvement, but is still in great 
part inefFectual, as from 22 to 28 per cent, of the phosphate is lost. 
In the third method, that of Mr. Schweitzer, in which carbonate or 
bicarbonate of soda is employed, the loss is reduced to less than one 
per cent. The fourth method, that of Mr. Rees Price, is said to 
yield results equally satisfactory, but nearly three times the usual 
quantity of phosphate of soda is required. On the score of economy 
this is quite a consideration. The fifth method, that of direct com- 
bination, answers well w^here time is not an object. If acid of 
sp. gr. I'D be used, it should be diluted with an equal weight of 
water, and the iron should be in the form of filings, preferably of 
Swedish, or wrought metal. In order to produce a preparation 
similar to the Syr. Ferri Phosjjhatl.^;, B. P., and containing one grain 
of phosphate in each fluid dram, the following formula may be 
employed : — 

Iron 38 grains. 

Phosphoric Acid, sp. gr. 1-5 . . 6 fluid di-ams. 
"Water ...... 6 ,, ,, 

Syrup . . . . . . 8J fluid ounces. 

Mix, in a flask, the phosphoric acid and water; add the iron, and 


plug the mouth of the flask with cotton : when the iron is clissolved, 
filter the solution and add it to the syrup. 

The blue phosphate of iron is not a substance of very definite 
composition, and it is questionable whether the above methods 
furnish compounds cWhich are identical. Even when the same in- 
gredients are used in proportions exactly alike, the products may 
differ if the details of manipulation be changed. In all cases the 
intention is to produce ferrous phosphate, but this is never alto- 
gether accomplished, as a great portiou of the salt passes to the 
ferric condition ; or, as may be better understood, passes from a 
proto to a per salt. An analysis of six samples of commercial phos- 
phate showed a range of from 20 to 46 per cent, of ferrous salt. It 
appears likely that the last method noted above would yield a pre- 
paration richer in ferrous salt than any of the othei"s, but it is said 
that the third method gives a salt containing 61 per cent., which is 
more than 5 per cent, better than the B. P. standard. 

Taking everything into account, the author much prefers this 
process, and has used it with satisfaction for several years. The 
proportions of the sulphate of iron and phosphate of soda as given 
in the B. P. may be retained ; but instead of one ounce of acetate of 
soda, about half that quantity of bicarbonate of soda must be used. 
A better form is that of Mr. Howie : — 

Sulphate of Iron 7^ pai'ts. 

Phosphate of Soda 6^ ,, 

Bicarbonate of Soda . . . . . 1^ ,, 

Dissolve the sulphate in ten times its weight of water, which has 
been previously boiled, in order to expel air ; and the phosphate of 
soda in a like quantity, similarly treated. Let the solutions cool to 
between 100° to lo5° Fahr., and pour the phosphate very gradually 
into the iron, with constant stirring. Add the bicarbonate, either 
in powder or solution. Let the precipitate subside ; decant ; wash 
well with previously boiled water ; collect on a filter and squeeze 
out as much water as possible, either with the hand or an ordinary 
press. These details of manipulation must be rigidly adhered to — 
more especially those relating to the order of mixing and tempera- 
ture — or uniform results cannot be obtained. If, in the above 
formula, the parts be held to indicate drams, it may be read as 
part of Parrish's receipt for the so-called chemical food, published 
in his " Practical Pharmacy," p. 425, and the iron strength of the 
resulting preparation will accord with the compound sold as 


Sugar. — Some Englisli writers have enlarged considerably on the 
importance of obtaining pure cane sugar. It is said that beet sugar 
is very abundant in the English and French markets, and is largely 
substituted for that of the cane. The selection of a pure article is 
a matter of prime importance, as many of the pliarmacist's troubles 
relating to the fermentation and precipitation of syrups are refer- 
able to impurities in the sugar. 

The Administration of Eousso. Dr. Corre. (Bull, de Therap., 
1876, 556.) The following method is intended to bring kousso 
into such a pharmaceutical shape, that while its properties as a 
toenicide remain unimpaired, it may be administered without repug- 

Treat 25 grams of powdered kousso with 40 grams of hot castor 
oil, and afterwards with 50 grams of boiling water, by displacement; 
express, and combine the two percolates into an emulsion by means 
of yolk of e^g., and add 40 drops of sulphuric ether. It may be 
sweetened with syrup and aromatised to taste. This is taken at 
one dose early in the morning. The worm is expelled during the 
third or fourth evacuation, after about six or eight hours. 

Aqua Laurocerasi. A. Ripping. (Archiv der Pharm., Dec, 
1876.) The great difference in the effects of different samples of 
the commercial water led the author to suspect that much of it was 
prepared artificially ; in order to examine the subject he prepared 
some himself. From his own experiments he had previously ascer- 
tained that each litre of the natural distilled cherry-laurel water 
contained about three grams of essential oil. Having prepared 
some dilute hydrocyanic acid, of the strength required by the Phar- 
macopoeia for cherry-laurel water (1 in 1000), he added to each 
litre three grams of oil of bitter almonds, and obtained a mixture 
which appeared to be identical with the natural water. To distin- 
guish between the two waters, the process of Mohr for distinguishing 
between natural and artificial bitter-almond water may be employed ; 
namely, silver nitrate, which produces only a slight opalescence in 
the natural water, as the hydrocyanic acid is wholly fixed by benz- 
aldehyde, and the opalescence is cau.sed by ammonium cyanide, which 
is formed diu'ing the distillation by the splitting up of the hydrocy- 
anic acid into ammonia and formic acid. The presence of nitrobeuzol 
may be recognised, according to Hager, by shaking the water with 
chloroform, evaporating the latter, treating the residue with alcohol 
and water, and then adding zinc, hydrochloric acid, and after a 
while a small piece of potassium chlorate. If no change of colour 
takes place, the absence of nitrobeuzol is proved, as the latter would 



be converted by nascent hydrogen into anilin, Tvhicli would be 
changed to rosanilin by potassium chlorate, and would tinge the 
alcohulic liquid rose red. 

Benzoic Acid as an Antiseptic. H. Trimble. (Abstract from 
an inaugural essay : Anter. Joiirn. Phann., Aug., 1876, 347.) For 
tlie purpose of investigating this property, claimed for benzoic acid, 
two samples were employed : one obtained by sublimation, accord- 
ing to the U. S. P. process, and the other purchased under the 
name of "artificial" benzoic acid, supposed to have been prepared 
from hippuric acid. A good commercial salicylic acid was also pro- 
cured, which, with the above-mentioned samples, formed the basis 
of the following experiments, in one half of which both the sublimed 
and artificial benzoic acids were used, and found to be identical in 
antiseptic power ; the remaining experiments were therefore made 
with the artificial acid only. The results of the writer are condensed 
in the following table : — 

One part of 



200n parts 

SpoUed in 8 

after 60 

4000 parts 

Spoiled in 4 

Spoiled in 
16 days 

8000 parts 

Spoiled in 5 

2000 parts ; 2000 parts I 1000 parts 4000 pails 
Infusion Infusion | Solution of Solution of 



Albumen j Albumen 
[1 in 16 water] 

SpoiledinO Spoiled in Spoiled in Spoiled in 
days I 19 days I 12 days 10 days 

Cloudy.but Unaltered Unaltered Spoiled in 

no change after 30 i after 00 \ 19 days 

of colour I days days 
in 16 days i 

To ascertain the power of salicylic and benzoic acids to arrest 
decomposition, they were each added in proportion of one part to 
2000 of separate portions of cider which had commenced to ferment. 
In both cases the fermentation, after twenty-four hours, had entirely 
ceased, and both were perfectly sweet at the end of fifty days, with- 
out the appearance of any further decomposition, a rather curious 
precipitate having separated at the bottom of each. 

It must be remembered that the infusions in the above experiments, 
■without the addition of an antiseptic, would have commenced to 
decompose in about twenty-four hours, and the solution of albumen 
in about forty-eight hours. In all cases the operations were con- 
ducted in a moderately warm place, so as to favour a change as 
rapidly as possible. 

Having carefully compared the above experiments and their 
results, the following conclu.^ions are submitted : — 

1. That benzoic acid, sublimed or artificial, possesses valuable 
antiseptic properties. 

PHARMACY. » 249 

2. It has the power to arrest decomposition. 

3. Tannic acid (of buchu ?) does not interfere with its preserva- 
tive properties. . 

4. As an antiseptic, it is superior, in many, if not in all cases, to 
salicylic acid. It also has the advantages of being more readily 
obtained in a state of purity, of being more soluble, and having 
a lower commercial value. 

Chrysophanic Acid Ointment. B. Squire. {Pharm. Journ., 3rd 
series, vii., 489.) The author has employed goa powder as an applica- 
tion in various cutaneous affections, and has come to the conclusion 
that chrysophanic acid, which is the chief ingredient, is also the 
active agent of this drug. The favomdte mode of applying goa in 
the tropics seems to be to wet the powder with water, or with viuegar 
or lemon juice, and to smear the thin paste thus produced on the 
affected skin. But this paste dries ap very speedily into its original 
condition of fine dry powder, which is easily rubbed off by the 
slightest touch. According to the author, an ointment is unques- 
tionably a much better form of applying the remedy. This form, 
seems occasionally to have been had recourse to ; but wetting the 
powder and smearing on the paste is obviously the orthodox custom. 
As an ointment should be perfectly smooth and uniform, especial 
care was taken to obtain this end; and for this purpose advantage 
was taken of the solubility of chrysophanic acid in hot benzol, 
which is also capable of dissolving lard. Two drams of chryso- 
phanic acid and an ounce of lard were dissolved in the smallest 
necessary quantity of boiling benzol, applying heat by a water bath. 
Then as the brown solution cooled (the vessel containing it being 
placed in cold water), and the chrysophanic acid, much less soluble 
in cold than in hot benzol (Atffield), became rapidly deposited, the 
mixture was bri.skly stirred in an evaporating basin. As the mixture 
speedily became " set," a most perfect ointment was produced in a 
very ready manner. After leaving the ointment spread about the 
dish for a short time, the benzol almost completely evapoi'ated from 
it, leaving it quite hard, and giving it the appearance of being stained , 
or some sort of soft, yellowish wax. The smell of benzol adheres to 
the ointment for some time, but finally is lost, or may be concealed 
by some essential oil. 

The writer finds that the properties of chrysophanic acid are by 
no means confined to its being a remedy for ringworm, but that it 
is likely to prove a valuable addition to the list of drugs as a remedy 
for other non-parasitic skin diseases. He has obtained unquestion- 
ably good results with it in the treatment of psoriasis, and it is a 


serviceable application in cases of lupus. He adds that particular 
cai'e must be taken in the preparation of the ointment if it is to 
turn out such as described above. In the first place the acid must 
be thoroughly dissolved in the hot benzol, and in the next place, 
the cooling and evaporation of the benzol must be conducted as 
rapidly as possible. With this view the process of dissolving may 
be conducted in a small glass beaker, placed in a vpater bath, and 
when solution of the acid and the lard has been perfectly accom- 
plished, the solution should be promptly turned into a cold evapo- 
rating dish, placed in cold water, and immediately briskly stirred 
with a glass rod until the solution has become fully and firmly 
" set." 

In a subsequent number of the same journal we find a communi- 
cation by Dr. H. R. Crocker, who states that he used chrysophanic 
acid ointment some nine months previously in the treatment of ring- 
worm. The acid was prepared by Mr. A. W. Gerrard, and "was 
employed in the form of a concentrated solution in benzol, which 
retains about tea grains to the fluid ounce when cold, as well as in 
the form of ointment, made with ten to forty grains of the acid to 
the ounce of lard. The results of his experiments, which were 
limited to parasitic diseases, led him to consider chrysophanic acid 
as by no means deserving of unqualified praise. Mr. Grerrard, in 
the same paper, adds the statement that vaseline is a much better 
solvent of the acid than ordinary fats, and that the use of benzol 
in the pi-eparation of the ointment is not at all necessary. Hot fats 
or oils, indeed, appear to dissolve chrysophanic acid in almost all 
proportions ; but on cooling, a good deal of it separates again, and it 
is necessary to rub it assiduously during the cooling in order to 
obtain a smooth mass. Mr. A. W. Postans recommends tlie addi- 
tion of a few drops of otto of roses to disfjuise the peculiar odour, 
and also states that Dr. Ashburton Thompson has pushed the 
matter even further, by administering goa powder and chryso- 
plianic acid to his patients internally as well as externally. 

The botanic source of goa powder is expected, according to Mr. 
Postans, to be determined by means of a specimen plant, growing 
at present in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, and supposed 
to be the source of the drug. 

Glycerols of Phosphorus. C. Meniere. (BSpert. de Pharm., 1877, 
35-1;.) In preparing this glycerole in the usual way, by dissolving 
phosphorus in heated glycerin, a poi-tion of the phosphorus not un- 
frequently separates on cooling, giving rise to an opalescence and 
subsequently to a deposit. This, according to the author, may be 



prevented bj 'employing phosphorus in a finely divided condition, 
such as is obtained by mixing it with sugar or gum arabic, either 
of which is soluble in glycerin. The powdered sugar or gum is 
mixed with a small quantity of glycerin, so as to yield a mixture 
of the consistence of honey. This is heated on a water bath, the 
phosphorus incorporated with it, and the remainder of the glycerin 
then added in small quantities at a time, care being taken that the 
temperature never rises above 50° C. 

According to Reveil's formula, which the author considers the 
best, the preparation should contain "10 gram of phosphorus in 1000 
grams. This is ten times weaker than the preparation made 
according to Dorvault's formula ; but in this dilution the same dose 
of phosphoriis is much more readily borne by the stomach. 

Chloral with Solid Fats. (New Remedies, January, 1877.) An 
anonymous writer in the Med. and Surg. Bep. says, as a therapeutic 
agent, chloral has become so popular that its range of application is 
as diversified as any drug or chemical of a century's standing ; but 
its nature has not been suflficiently studied to construct formula? 
readily that furnish preparations easily dispensed and always praise- 
worthy. On the contrary, formulae are written which furnish not 
only inelegant, but almost incompatible preparations. A case in 
point is its combination with solid fats. It is a matter oftentimes 
overlooked, if not entirely unknown, that chloral hydrate is a solvent 
for fats ; so much so that solid fats become liquefied by contact. 
Hence it is not advisable to prescribe chloral with lard, simple 
ointment, or even with simple cerate, in a very large proportion. 
With oleum theobromae it forms an unctuous mass, which furnishes 
a very creditable preparation dispensed as an ointment ; but to make 
from this combination a suppository, is almost an impossibility. 
Still less possible is it to make a suppository containing with chloral 
one of the solid extracts which must previously be moistened with a 
little water to make it miscible with the soKd fat, as a drop of water 
increases enormously the fluidity of the oleaginous mixture. The 
writer has made a number of experiments as to the best excipients, 
and finds that equal parts of spermaceti and oleum theobromee 
have the advantage over any other. In a suppository containing 
ten to twelve grains of chloral this is about the proper proportion. 
Deviating from this strength, the proportion of spermaceti must be 
increased or diminished accordingly. Vaseline and paraffin, using 
three of the former to two of the latter, make a very good base, but 
it does not melt as nicely into an unctuous mass as does the former. 

Phosphorus Pills. E. J. Appleby. (Pharm. Joiorn., 3rd series, 



vii., 289.) The author has tried cacao butter, balsam of tolu, and 
commou resin as excipients for phosphorus, and finds that with the 
first named the mass requires some time and patience to prepare, 
and must be divided into pills and coated at once. The phosphor- 
ized tolu balsam is difficult to incorporate with other ingredients, 
and pills made from it soon lose their shape, and are with difficulty 
soluble in water. Phosphorized resiu, on the contrary, is easily pre- 
pared, and may be kept under water for any length of time. It can be 
quickly reduced to a fine powder, and easily made into a pill mass. 

Pills properly prepared with the resin are thoroughly disintegrated 
by cold water in a very short time. As a very small portion only of 
the resin is required for an ordinary dose of phosphorus, other in- 
gredients may be combined with it without making too large a pill. 

Detection of Adulteration in Oleum Theobromse. G. Ramsper- 
ger. (Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 187G.) Of all tests used by the 
author, ether was found to be the best. It indicated all admixtures 
which he had made to the cacao butter (with the exception of ox- 
marrow) either directly by the turbidity of the solution of one part of 
the adulterated cacao butter in two parts of the ether (as is the case 
with the adulterations by tallow, beeswax, and barberry wax, and 
paraffin) ; or if not immediately after solution, then by becoming 
turbid after standing for some time, and by forming little crystals 
and gi'ains by spontaneous evaporation of the solution, which crystals 
are not soluble again in two parts of ether at common temperature 
(this is the case with Japan wax and spermaceti, with or without 
the addition of ox-marrow). Anilin .shows adulterations with tallow 
and wax almost as well as ether. Other solvents of cacao butter 
cannot be used as tests ; all the difierent fats and wax being easily 
soluble in them, with the exception of barben*y wax, which makes a 
clear solution only with chloroform. 

Next to ether and aniline the taste seems to be the most reliable 
test. The droppings on hot iron, or burning the mixtures with 
wicks, does not show plainly enough an adulteration with 25 per 
cent, of tallow ; and of freshly rendered beef tallow, even 50 per 
cent, could be hardly recognised. With Klencke's test the author 
did not succeed ; he was very seldom able to see any difference in 
the shape of the drops of cacao butter from that of tallow or ox- 
marrow drops on water; the former expanding dish-like over the 
surface of the warm water about as much as the latter. 

The specific gravity is unreliable. The same seems to be the 
with the point of fusibility as a test ; at least he found that recently- 
melted and re-congealed cacao butter melts at a temj)erature several 



degrees lower than such as had been melted several weeks before. 
This may account for the conflicting statements about this point. 
Guided by the result of the experiments made, the author examined 
a dozen specimens of oleum theobromse which he had collected ia 
different wholesale and retail stores. The result was as follows : — 









31° C. 


33° C. 


31° C. 


30° C. 


34° C. 


32° C. 


34° C. 


34° C. 


30° C. 


35° C. 


33" C. 


30° C. 

Solution in Ether or 


A little rancid 


Not quite pure 


Very little rancid 

Strongly raucid 












Very turbid 


Very little turbid 



This shows two or three adulterations among the dozen, one of 
them with tallow plainly recognisable. 

A New Mode of making Grey Powder. A. Bottle. (Pharm. 
Journ., 3rd series, vii., 4G9.) The author discusses the question 
whether grey jDowder depends for its efficacy on the impalpably 
minute division of the mercury, or on the presence of oxides, and 
arrives at the conclusion that the use of a powder containing mercury 
in the higher state of oxidation ought to be avoided, and that it is 
desirable to have Hyd. c. Greta, prepared at intervals not too far apart. 
He suggests a slight deviation from the British Pharmacopoeia 
process, to the extent of substituting for the slow process of tritura- 
tion in a porcelain mortar, active agitation in a wide-mouthed glass 
bottle, by which means the B. P. may be prepared and the metal 
minutely sub-divided with an expenditure of very little, if any, 
more time and labour than is required to be devoted to the prepara- 
tion of a tincture. 

The Use of Petroleum Benzin in Pharmacy. L. Wolff. {Amer. 
Journ. Pharm., January, 1877, 1.) Petroleum benziu has been fre- 
quently proposed and variously experimented with by different 
operators, with the view of its substitution for the much higher priced 
ether in preparing oleo resins, and has been repeatedly found not to 
answer the purpose intended for it. Although its valuable solvent 
powers for fatty matter, wax, and essential oils cannot be disputed. 


it fails to extract the resins and the active ingredients, which are 
of the utmost importance in oleo resins. Ginger treated with benzin 
yields an oil containing all the odoriferous properties thereof, but 
extracting none of the pungent tasting resin for the remedial pro- 
perties of which it is justly celebrated, and which subsequent to the 
benzin process is readily dissolved from it by etlier or alcohol. 
Buchu under a like treatment, as reported by another contributor 
of this journal on this subject, gives an oily substance devoid of the 
diuretic propei'ties of the leaves, though possessing their speciBc 
odour. Cubebs, though completely exhausted by it of its fixed and 
essential oils, fails to yield its cubebic acid to it; black pepper 
its piperin ; and wormseed its resin and santonin. But all the sub- 
stances mentioned, and many more which have been subjected to the 
same process, are readily deprived of their fixed and essential oils, 
leaving them inodorous, seemingly dry and incoherent powders, 
that are, if treated with alcohol, ether, or chloroform, readily de- 
pi'ived of their resins, thus affording a method for obtaining them 
separate from wax, fixed, and essential oils. 

Its extraordinary solvency for essential oils destines benzin for 
an important place in pharmacy ; and oils derived by its aid from 
cinnamon, cloves, and other drugs are, if theii' odour is any indica- 
tion of their value, if not superior, certainly not inferior, to the 
distilled oils of these articles. 

The oils obtained by exhaustion with benzin and its subsequent 
evaporation are mixed with wax and fixed oils to some extent, which 
can easily be separated therefrom by dissolving in alcohol, in wbich 
the latter are insoluble, filtration of this solution, and either expul- 
sion of the alcohol by evaporation at the moderate heat of a water 
bath or, much safer and better, by mixing the filtered alcoholic solu- 
tion with several times its bulk of water, when the essential oil will 
rise to the surface or subside beneath it, as its specific gravity may be. 

The oils by this cold process have a beautiful aroma, superior to 
many of the distilled ones; and the easy manner of obtaining them 
may, without doubt, prove a valuable method for the pharmacist, 
who cannot always procure in the market tlie oils he wants, and 
has no facilities for distilling them, besides giving him fair means 
to arrive at a quantitative estimate of the essential oil contained in 
an article under analysis. 

The es.sential oil of parsley seed cannot thus be separately pre- 
pared by the aid of benzin, as it contains another peculiar oily 
substance, well known by the name of " apiol," which is soluble both 
in benzin and in alcohol. 


A great deal of the apiol in the market, both in bulk and in cap- 
sules, is nothing more than an oleo resin of parsley seed, which can 
lay no claim -whatever to its name, being of green colour, insoluble 
to a large extent in alcohol, and congealing at ordinaiy winter tem- 
perature ; all of which properties " true apiol " does not possess. 
Apiol has come into extensive use of late years, secured high praise 
as an emmenagogue, and is also claimed by its discoverers to be an 
antiperiodic but little, if any, inferior to quinia; but its high price, 
due to the expensive process as proposed by Messrs. Loret & 
Homelle, perhaps more than anything else, prevents its general 

Powdered parsley seed, exhausted with benzin, and the liquid 
spontaneously evaporated, yields a mixture containing principally 
fixed oil, wax, and apiol ; the latter, alone, being sohible in alco- 
hol, can readily be recovered therefrom by repeated washings in 
stronger alcohol. The washings, evaporated over the water bath 
with a gentle heat, leave as residue " true apiol," corresponding in 
every respect with the article sold under the name of " Joret & 
Momolle's," having the advantage of its low price making it acces- 
sible to persons of limited means as well as to the more favoured 
by fortune, especially if it is not dispensed in capsules, for which 
there is no occasion, since it may be given dissolved in essence of 
peppermint, or in emulsion, disguised by the oil of the same name. 
Samples of " apiol " prepared in this manner have been tried by 
several prominent physicians in their practice, and were pro- 
nounced to be equally as efficient as the imported French article. 
Quite frequently the fixed oils much encumber the result of phar- 
maceutical operations, as is prominently the case in preparing the 
"Alcoholic Extract of ISTux Vomica," which has often been noticed 
and given attention to by many writers. (See American Journ. 
Pharm., 1874, p. 405; also. Professor Procter on the same.) Nux 
vomica, if exhaiisted with benzin, yields a large percentage of a 
clear fixed oil, congealing at ordinary winter temperature ; and the 
powder, if subsequently treated in the usual manner with stronger 
alcohol, gives an extract which offers no trouble by proper evapora- 
tion in reducing it to the dry state. The oil derived from the 
benzin exhaust, to make sure of not losing any strychnia or brucia 
that may be contained therein, should be repeatedly shaken with 
dilute alcohol until the washings fail to betray to the palate the 
specific bitter taste of their alkaloids ; then the washings must be 
mixed with the extract in course of evaporation, and the whole re- 
duced to proper consistency. By the ordinary way, the separation 



of the oil from the extract is at best a tedious matter, causing the 
loss of extract, and is never completely performed, thus ju'eventing 
evaporation to dryness, which by the beuzin process is readily 

Another article, which the pharmacist has frequently to pui'chase 
at an exorbitant price, is "purified oleic acid," which has been 
much used of late iu making the oleates now in ixse, and can be 
easily and at small expense prepared, with benzin as solvent, in the 
following way : — 

Oil of sweet almonds, saponified with caustic potash and the soap 
decomposed with tartaric acid, is washed with hot water to separate 
the precipitated bitartrate of potassium from the mixture of oleic 
and palmitic acids. These are combined with litharge, forming the 
oleo-margarate of lead, from which the benzin dissolves the oleate 
of lead, leaving as residue the undissolved palmitate thereof. From 
the benzin solution the lead is precipitated by dilute hydrochloric 
acid in form of chloride of lead ; and on evaporation of the benzin, 
"oleic acid" will remain, sufficiently pure for pharmaceutical 
purposes, giving clear and permanent solutions with the red and 
yellow mercurial oxides, as high as thirty per cent, if necessary. 

As crude commercial oleic acid can be bought at very low figures, 
it may be purified by combining it with litharge, deriving from it 
the oleate of lead, from which again, by the aid of benzin, the puri- 
fied oleate can be separated, and as before stated, purified oleic acid 
prepared at but a small expense. 

To gain the same end, the simplest way perhaps is to utilize the 
ready-made oleo-palmitate of lead, the officinal lead plaster, dissolve 
it in benzin, and extract from it the oleic acid by precipitating the 
lead by aid of hydrochloric acid. 

Oleic acid thus prepared has been used for some time, and found 
to answer better for the preparation of the oleates than the article 
sold by some of the manufacturing chemists. 

The above results by no means limit the utility of petroleum 
benzin as a solvent and important pharmaceutical factor ; but they 
will show that this refuse article, of comparative little commercial 
value, which has been applied to but little more than the removal 
of oil, grease, or paint stains, may be turned to good account by its 
very deficiency to act like ether or similar substances as a general 
solvent for both fats and resins. 

The Union of Chloral Hydrate and Camphor. E. C. Saunders. 
{Pharm. Juurn., 3rd series, vii., 89.) Tiie author quotes a number 
of experiments, the results of which indicate that no chemical action 


takes place wlien chloral hydrate and camphor are mixed in the 
cold. Both are volatile at ordinary temperatures; and the follow, 
ing experiment, which was performed to ascertain which was the 
solvent, conclusively proves that it is the vapours which act upon 
each other. Two lumjis, one of chloral hydrate and one of camphor, 
were placed about an inch apart on a porcelain plate, and covered 
with a bell glass. In fifteen minutes the surface of the camphor 
was quite damp, but the chloral was quite dry. In three houi-s the 
chloral was still dry, while the camphor was quite wet and standing 
in the midst of liquid. In twelve hours the liquid had reached the 
chloral, the upper surface of which was still dry, while in twenty 
hours both lumps were half liquefied, and the inner surface of the 
bell glass was covered with moisture. This would almost seem to 
point out that the vapour of the chloral was the solvent; but it was 
found while one part of camphor would form a permanent liquid 
with three and a half parts of chloral hydrate, one part of chloral 
dissolved by the aid of heat, with two parts of camphor solidified to 
a soft crystalline mass when cold, from the camphor crystallizing. 
It is most probable that the camphor is the solvent, which would 
also seem likely, as camphor is an essential oil, and is known to 
render other bodies fluid. The change of coloui', with the formation 
of an oily liquid, would seem to point to chemical action occurring 
when the mixture is subjected to sti'ong heat. 

The following notes of the solubility of the mixture in various 
fluids may be serviceable to any who are called upon to dispense 
it, or to physicians who feel inclined to try the effects of it. 

It is miscible in all proportions with alcohol, sp. gr. '838, bisul- 
phide of carbon, ether, and olive oil. It is soluble in eleven parts 
of alcohol, sp. gr. '9S7. It is insoluble in water. It forms a clear 
mixture with one and a half parts of chloroform, but a further 
addition of three parts of chloroform renders it turbid. Camphor 
forms a permanent liquid with three times its weight of chloral 
hydrate. The experiments were conducted with the atmosphere at 
a temperature of about 80^; the fact is mentioned, as it may have 
influenced the solubility slightly. 

Glycerole of Nitrate of Bismuth. B. Squire. (Pharm. Journ., 
3rd series, vii., 389.) Desiring to employ a solution of a simple bis- 
muth salt in certain skin diseases, the author tried glycerin as 
a solvent, and found that the nitrate was freely sohihle in glycerin, 
and that it dissolved without decomposition. This solution may 
even be diluted with water without depositing any more than a 
trifle of the salt for nearly an hour. 



With the view of studying the reactions of tliis gljcerole, 
Mr. John "Williams prepared some of it by dissolving 20 per cent, of 
crystallized nitrate of bismuth in Price's glycerin (Pliarm. Joum., 
3rd series, vii., 470). He found the solution is best effected in the 
cold ; if much heat is employed in the preparation, the glycerole. 
■nhen diluted does not give a clear solution but a milky one, at any 
rate at the end of a few hours. The property of bearing dilution 
■with water without producing a turbid solution, appears to dimin- 
ish by keeping. The diluted solution does not bear boiling, but 
when so treated deposits a basic salt not afterwards soluble in water. 
Caustic potash (or soda), added to the glycerole diluted with water, 
first causes a white precipitate, which is, however, perfectly soluble 
in an excess of the alkali, a bright clear liquid being produced, which 
is perfectly miscible with water in all proportions, and might pos- 
sibly be employed medicinally as a substitute for the liq. hismnthi 
mnmonio-citratis of the Pharmacopoeia. From this reaction Mr. 
Williams is inclined to infer that the glycerole is not a mere solu- 
tion of the nitrate of bismuth in glycerin, but is a chemical com- 
bination ; and that the glycerin is playing a part somewhat similar 
to that taken by the citric acid in the liquor of the Pharmacopoeia. 
Ammonia, however, cannot be substituted for potash in this re- 
action, no excess of the former making a clear solution, although a 
trace of bismuth is held in solution, as can be proved by adding 
sulphate of ammonium to the filtrate. 

Mr. Williams' opinion that this preparation is a real chemical 
combination is not shared by Mr. W. Willmott, who regards the 
difierence between the behaviour of ammonia and potash in this 
reaction as an indication that the glycerin here merely acts as a 
solvent, but does not form a chemical compound {Pharm. Joum., 
3rd series, vii., 830.) The same writer suggests the following for- 
mula for this preparation : — 

Nitrate of Bismuth gss. 

Distilled TVater 5ij. 

Price's Glycerin ad 5VJ. 

Dissolve the nitrate of bismuth in two fluid drams of the gly- 
cerin previously mixed with the distilled water ; then add the 
solution to the remainder of the glycerin, and mix well together. 

This is prepared at once and without the slightest difficulty. It 
contains five grains of the active ingredients in each fluid dram, 
and is most convenient for prescribing. Even therapeutically the 
addition of the water is an advantaee, since, as in the cases of tan- 


nin and borax, the density of the undiluted glycerin prevents the 
action of the remedy from coming readily into play. It is better in 
each case to dilute with a little water before using. 

Administration of Oils and Oleo-Resins by means of Wafer Cap- 
sules. S. Limousin. {Rapert. cle Pharm., 1877, 257.) The author 
suggests the use of cachets de pain, or wafer capsules, as vehicles for 
administering castor oil, cod liver oil, copaiba, and other liquids 
which do not act upon the substance of the wafer. The two 
empty halves of the capsules are united in the usual manner, except 
on one portion of the rim, thus leaving an opening through which 
the oil is introduced by means of a pipette. The orifice is then 
closed by moistening it. The oil may also be placed in the cavity of 
the lower wafer, and the upper one rapidly affixed to it before the oil 
has had time to spread to the margin. Cod liver oil communicates its 
odour to the capsule unless the inner surface of the wafer be pre- 
viously covered with collodion. 

Canada Balsam as an Excipient for Pills. M. Daunecy. (U Union 
Pharmaceutique, 1877, 1G8.) To prevent pills from becoming hard 
and insoluble, the author suggests a mixture of one part of wax 
and three parts of Canada balsam. This mixture possesses the pro- 
perty, even if added in small proportion, of binding together the 
component parts of pill masses, of keeping the pills jDermanently 
soft and yet sufficiently solid to prevent them from flattening, and 
of preventing deliquescent constituents from attracting moisture. 
He has prepared, by means of this excipient, pills of potassium 
acetate containing three grains of the latter in each pill, and re- 
maining entirely unaltered on keeping. Pills prepared in this man- 
ner readily disintegrate in the stomach. 

Oleate of Bismuth. S. C. Betty. (Pharm. Journ., 3rd series 
vii., 469.) Having noted the power of oleic acid in dissolving oxide 
of bismuth to a considerable extent, the author suggests the follow- 
ing formula for such a combination : — The oxide of bismuth, B. P. 
(the trisnitrate and carbonate being useless for this purjjose), is 
ground very fine, and the oleic acid gradually incorporated with 
it. The mixture being placed in a suitable vessel is subjected to a 
temperature of nearly its boiling point; then allowed to digest, wdth 
frequent agitation, at a temperature of about 60° during four days, 
or until it solidifies. The result is pharmaceutically a plaster ; 
chemically, an oloate of bismuth, containing 20 per cent, of the 
base. Respecting- its utility as an endermic application, it is stated 
that the preparation melts readily in contact with the skin, is bland 
to an excoriated surface, and penetrating by its limpidity. 


Ferric Citrophosphate. R. Rother. (Fharmacisf, Sept., 187G.) 
Citric acid is one of the most remarkable of the oreranic acids. Its 
constitution is so peculiar and unintelligible that; synthetic chem- 
istry has failed to produce it ; neither has any process of disruption 
yielded it from more complicated compounds. It is, in our present 
knowledge of the substance, most emphatically an organic acid. Ifi 
is, however, a noticeable fact that, considering the interest and im- 
portance attaching to the citrates as a class, they have been but im- 
perfectly studied. The marvellous property possessed by citric acid 
of rendering metallic bases insusceptible to many of the ordinary 
reagents has long been known. This action has been interpreted in 
various ways, and given rise to some of the most striking theoretical 
speculations. From the time that H. Rose first observed the ready 
solubility of dry ferric citrate in pi'esence of normal monad citrates 
to the pi'csent, no definite and reliable knowledge existed in regard 
to the constitution of these compounds. The opinion largely pre- 
vailed that they were but mechanical mixtures ; that is, mere solu- 
tions of one salt in the other, without reference to equivalency. The 
first step in the direction of a comprehensive view of this heretofore 
hopelessly intricate subject was made by the writer (Laboratory, 
Feb., 1876), in showing that ferric salts with monobasic radicals 
formed, by a combination of double decomposition and additive 
affinity, a peculiar green double citrate of iron and the monad 
metal, whilst the monobasic or dibasic radical passed to the base of 
the citrate actually decomposed. By means of dialytic experiments 
(Ame^-ican Journal of Pharmacy, April, 1876) the writer added 
further proof in confirmation of this result, but also showed that 
in case of the citrophosphoric compounds a rearrangement of more 
complicated character takes place. 

All compound salts may be divided into two classes. Double, 
triple, and quadruple salts are formed from dibasic, tribasic, and 
tetrabasic acids when each iodividual unit of equivalency is satura- 
ted by a distinct basic radical. Secondary, tertiary, and quaternary 
salts are produced when each independent unit equivalency of a 
polyatomic metal is saturated by distinct acid radicals of corres- 
ponding basicity. 

The writer's process for preparing aramonio-ferric citrophosphate 
(Pharmacist, August, 1871) indicates that two equivalents of ferric 
orthopho.sphate and one equivalent of triamraonic citrate react upon 
each other in the production of a soluble amorphous compound 
readily obtainable in splendid brown-green scales. The solution, 
when subject to dialysis, gave no evidence of dissociation, showing 

PHARMACr. 261 

that no crysiallizable salt is present. The formation of the com- 
pound, therefore, determines a basic condition made apparent by 
the presence of ferric oxjcitrate or free ferric hydrate (^Pharmacist, 
May, 1876). Its generation may then be represented as follows : — 

4 (Fe P 0,) + 2 (N H,)3 C^ H, O7 + 3 (0 H.) = Fe C^ H.^ 0, (N H,) + 
C, H, O7. Fe (0 H)3 + 2 (Fe P 0,). (N H,)3 H3 (P O,)^. 

As this reaction assumes the production of an ammonio-ferric 
phosphate in which one equivalent each of monammonic and diam- 
monic phosphate are seemingly united, the writer endeavoured to 
produce this double phosphate independent of the citrate by dissolv- 
ing freshly precipitated ferric phosphate in a mixture of the two 
ammonium phosphates, bat no solution appeared to take place. 
Ferric citrate was then substituted for the ammonium phosphates, 
when rapid solution was effected, thus enabling the writer to add 
one more interesting iron salt to the list of those already discovered 
by him. The ferric citropliosphate obtained by this combination is 
a secondary anhydrous salt, having the composition Fco (P O4) 
(CgHjOy), and easily obtainable in beautiful brown-green scales. 
It forms in long slender blades, a shape characteristic of feme 
citrate. In concentrated solution it is absolutely permanent, show- 
ing also, in this resp3ct, one of the properties of ferric citrate. It 
has a sweet, acidulous taste, free from metallic flavour and the 
saline nauseousness of some of the ferric double citrates now in use. 
There can be no doubt of its complete superiority over all other 
citroferric phosphates at present so largely employed, either in a 
pharmacal or therapeutic aspect. On the assumption that tliis salt 
is one of the components of the ammonio-ferric citrophosphate above 
described, the formation may be written as follows : — 

2(FePO,)-i-(NH,)3C6H5 07^ 

Feo(P0,)(C,H,0,) + (NHj3P0,. 

This result seems quite probable, since, as the basicity of the acids 
is apparently alike, a possibility of closer union is not precluded, 
and hence we may have the actual combination of the two constitu- 
ents in the condition of a secondary double salt. 

It is a remarkable fact, worthy of note in this connection, that 
ferric pyrophosphate is practically insoluble in ferric citrate. This 
property, therefore, supports the writer's constitutional formula of 
the officinal pyrophosphate, making it a mixture of ammonio-ferric 
pyrophosphate, ammonio-ferric citrate, and free ferric citrate. 

As previously suggested by the writer {American Journal of 


Pliarmacij, April, 187G), it was found that the most practical and 
expeditious process of preparing the ferric citrophosphate consisted 
in precipitating the iron as a mixed phosphate and oxycarbonate, 
and dissolving the mixture in citric acid. Ferric oxycarbonate 
(Pharmacist, Dec, 1873) is so incomparably superior in every re- 
spect to the ordinary ferric hydrate that no operator who has once 
employed it will ever abandon its use. The compact ferric phos- 
phate (Pharmacist, Dec, 1873,) is equally an improvement on the 
gelatinous kind. In the production of ferric citrophosphate the 
writer combined the processes of the two iron salts as follows : — 

Solution of Ferric Sulphate 

one pint. 

Disodic Orthophosphate, Cryst. . 

7 troy ozs. 

Disodic Carbonate, Cryst. 

9 „ „ 

Citric Acid, Cryst. 

3 „ „ 



Add the sodic phosphate to the solution of ferric sulphate, and 
apply heat until solution is effected ; now place the sodic carbonate 
into a capacious vessel, pour on half a pint of water, and apply heat 
until the salt has dissolved ; then add in rapid succession the former 
solution, one-fourth at a time, and maintain the heat, with constant 
stirring, until effervescence has ceased ; dilute the mixture with 
water to the measure of eight pints, and when the precipitate has 
perfectly subsided decant the supernatant liquid, and mix the 
sediment again with a fresh portion of water, as before ; after three 
or four washings in this manner, pour the precipitate upon a muslin 
strainer and press it thoroughly ; place the residue in a porcelain 
capsule, add the citric acid and apply a water bath heat until per- 
fect solution has occurred ; finally, pour the liquid upon plates of 
glass or porcelain, and expose it in the open air to dry. The yield 
is about 6| troy ounces. 

In this formula a slight excess of sodic phosphate is employed, 
since the sodium carbonate has a tendency to take away the acid of 
the ferric phosphate. Hence, the two precipitates may also be pre- 
pared separately, mixed after washing, and dissolved as above. 
With the adjusted quantity of sodium phosphate, as directed in the 
above formula, the final result, however, agrees very closely with 
the theoretical yield. 

If desirable, the salt may be retained in solution, which, if 
sufficiently concentrated, will remain absolutely permanent. A 
solution containing one-half a troy ounce of the salt iu the fluid 
ounce appears to be the most convenient form. 

This salt, similar to the officinal pyrophosphate, when mixed with 


any acid stronger than the citric, is completely decomposed, ferric 
phosphate being precipitated. The officinal pyrophosphate, when 
mixed with orthophosphoric, pyrophosphoric, metaphosphoric, 
chlorhydric, nitric or sulphuric acid, is instantly precipitated. 

The white gelatinous precipitate is insoluble in either of the phos- 
phoric acids, but any of the latter three acids, when in sufficient 
excess, again dissolve it. The erroneous belief is still abroad that 
the officinal pyrophosphate of iron should form a clear solution 
when mixed with diluted phosphoric acid. It is, however, about 
time now that it was generally understood that any citrophosphoric 
compound is incompatible with free orthophosphoric acid, by reason 
of the fact that any citrate present will be decompossd, its acid 
being liberated ; and as free citric acid fails to dissolve the various 
ferric phosphates, these must of necessity be thrown out of solu- 

Pepsin combined with Glycerin. M. C a til Ion. (BepSrt. de 
Pharm., 1877, No. 11.) Glycerin is recommended by the author 
both for the extraction of pepsin and for its medicinal exhibition. 
Administered in this form, the pepsin is reported to exercise an 
increased digestive power, while another advantage is to be found 
in the fact that a solution of pepsin in glycerin may be kept for a 
great length of time without suffering any change. 

The Spectroscope in Pharmacy. W. Gilmour. (Pharm. Jouni., 
3rd series, vii., 529-531, and 569-571.) The author has applied the 
spectroscope to the examination of tinctures and extracts of the 
following drugs : — aconite, belladonna, bearberry, buchu, Indian 
hemp, hemlock, foxglove, hops, henbane, lettuce, lobelia, matico, 
and senna. The report contains many points of interest, but as it 
is not suited for abstraction, we must refer our readers to the 
original article. 

Valuation of Powdered Ipecacuanha Root and Dover's Powder. 
T. M. Stewart. {Amer. Journ. Pharm., August, 1876, 359.) All 
the specimens were obtained from different retail drug stores ia 
Detroit and Jackson, Michigan. 

The ipecacuanha was assayed by the process lately recommended 
by Dragendorff (" Werthbestimmung einiger starkwirkender Dro- 
guen " (1874) S. 37), the drug being extracted first by acidulated 
water, and then by alcohol, the pectin filtered out from the con- 
centrated solution ; when the alkaloid is either determined volu- 
raetrically by potassium mercuric iodide, or extracted by chloro- 
form or benzin in presence of barium carbonate, and the residue 
thereof weighed (one c.c. Mayer's solution precipitates 0'0189 gram 


emetia.) Both volumetric and gravimetric ways were found to give 
concurring duplicate results, and the two wa^'s gave results corre- 
sponding closely "with each other ; but the volumetric method leaves 
less danger of loss in operating. Two grams were taken each time. 

Powdered Ipecacuanha. 
No. 1. 1 'To per cent, emetia. No, 


1 'To per cent, emetia. 








1'90 per cent, emetia 







Average, 1-84 per cent, emetia. 

All the numbers were examined microscopically and chemically 
for adulterations, especially for almond meal, chalk, and antimonium 
potassium tartrate ; but no adulterations were found, except a little 
extraneous woody fibre. 

The compound powder of ipecacuanha was assayed as follows 
("Dragendorfi^'s Werthbestimmung," S. 96). Three grams of the 
powder were extracted with 85 per cent, alcohol (the residue tests 
for adulterations); the di*y residue from the alcohol dissolved in 
acidulated (sulphuric acid) water, filtering if necessary, and the 
narcotine removed by washing the acid solution with ether. After 
addition of excess of barium carbonate, the solution is now extracted 
with benzin (several portions), the residue from evaporation of the 
benzin being weighed as emetia (confirming by dissolving in acid 
water and titrating with potassium mercuric iodide). The solution 
exhausted with benzin is washed with amylic alcohol (several por- 
tions), and the residue from evaporation of the amylic alcohol 
weighed as morphia (confirming volumetrically by potassium 
mercuric iodide after dissolving in acidulated water). The ether 
and the amylic alcohol should be water washed. 

Dover's Foioder. 
0-20 per cent, emetia, and 1-03 per cent, morphia. 
,, 1-00 
,, 1-06 
„ 1-03 
„ 0-93 
„ 1-00 
„ 106 
„ 0-96 
., I'Ol 

The average of O'lO per cent, in Dover's Powder equals 1'90 per 
cent, emetia in ipecacuanha. 

No. 1. 


„ 2. 


,, 3. 


„ 4. 


„ 5. 


„ 6. 


„ 7. 


„ 8. 




S. P. Standard 


All the samples of Dover's Powder were examined for adultera- 
tions, organic and inorganic, but none were found. 

Benzol and Benzin. M. Heeren. (Zeitsch-ift. des oesterr. Apotli. 
Ver., 1877, 190.) The terms benzol and benzin are so often used 
indiscriminately, not merely in commercial life, but also in chemical 
and pharmaceutical literature, that a few observations respecting 
the various substances which pass by these names may not be out 
of place. 

Benzol, when first discovered by Mitscherlich, was named by him 
benzin. In its purest condition, as obtained by distillation from a 
mixture of benzoic acid and lime, it is a colourless liquid having a 
pleasant odour, a specific gravity of '878, and a boiling point of 
80'5° C. ; it is highly infiammable, can be ignited at ordinary tem- 
perature, and burns with a luminous, very smoky flame. It does 
not mix with water, but combines readily and in all proportions 
with alcohol and fatty oils. It takes up gutta percha in vei'y large 
proportion, and is also a good solvent for caoutchouc. By concen- 
trated nitric acid it is converted into nitrobenzol, a pale yellow 
liquid of a pleasant odour, resembling that of the essential oil of 
bitter almonds. When cooled to 0° C, it solidifies, forming a 
crystalline mass. The composition of benzol is represented by the 
formula C^. Hg, and its high percentage of carbon (92"3) fully ac- 
counts for the dense black smoke which it emits on burning. 

Much cheaper, bat also much less pure, is the benzol obtained 
from coal tar. The very thin liquid known as coal tar oil, which 
in the distillation of the tar passes over first, yields on purification 
and redistillation a product consisting principally of benzol, but 
containing also toluol (a similar but less volatile liquid), besides 
small quantities of xylol, cumol, cymol, and probably some other 
less volatile hydrocarbons. For many purposes the presence of 
these impurities are no disadvantage whatever, and in benzol re- 
quired in the manufacture of aniline colours the presence of toluol 
is even an essential condition ; but it is only just to insist that such 
a preparation should be distinguished from pure benzol by its name 
also, as will be the case if this product be always called benzin, and 
the name benzol be restricted to the preparation obtained from 
benzoate of lime. 

By repeated fractional distillation, it is possible of course to ob- 
tain from coal tar oil a product boiling constantly at 80° C, having 
a specific gravity of '88, and crystallizing at 0° C. Such a prepa- 
ration is now an article of commerce, and has the fullest claim to 
the name benzol ; but the less pure products, which are far more 


common]}' met witli, aud are sold at a much lower price, should bo 
designated as benzin. They boil at a higber and inconstant tem- 
perature, and the determination of the boiling point therefore affords 
the best means of distinguishing them from pure benzol. Their 
proper name is benzin. 

Wholly different from benzol and benzin, and yet very fre- 
quently confounded with them, are the first or most volatile pro- 
ducts of the distillation of petroleum. These are mixtures of 
A-arious hydrocarbons of different boiling points and specific gravities, 
containing among others the hydrides of butyl, amyl, and capryol. 
They have a petroleum-like odour, quite different from that of 
benzol, and, when shaken with an equal volume of alcohol of 90 
per cent., they separate, whereas benzol and benzin treated in the 
same manner, yield perfectly clear and uniform mixtures. Owing 
to their considerably smaller percentages of carbon, they burn with 
a much less smoky flame than either benzol or benzin. To prevent 
confusion, these products ought to be called petroleum benzin, 
petroleum ether, or benzolin, but not benzin. 

The tars obtained fi'om cannel coal, boghead coal, brown coal, 
peat, and wood, yield mixtures of hydrocarbons known as photogen, 
mineral oil, shale oil, and eupione, which boil at a much higher 
temperature than benzol, have an unpleasant odour, do not mix 
with alcohol of DO per cent., and burn with a less smoky flame. 

The Manufacture of a Cinchona Febrifuge in India. (From New 
Remedies, v., 386.) The cinchona plantations on the Neilghiris yield 
practically two barks, red bark and crown. Red bark is rich in 
total alkaloids, but not very rich in quinia, and the latter is diflBcult 
of separation. The bark is of comparatively small value, therefore, 
to the quinine maker, although of great value to the government as 
a source of supply for a cheap febrifuge. E.ed bark is also of much 
value in Europe for making galenical preparations (in other words, 
it is a good druggist's bai'k), and recently large prices have been 
got for consignments bought by druggists. These rates are far 
beyond the value of the quinia contained in such bark, as estimated 
by a quinine-maker. It is doubtful whether a European alkaloid- 
maker could, in fact, work red bark for its alkaloids at their present 
price, and pay for the 1)ark at the rates recently given in London 
for Neilghiri-grown produce. Crown bark is, on the other hand, 
rich in crystallizable quinia, and is nearly as highly valued by the 
quinine-makers as good American yellow. But red-bark trees are 
by far the most numerous on the government and other plantations 
in India and the colonies. This species is hardier, grows better, 


and yields about one- third more bark than the pale or crown bark. 
The utilization of red bark by manufacture in India is therefore of 
the highest importance. 

The Sikkim plantation consists of red and yellow bark trees. 
Yellow bark, -which has been a failure in the Neilghiris, promises to 
be a success there. In character, yellow resembles crown bark, but 
is even more esteemed by the quinine-makers. As both are easy to 
work, crown and yellow barks would be very much preferable to 
red bark as sources for the manufacture in India of a cheap febri- 
fuge, if officinalis and caUsaya trees could be got to grow as luxuri- 
antly as sncciruhra. 

As the result of a systematic set of experiments, Mr. J. Brough- 
ton, government quinologist at the Neilghiri plantation, decided on 
issuing as " the cheap febrifuge " wanted for India, a preparation 
called amorphous quinine, which consisted of the total alkaloids of 
cinchona bark in the form of a non- crystalline powder, mixed to 
some extent with the resin and red-colouring matter so abundant in 
red bark. This alkaloid-mixture was accepted by the medical faculty 
in the Madras Presidency as a remedy in malarious fever, scarcely, 
if at all, iuferor to quinia. Of these alkaloids about six hundred 
pounds had been manufactured up to the end of the fiscal year 
1872-73, when it was found that, after calculating at its manu- 
facturing value the price of the bark used, Mr. Broughton's product 
cost more than ordinary commercial quinia. The factory has ac- 
cordingly been closed, and the bark is to be disposed of otherwise 
than by local manufacture. 

The Sikkim (Himalaya) plantations ai^e younger than those on 
the K"eilghiris. No quinologist was appointed to them until the 
end of the year IS 73, when Mr. C. H. Wood was sent out by the 
Secretary of State. Actual manufacture did not begin until 1875. 

The method at present in operation in the factory in Sikkim is 
simple in the extreme, and is as follows : — 

General Nahire of the Process. — The dry bark is crushed into small 
pieces (but not powdered), and is put into wooden casks, where it 
is macerated in the cold with very dilute hydrochloric acid. The 
liquor is then run off into wooden vessels, and mixed with an excess 
of a strong solution of caustic soda ; a precipitate forms, which is 
collected on calico filters, and well washed with water. The preci- 
pitate is then dried at a gentle heat and powdered. It constitutes 
the crude fehrifuge, which is next submitted to a process of purifica- 
tion. In the latter process a certain weight of the crude product is 
dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, and a small quantity of a solution 


of sulphur in caustic soda is added to the liquor. After the elapse of 
twenty-four hours, the liquor is carefully filtered, the filtrate is 
mixed with the caustic soda, and the resulting precipitate collected 
on calico, washed with a small quantity of Avater, dried and pow- 
dered ; it is then ready for issue, and is sent out under the name of 
'■ Cinchona Febrifuije." 

Arraufjement of the Factory Sheds. — A position was chosen con- 
veniently near the dry bark godowns, and so situated on the side 
of the hill that a copious supply of water could be obtained at 
a level with the roof of the sheds in which the maceration is con- 

These sheds are rough temporary erections, constructed with sap- 
lings, and a mat or thatch roof. Down the centre an open drain is 
cut to carry ofi" the waste liquor. Over this drain some wooden 
stands are placed, on which the calico filters rest. The filters are 
formed by tying a square piece of calico to a wooden frame by the 
four corners. On each side of the shed is placed a row of twenty- 
one casks, standing on end upon a stand which elsvates them about 
two feet from the ground. They are empty beer-barrels, which 
have been purchased from the Commissariat Department at Darjeel- 
ing, the head removed, and the cask thoroughly cleansed ; a hole is 
cut in the side of the cask at a level with the bottom, and closed 
with a cork. In front of the casks a row of tubs, formed by cutting 
beer-barrels in halves, is placed, so that on uncorking the barrels, 
the liquor will ran oat into the tubs. 

Outside the shed, at one end, are a couple of large wooden vats 
at such an elevation that liquid can flow from them along a bamboo 
trough into any one of the barrels in the shed. The cajmcity of the 
large vats, up to a mark on the inside near the top, is accurately 
determined. Water is run into the vat up to the mark, and a cer- 
tain quantity of muriatic acid is added, and the whole well mixed. 
This diluted acid can then be run into any one of the casks in a line 
with the vat, by means of a bamboo trough. In addition to the 
macerating sheds, thei'e is a small brick building, heated with char- 
coal, in which the precipitate is dried; also a sej)arate shed in which 
the process of purification is conducted. 

Method of Conducting the Process. — The casks are worked in sets 
of three, and are marked ABC. 

In each shed there are fourteen sets, seven on each side. Each 
cask receives one maund ( = 37| kilos.) of dry bark, which undergoes 
four successive macerations, the liquor being moved in rotation 
through the three casks. Each maceration lasts half a week. The 


liquid used for the fourtli and last maceration is acidulated water 
drawn from the vat. "When this is run off, it is moved into the next 
cask to form the third h'quor. When this is drawn off, it forms 
the second h'quor for another cask, and, when transferred from that, 
it goes on to new bark, from which it is drawn off and precipitated. 
Of course, in starting a new shed, every cask contains dry bark, 
consequently the system of rotation is not brought into fall operation 
until after the first fortnight ; and it is only after the shed has been 
in operation for three and a half weeks that the liquor for precipi- 
tation has been used for four macerations. 

The liquor which is to be precipitated is now run into the tubs. 
The other hquors are drawn into wooden buckets and poured into the 
proper casks. The new acid is then drawn from the vats. The 
diluted acid is made in the vat by adding one gallon of muriatic 
acid to every one hundred gallons of water. 

The weight of acid used in the exhaustion is 6| per cent, of the 
weight of dry bark. It is obtained from Mr. Waldie's chemical 
works, at a cost of 3|^ annas (8 annas = 1 shilling Engl.) per pound 
in Calcutta. 

To precipitate the saturated liquor, a solution of caustic soda is 
added in excess. The caustic soda is obtained from England in 
o-cwt. drums, costing from £15 to £20 per ton in London. One 
part of this is dissolved in three parts of water, and the solution 
stored in iron vessels. The quantity to be added to the bark liquor 
must be judged of by the appearance produced. When a sufficient 
quantity has been introduced, the precipitate assumes a somewhat 
curdy condition. 

About G^ pounds of solid soda are used for every 100 pounds of 
dry bark. 

The filtration is not commenced until the following day, when 
the liquor is transferred to the calico strainers, which have been 
well wetted. The first portions that run through are returned, until 
the liquid passes of a bright ruby colour ; it is then allowed to flow 
away by the drain. After all the liquor has drained off, water is 
passed through the precipitate until it ceases to acquire a red tint. 
The alkaloids on the filter should then be of a uniform cream colour. 
The precipitate is now dried and reduced to a fine powder, which 
is stored in suitable bins. It constitutes the crude febrifuge. 

The Process of Purification. — The precipitate during the act of 
drying acquires a slightly reddish brown colour. It is therefore 
submitted to a process of purification. Fourteen gallons of water 
are mixed with two pints of sulj^huric acid, and twenty pounds of 


the dry powder are introduced. The alkaloids dissolve, and a quan- 
tity of colouring matter remains insoluble. About half a pint of a 
solution of sulphur in caustic soda is now stirred in, and the -whole 
allowed to stand for twenty-four hours. It is then filtered through 
calico into a clean vessel, care being taken to get the liquor perfectly 
bright. About six gallons of water are used to wash the sediment 
left on the filters. The clear filtrate is thoroughly mixed with solu- 
tion of soda to precipitate the alkaloids ; the precipitate is collected 
on calico, washed with a small quantity of water, drained, dried, 
and reduced to fine powder ; it is then ready for issue. 

Wooden tubs are used for this process, but they are not so well 
suited for the purpose as enamelled iron or earthenware. The 
purification is conducted iu a separate shed by a man who is con- 
fined to that work. 

The Labour employed. — The only workmen employed in the factory 
are Nepaulese coolies. When the process is once brought into full 
operation it is found that these men readily master every detail, and 
conduct the whole thing with all the care and accuracy that is 
required. But, of course, the factory is under the supervision of 
Mr. Grammie, the officer in charge] of the plantation, who visits it 
once a day, and sees that the work is being properly performed. 

The Baric used. — Di*y succiruhra bark only is employed. More- 
over, care is taken to mix the root, stem, and branch bark together 
in as nearly as possible the proportions in which they are yielded 
by the plantations. This mixture is broken into small pieces, and a 
maund of it goes into each cask. This is done to insure uniformity 
of composition in the product. Green bark is never operated on. 
It will be seen that the arrangement of the process requires that a 
certain weight of bark should be put into the casks every week 
throughout the year. This could not be done with green bark, 
l^ecause bark is only taken from the trees twice per annum. Apart 
from this, however, it has been found that dry bark yields a much 
better product, and quite as large a quantity. The small cost of 
drying the bark is more than counterbalanced by the advantages 

Temporary Ohject of the Process. — It must be remembered that 
this method has only been adopted to furnish a large supply of 
febrifuge for trial ; it does not profess to make the most economical 
use possible of the bark. The factory is estimated to turn out 
during the present financial year 4800 pounds of febrifuge, which, 
at a rupee an ounce, will pay the whole cost of the plantations and 
manufacture for the year. If the product proves to be of permanent 


value as a remedial agent, it is probable tliat the process will be 
considerably modified to produce greater economy, but involving 
the use of permanent buildings and machinery. 

Toxicological Studies upon Copper and its Compounds. L. M. V. 
Galippe. (Journ. de Fharvi. et de Chim., xxiii., 298.) The results 
of numerous experiments with dogs led the author to the conclusion 
that copper salts do not produce fatal effects. A dog weighing 8 
kilograms received daily doses of '5 gram of neutral acetate of 
copper for 124 days. During that time it was troubled with 
diarrhoea and vomiting, but it never lost its appetite. 

It was then killed, and its liver (weighing 2G0 grams) found to 
contain "SI gram of copper = 1"121 sulphate. The animal had in all 
consumed 72 grams of the acetate. 43 grams of sulphate of copper 
were administered to a dog in the course of 122 days ; 65 grams to 
another within 151 days; 47 grams to a third within 107 days ; and 
98 grams to the fourth, a bitch, during 150 days. The liver of the 
last one weighed 310 grams, and contained '223 gram of copper = 
"87 gram of the sulphate. During the experiments this last dog had 
pupped, and the livers of the young were likewise found to contain 
copper. Traces of this metal were also detected in the milk. Other 
copper compounds, viz. the ammonio-sulphate, lactate, citrate, tar- 
trate, malate, oxalate, oxide, subchloride, and subacetate (verdigris), 
yielded similar results. 

The workmen engaged in the verdigris factories at Montpellier 
are reported not to suffer in health from their occupation. The 
urine of these workmen always contains copper. 

Purification and Pharmaceutical Application of Petroleum. M. 
Masson. {Eepert. dePharm.,lS76, 742.) The author frees petro- 
leum from its unpleasant odour in the following manner: — 

60 grams of strong sulphuric acid and the same quantity of 
strong nitric acid are slowly poured into 100 kilograms of petroleum 
by means of a funnel having a long tube ; after this, 500 grams of 
strong alcohol are carefully poured on the surface of the oil. The 
alcohol sinks down gradually, and on reaching the layer of acids 
causes a slight effervescence and evolution of heat. Ethereal pro- 
ducts of a pleasant odour are thus evolved and communicated to 
the oil, which at the same time assumes a yellowish colour. The 
reaction lasts about an hour ; the oil is then gently agitated with 
water, and the mixture allowed to settle. 

Petroleum thus purified might take the place of alcohol in lini- 
ments, tincture of arnica, and other tinctures and preparations in- 
tended for external application. 


Tlie bottom layer (a mixture of acids, water, and alcohol) may be 
used for deodorizing the heavy oils of petroleum, by agitating them 
with this mixture, then allowing to settle for twelve hours, de- 
canting, and washing with lime milk to completely remove the acid. 

Chlorine as an Antidote to Prussia Acid. M. Gautier. {Bull. 
Soc. Chim., 1876, 433.) Experiments made upon rabbits, in order 
to test the value of inhalations of chlorine as an antidote to prussic 
acid, proved very successful. Fatal doses of the poison were ad- 
ministered, and the gas applied a few minutes after death had 
apparently set in, whereby in the majority of cases the animals 
recovered. The same effect was observed ^-ith insects. 

The Comparative Merits of Phosphide of Zinc and Phosphorus as 
Therapeutic Agents. {New Remedies, 1877, 48.) The phosphide 
of zinc has so far proven a most efficient agent in the successful 
treatment of the major part of a certain class of aflfections. In very 
many instances it has been far more curative than phosphorus. 
Considered in the light of a curative agent, the phosphide of zinc 
stands alone, not only for the certainty but for the rapidity of its 
action as a nervous tonic and stimulant. Its value in these respects 
has of late been fairly tested in the last and exhausting stages of 
typhoid and other fevers, where the nervous energies have been so 
far prostrated as to render convalescence, if not doubtful, at least 
tedious and protracted. The great therapeutic value of the phos- 
phide of zinc is evinced in the most distinct manner, when used in 
the treatment of neuralgia. "While the phosphorus is seldom 
curative in doses less than one-twentieth of a grain, often calling 
for as much as one-tenth or one-fourth, the phosphide of zinc yields 
as reliable and more speedy i-esults in doses of one-tenth to one- 
cio-hth of a grain. But few stomachs can tolerate more than one- 
thirtieth of a gi'ain of phosphorus before manifesting symptoms of 
irritation, which, in connection with the "matchy " taste soon evolved 
in eructations, often engenders a disgust to its further continuance. 
Nor are these disagreeable features altogether abolished by any of 
the multitudinous formulse now in vogue. On the other hand, ex- 
perience with the phosphide of zinc has proven that it enters the 
circulation far more rapidly than the element, and when administered 
in doses of from one-eighth to one-twelfth of a grain, it produces 
its curative influence far more readily, and is equally as permanent 
in therapeutic power. It has been found to be extremely serviceable 
in neuralgia in doseS of one-eighth of a grain in the form of a pill, 
in angina, in loss of memory, and impotence, in loss of sleep from 
continued mental anxiety, and generally in those nervous affections 



that owe their origin to exhaustiou and depression of the nerve force. 
J)r. Hammond's formula is one-sixteenth of a grain of phosphide of 
zinc, with one-fourth of a grain of extract of nux vomica, made into 
a pill. 

The Use of Glycerin in Fluid Extracts. J. W. Lehman. (From 
an inaugural essay. Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1877, 34G.) A number 
of experiments were made with officinal and unofficiual fluid ex- 
tracts, with the view of determining the preservative qualities of 
glycerin in this class of preparations. The results obtained may be 
tabulated as follows : — 

Fluid Extract of 



Aconite root . . 

Alcohol 3 p., glycerin 

Dark reddish brown, after two 


weeks muddy ; filtered, became 
again turbid. 

,, ,, . . 

Alcohol .... 

Of lighter colour ; remained clear. 

Asclepias tuberosa 

Dil. alcohol 3 p., gly- 
cerin 1 p. 

Gelatinized in four weeks. 

,, ,, 

Alcobol 2 p., water & 

Did not gelatinize ; sHght precipi- 

glycerin each 1 p. 


Buchu .... 

Alcohol 3 p., glycerin 

Officinal .... 

Dense precipitate in five days. 

Conium (leaves ?) . 

Dark and clear ; slight precipitate 

in two weeks. 

Digitalis .... 

,, .... 

!I I) 11 


,, .... 

,, ,, ,, 

Grindelia robusta . 

Dil. alcohol 3 p., gly- 
cerin 1 p. 


Hyoscyamus . , 

Officinal .... 

71 )( )1 

Krameria . . . 

Brown-red; clear. 

Pruuus Yirginiaua 


Soon turbid, and considerable 

» .) 

"Water 8 fl.oz., after- 

Shght precipitate after four weeks. 

wards glycerin and 

dilute alcohol equal 


Stramonium . . 

Officinal .... 

Dark and clear ; shght precipitate 
on standing. 

Valeriana . . . 

Eemaius clear. 

,, ... 

Alcohol 3 p., glycerin 

Very muddy in two weeks ; fil- 


tered, muddy again in one week. 

„ ... 

Alcohol 3 p., glycerin 

Slight precipitate in two weeks ; 


filtered, very slight change 

Zingiber .... 

Officinal .... 

Eemains clear. 

,1 .... 

Alcohol, with small 

Precipitated some in five days. 

prop, of glycerin. 

The author concludes that the use of glycerin in fluid extracts of 
astringent drugs adds much to the beauty and stability of the 
preparation. Its use appears also to be indicated for drugs the 



active principles of -wliicli are soluble in water and dilute alcohol. 
In fluid extracts of mucilaginous drugs like pleurisy root it cannot 
be used to any great extent, and it is best discarded altogether in all 
cases where the active principle is of a resinous nature. 

Salicylic Acid in Diphtheritis. Dr. Wagner. (Zeifschr. cles 
oesterr. Ajpoth. Ver., 1876, 441.) The author reports most favourably 
on the curative effects of salicylic acid in diphteritis. To children 
too young to use a gargle he administered "15 to '3 gram of the 
powdered acid in water or wine every two hours ; older ones were 
treated at the same time with a gargle containing 1'5 gram of the 
acid and 15 grams of rectified spirit to 150 grams of water, this 
gargle being applied every hour. Of fifteen severe cases treated in 
this manner, not one terminated fatally. Recovery took place far 
more rapidly than the author had ever witnessed in cases treated 
with other remedies. 

Sulphurous Acid as an Antiseptic and Antifermentative com- 
pared with Salicylic Acid. M. Baierlacher. (Phannaceid. Cen- 
tralhalle, 1877, 148.) The author has arrived at the following 
conclusions : — 

1. Sulphurous acid is more powerful than salicylic acid in its 
antifermentative action on yeast. 

2. Sulphui'ous acid prevents the formation or growth of mould ; 
in this respect carbolic acid stands nearer to it than salicylic. 

3. The action of emulsin and of myrosin is retarded by sulphurous 
acid moi'e than by salicylic acid ; but it is not entirely prevented 
unless the acid be used in large quantity. 

4. Putrefaction is effectually retarded by sulphurous acid. The 
author strongly recommends the application of burning sulphur for 
the disinfection of rooms, and the local application of sulphurous 
acid in diphtheritis. 

The Strength of Tinctura Opii. J. M. Maisch. (Amer. Journ. 
Pharm., 1877, 511.) The strength of tincture of opium as ordin- 
arily sold has been the subject of investigation by three students of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, class 1876-77. Mr. Jos. 
Stable Smith merely determined the amount of extract left on the 
evaporation of one fluid ounce of the tincture, five samples giving 
the following results : 21-5, 15, 11-5, 9*5, and 8 grains. Each fluid 
ounce represents 3 7' 5 grains of dry opium, which on an average 
yields 60 per cent., or 22*5 grains of extract ; the presumption, 
therefore, is that of the five samples examined only one was made 
in accordance with the U.S. Pharmacopoeia, 

Mr. Wm. H. Llewellyn ascertained not only the amount of ex- 


tract, but separated also the morphia from one fluid ounce of com- 
mercial laudanum, using for the latter operation a modification of 
Staples' process ; his results were as follows : — 

Extractfroml fluid ounce, 15- 15- 16- 15-o0 23-25 28-75 30- 32- 37' 39-50 gr. 
Morphia „ „ 4- 3-75 3- 3-25 2- 1-75 1- 1- -5 trace. 

Opium of officinal strength should yield 3' 75 grains of morphia 
per fluid ounce of latidanum. While some of the samples come up 
to this requirement, it is noteworthy that they fall short in the 
amount of extractive matter as usually met with in Smyrna opium ; 
on the other hand, it is plain that at least one-half of these tinc- 
tures, which are very deficient in morphia, were artificially coloured, 
with the view of imparting an appearance of strength which they 
did not possess. 

Another series of experiments with, laudanum sold at retail was 
made by Mr. Burt P. Gates, who determined the specific gravity at 
60° F. by means of a 1000-grain bottle, and made two morphio- 
metric assays, following Staples' process with some modifications ; 
his results are tabulated as follows : — 

Specific Gravity. 
•965 -952 -962 -956 -958 -955 -953 -949 -956 -943 -947 -956 -939 -950 -881 

Morphia per fluid ounce. 
3-85 3-70 3-54 3-39 2-96 2-62 2-77 2-46 2-16 208 2-00 1-85 103 1-39 0-77 

10-3 9-9 9-4 9-0 7-8 7-0 7-4 6-6 5-7 56 5-3 4-9 4-4 37 2-1 

Only three of these samples can be assumed to have been made 
from well-dried opium ; five appear to have been made from imper- 
fectly dried or from more or less moist opium ; the remaining 
seven, of which five are also deficient in density, have apparently 
been made of less opium than officially directed. 

A New Method for the Preparation of Extracts without Heat. 
A. Herrara. (Chem. and Drugg., 1877, 390.) The fact that 
when water is partially frozen the dissolved matters remain in the 
mother liquor has been used commercially in a variety of ways for 
some years past. Impressed with the fact that even a moderate 
degree of heat seriously modifies the properties of most vegetable 
substances, the author proposes that the process just mentioned 
should be adopted for the preparation of extracts. The actual pro- 
cess is as follows : — The freshly expressed juice, or the cold water 
infusion, is placed in some such apparatus as that used for making 
ice cream, and surrounded with a mixture of crystallized chloride 


df >calcium or chloride of sodium and pounded ice. The juice is 
allowed to remain till a large portion has congealed, the mass of ice 
is enclosed in a cloth and subjected to pressui'e, the press-cake is 
broken and again pressed, to separate the mother liquor as com- 
pletely as possible. The expressed mother liquor is mixed with the 
bulk, and the congelation is repeated two or three times, with the 
precaution that it must not be carried far enough to precipitate any 
of the more sparingly soluble principles. The mother liquor is then 
put into shallow dishes and exposed to the heat of the sun or of a 
drying room, the temperature of which does not exceed 30° C. (86° 
Fahr.), until the extract has attained the desired consistence. 

Extract of conium, prepared with unpurified juice by the process 
mentioned, has preserved the characteristic odour of conia, and by 
dissolving it in water the author obtained a solution exactly repre- 
senting the juice of the plant in appearance and properties, and 
giving, when heated, an abundant coagulation, proving that even 
albumen had remained unaltered. 1,750 grams of cow's milk, of 
9° B., left, after three congelations, 750 grams of a liquid having a 
density of 14°, and by evaporation in the sun this left a dry extract 
of milk, which again formed that liquid on being dissolved in water. 
Extract of rhatauy, prepared by the process of congelation, dissolves 
completely in water, with a red colour, and has a much more as- 
tringent taste, compared with an extract which was prepared with 
the utmost precaution by evaporation in a water bath. Similar 
comparisons were made with the extracts of catechu, aloes, and 
others, and in all cases a very notable diflference was observed, 
which is explained by the final evaporation in the proposed process 
being conducted by the heat of the sun or of the drying closet, 
which is insufficient to efi"ect a change or to volatilise the volatile 
principles in any appreciable degree. 

It may be objected that the vegetable juices should be previously 
purified ; but it should be remembered that coagulated albumen 
always encloses a considerable portion of the active principles, and 
that the heat necessary to effect the coagulation and the evaporation 
by means of a water bath is sufficient to change mauy principles ; 
also, that the extracts thus prepared are sometimes inert or less 
active. The careful experiments made by Orfila and the clinical 
experience of others demonstrate that extracts prepared with un- 
purified juice are the stronger. 

For the extracts prepared from juices by the method indicated, 
the author proposes the designation of opopycnols, derived from the 
two Greek words meaning ^iu'cc and to condense. 


Iodide of Starch as an Antidote to Poisons. Dr. Bellini. 
(Rcpert. de PJiarm., 1877, 17; Jouni. do Med. de Braxelles, 1877, 
174) In a paper read before the Medical Society of Florence, the 
author recommends iodide of starch as a valuable antidote in cases 
of poisoning by caustic alkalies, alkaline, or earthy sulphides, and 
vegetable alkaloids. The preparation is easily administered in large 
doses, does not possess the irritating properties of free iodine, and 
readily forms harmless compounds with the substances named. To 
avoid the subsequent decomposition of the latter, its administration 
may be followed by an emetic. As an antidote to alkaline and 
earthy sulphides, the author thinks it preferable to all others. In 
cases of poisoning by ammonia, caustic potash, or soda, it is applic- 
able when acid drinks are not at hand. 

The Decolorization of Iodide of Starch. A. Vogl. (Neues 
Bepert. f. Phann., 1876, 565.) The disappearance of the blue 
colour of iodide of starch at a temperature of 70° to 90° C, is par- 
tially due to the volatilization of iodine. A piece of starch paper 
held over the flask in which the liquid is heated, turns blue. On 
boiling the liquid for some time, the evolution of iodine vapour 
ceases, and when this point is reached, the blue colour is no longer 
restored on cooling. 

The statement occurring in many books that iodine may thus be 
completely expelled from its combination with starch, is not con- 
firmed by the author's experiments. Even after prolonged boiling, 
and long after the solution has ceased to resume its blue coloiu' 
upon cooling, it is immediately turned blue on the addition of 
nitric acid, chlorine, etc. In the same manner the px'esence of 
iodine can be shown in the horny translucent residue left on evapo- 
ration of the solution. The author thinks that the iodine exists in 
this residue in the form of a very stable and probably definite com- 
bination calling for further investigation. 

Under the influence of sunlight a solution of iodide of starch also 
loses its colour, which is restored by nitric acid. 

The Preservation of Pulvis Ergotse. (Ghem. and Bnigg., from 
Journ. Therapeutique.) Divers plans have been proposed for the pre- 
servation of powdered ergot, which should retain its physiological 
properties unimpaired. Appert proposed the employment of balsam 
of tolu. M. Bories recommends that a little mercury should be 
kept at the bottom of the vessel containing it. Othei's have recom- 
mended that alcohol should be used in the same way. All these 
processes necessitate that the powder should be prepared when 
required, as it is much more alterable than the fungus itself. 


Towards the end of 1874 the authora powdered 100 grams of care- 
fully selected ergot. 50 grams were placed in a dry bottle ; the 
other 50 grams were mixed with 5 per cent, of powdered benzoin, 
and set aside in a similar bottle. Both bottles were placed in the 
laboratory, with their mouths simply covered with a card. Four- 
teen months afterwards the benzoinated powder was unchanged, 
while the other was an odoriferous mass of living matter. The 
powder thus preserved was found thoroughly reliable by several 
eminent obstetricians. 

The Purity of Chloral Hydrate. C. Annessens. {Journal de 
Pharm. d'Ancers, 1877, 1.) The formation of white fames on ap- 
proaching chloral hydrate with a glass rod moistened with solution 
of ammonia has been frequently regarded as an indication of the 
presence of hydrochloric acid, and consequently as a proof of the 
unfitness of the preparation for medicinal use. The author shows 
these conclusions to be erroneous. Perfectly pure chloral hydrate at 
any but very low temperatures always fumes when brought near 
ammonia, and the presence of hydrochloric acid can only be demon- 
strated by means of silver nitrate. The white cloud which is formed 
from the fumes of ammonia, and the volatilized vapour of chloral 
hydrate, is due to the formation of ammonium formiate. This may 
easily be proved by absorbing the vapour of chloral with a piece of 
blotting-paper saturated with ammonia; an abundant white cloud is 
produced. The paper is washed with distilled water, the excess of 
ammonia is evaporated, solution of silver nitrate is added, and the 
whole heated. The mixture immediately becomes cloudy, then 
blackens, and deposits upon the sides and bottom of the vessel a fine 
mirror of metallic silver. 

If hydrochloric acid be really present in a sample of chloral, it is 
most easily detected by testing the aqueous solution with silver 
nitrate, which will at once produce a precipitate or turbidity. 

Chloral hydrate may be considered pure if it stands the following 
tests : — 

1. It .should be neutral to test paper. 

2. With nitric acid it should not give off" any red vapours. 

B. Its solution ought to remain clear on the addition of silver 

4. "When decomposed by caustic potash it should yield 72 2 per 
cent, of chloroform. 

The Qualitative Examination of Cinchona and Opium. MM. 
Lepage and Patrouill ard. (Pharm. Journ., Srd series, mu., 795.) 

Cinchona. — Take a fraerment from several barks in the same bundle 


and reduce to a fine powder; suspend 1 gram of the powder in 10 
grams of distilled water containing 1 gram of dilute sulphuric acid, 
and leave them in contact two or three hours, agitating frequently. 
At the end of this time add 70 grams of distilled water, and leave in 
contact several hours more, still taking care to agitate the mixture 
frequently. Then allow it to deposit, and afterwards filter. If the 
cinchona be of good quality, solution of the double iodide of cadmium 
and potassium, prepared by dissolving 2" 80 grams of iodide of cad- 
mium and 2'50 grams of iodide of potassium in 50 grams of dis- 
tilled water, when poured in slight excess into this liquid, should 
produce at once an abundant turbidity, resulting after some hours 
in a voluminous precipitate. If the bark contain no more than 10 
or 12 parts of alkaloid per 1000 the reagent does not give rise to 
any turbidity, or at most to a slight opacity. The yellow, red, and 
grey barks may be examined in this manner. 

Opium. — Reduce O'lO gram to powder in a glass mortar, and sus- 
pend the powder in 25 grams of distilled water ; leave the mixture 
in contact during half an hour, agitating occasionally, and then filter. 
Take two-thirds of this liquor, which should possess a markedly 
bitter taste, and pour into it some drops of solution of iodide of cad- 
mium and potassium. If the opium be of good quality an abundant 
turbidity is produced, to which rapidly succeeds a flocculent precipi- 
tate ; whilst if it contain not more than 4 or 5 per cent, of alkaloid 
or less, at the most a slight turbidity will be produced. The one- 
third part of the solution that is reserved, when tested with very 
dilate perchloride of iron ought to acquire a decided red colour, which 
is the reaction characteristic of meconic acid. 

The Officinal Wine of Guinine. (Ghem. and Drugg., 1877, 154.) 
Every one who has prepared the wine according to the Pharmacopoeia 
formula must have noticed immediately after eSecting solution of 
the quinine the formation of a brown flocculent precipitate, varying 
probably with different orange wines somewhat in quantity, but 
always considerable and always of the same appearance. The pre- 
cipitate is annoying, especially to makers of large quantities of the 
wine, as it both necessitates filtration and renders the process tedious. 
Moreover, a second deposit after a time almost invariably again 
forms, which, although smaller in quantity, is even more trouble- 
some if it appears, as very probably it may, after the preparation 
has been bottled and stored. 

To determine the nature, cause, and extent of this precipitate, a 
series of investigations were undertaken, the result of which may be 
briefly summarised as follows : — 


1. The precipitate was found to be principally tannate of quinine, 
along with extractive and colouring matters. 

2. The quinine recovered from the deposit varied in quantity, but 
was frequently found to form a large percentage of the quinine 
originally added to the wine. 

3. The deposit continued to form so long as any tannin was found 
to exist in the wine, after which the addition to any extent of more 
quinine and citric acid gave no further precipitate. 

The raisins from which the wine is generally fermented were at 
first suspected as being the primary cause of the presence of the 
tannin ; but from further inquiries it was ascertained that tannin is 
veiy generally employed to clarify the wine in certain stages of the 
process of fermentation, and that the excess of tannin thus added 
is afterwards removed from the wine by the addition of isin- 

This process, even where carefully conducted, seems at the best to 
partake a good deal of the rule of thumb procedure, the principal 
care apparently being not to add too much of the isinglass, excess of 
which in the wine is in some respects even more objectionable than 
the tannin. Of many plans which, have been tried to rid the wine 
of the superfluous tannin, none have been altogether successful which 
have not in some way or another been objectionable. Even when 
honestly prepared, which we are sorry to say it very seldom is, it is 
apparent that the quinine which it contains must ultimately be an 
unknown factor, whilst it has this further serious objection, that in 
too many instances it contains also an unknown quantity of alcohol. 
The Pharmacopoeia states that it contains about 12 per cent. ; but 
this will be found insnflEicient to keep it from decomposition, and as 
a matter of fact most commercial orange wines contain double this 
percentage of alcohol, and in some instances more, thus exceeding in 
strength even a fortified sherry. 

Poisonous Properties of Glycerin. MM. Dujardin Beaumetz 
and Audige. (From Bull, general de Therap.) The authors have 
studied the effects on dogs of large doses of glycerin hypodermically 
injected, and have arrived at the following conclusions : — 

1. Pure glycerin injected in the proportion of 8 to 10 grams for 
each kilogram of the weight of the animal produces death within 
twenty-four hours. 

2. The symptoms produced arc analogous to those of acute alco- 

3. The microscopic lesions are similar to those in alcoholism. 

4. From a therapeutic point of view it should therefore be under- 


stood that the administration of large doses of glycerin may be 
attended with danger. 

The Alterability of Calomel under various Influences, and the 
Precautions necessary in its Therapeutic Employment. M. Jolly . 
(Chem. and Drugg., from Gazette Medicale.) Owing to the report 
which appeared in the Italian pharmaceutical papers, on the forma- 
tion of corrosive sublimate in a mixture of calomel and sugar, the 
president of the Society of Practical Medicine engaged the author 
to make some experiments to clear up all doubt on this subject. 

Calomel has a decided tendency to decompose into mercury and 
corrosive sublimate, and many physical and chemical agents facili- 
tate this decomposition. The author has investigated the action of 
these various agents, and embodies his results in the following 

Heat always causes decomposition to a greater or less extent. 
Perfectly pure and dry calomel, sublimed alone, takes a greyish 
tinge from the liberation of metallic mercury. 

Light causes the change into mercury and corrosive sublimate to 
take place rapidly, as evidenced by the change in colour. 

Oue gram of calomel digested with 100 c.c. of a 2 per mille 
solution of hydrochloric acid for six hours, at a temperature of 104° 
Fahr., yielded 3 milligrams of corrosive sublimate. 

The same quantity digested with 5 per mille solution of sodium 
chloride, yielded at the end of six hours 1 milligram of sublimate. 

A 2 per cent, solution of citric acid (to represent fruit preserves, 
in which calomel is often administered) caused the production of 
1 milligram of sublimate. 

The hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride represent the gastric 
juice. When calomel passes into the intestines, it comes in contact 
with the alkaline secretions of the bowels. 

A half per cent, solution of sodic hydrate, after digestion for six 
hours at 104° Fahr. with one gram of calomel, gave rise to 6 milli- 
grams of corrosive sublimate. 

Under similar circumstance a 1 per cent, solution of sodic car- 
bonate gave rise to 4 milligrams, and a 1 per cent, solution of 
calcined magnesia to 3 milligrams, of mercuric chloinde. 1 gram 
each calcined magnesia and calomel were mixed, and at the end of 
twenty- four hours were treated with distilled water ; 1 milligram of 
sublimate was found. Lime acts like magnesia. Neither carbonate 
of lime nor magnesia had the least effect at the end of six hours. 

From these experiments the author draws the conclusion that 
calomel when used therapeutically must not be mixed with inferior 


sugars, wliicli are always acid or alkaline, nor with the alkaline 
chlorides and earths, solutions containing alkaline hydrates or car- 
bonates, or mineral or vegetal)le acids. 

The Action of certain Manipulations and Reagents on Calomel. 
F. M. Corwin. (From athesis presented to the Now York College 
of Pharmacy : Nerv E.emedies, 1877, 211.) The mercurous chloride, 
or calomel, is mild in its action on the human system, being a safe 
and much -used remedy. 

The mercuric chloride, and mercuric salts in general, are power- 
ful and corrosive agents, often producing serious and fatal results. 

The object of the following experiments was to ascertain whether 
mercuric salts were produced from mercurmis (namely calomel) by 
the agents and methods described. 

The agents were either physical or chemical. 

The physical agents were trituration, boiling with water, and 

The chemical agents were certain dilute acids and salts of the 
U. S. P. 

The tests used for the detection and identification of mei'curic 
mercury w^ere metallic copper and hydrosulphuric acid in strongly 
acidified solutions. 

In all cases where a deposit was obtained on copper, the copper, 
after being thoroughly washed and dried, was placed in a clean dry 
test-tube and heated to redness. 

If mercury was present it sublimed and collected in a cooler part 
of the tube. A crystal of iodine was then placed in contact with 
it, and heat again applied, when the yellow iodine of mercury turn- 
ing red by friction sublimed in another part of the tube. 

The hydrosulphuric acid was added in small portions at a time, 
producing at first a light coloured precipitate, turning yellow, 
orange, brown, and black as the snccessive portions were added. 
This reaction is characteristic of a mercuric salt. 

Several attempts to obtain absolutely pure calomel proved un- 
successful. That used, being the purest which was examined, was 
found to contain a small quantity of ferric iron, probably as ferric 

1. Physical Agents. — a. Trituration. — About two drams of 
calomel were rubbed in 'a dry porcelain mortar. On moving the 
pestle through it with pressure it produced shining straw yellovj 
streaks, and the Avhole powder gradually assumed a yellowish tint. 
After rubbing for half an hour it was macerated with water, filtered, 
and the filtrate acidified with hydrochloric acid. 



Copper : no action. Hydrosulphuric acid : no action. 

b. Boilimj. — 1. About two drams were heated in a flask with 
water, on a water batli, for fifteen minutes, the mixture filtered, the 
filtrate evaporated about one-half on a water bath, and acidified 
with hydrochloric acid. 

Copper : no action. Hydrosulphuric acid : no action. 

2. About two drams were boiled in a flask with water by direct 
contact with flame, and under constant agitation, for fifteen minutes ; 
filtered, the filtrate evaporated about one-half on a water bath, and 
acidified with hydrochloric acid. 

Copper: a deposit. Hydrosulphuric acid : character istic precipitate. 

c. Sublimation. — 1. About twenty grains were heated in a dry 
test-tube, the heat being only sufficient to slowly sublime it. It 
was then macerated with a small quantity of water, filtered, the 
filtrate acidified with hydrochloric acid. 

Copper : no action. Hydrosulphuric acid : no action. 

The sublimate was perfectly white. 

2. About twenty grains were heated so as to sublime rapidly, the 
glass becoming red hot. It w^as macerated with water, filtered, and 
the filtrate acidified with hydrochloric acid. 

Copper: a deposit. Hydrosulphuric acid : characteristic precipitate. 

The sublimate had a greyish appearance in places, probably due 
to metallic mercury. 

II. Chemical Agents. — a. Acids. — The acids used were the dilate 
acids of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia. About a dram of calomel was placed 
in a five-inch test tube, the tube was nearly filled with an acid, 
and allowed to macerate for three days, being agitated occasionally. 
It was then filtered and the filtrate evaporated about one-half on a 
water bath. 

With some acids a change was noted in the appearance of the 
calomel ; with others it remained unaltered. The following table 
exhibits the results : — 



Hydrosulphuric Acid. 


Hydrochloric . . 


Characteristic ppt. 



Not used 

>i n 


Sulphuric . . . 

No action 

No action 


Hydrocyanic . . 


Characteristic ppt. 

Turns dark.* 


Not used 

)> u 


Phosphoric . . . 

No action 

No action 


* On the reaction between calomel and hydrocyanic acid, see a paper by 
T. H. Powell and J. Bayne, in Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1876, 372. 



b. Sails. — Of the salts used, sixteen were in solution with water. 
The soliitious were made by dissolving 1 part of the salt in 10 
parts of water, with one exception, namely, the potass ic chlorate 
solution, which was made by dissolving 1 part of the salt in 20 
parts of water. 

About half a dram of calomel was placed in a five-inch test tube, 
the tube nearly filled with a solution and allowed to macerate three 
days with occasional agitation. It was then filtered, and the filtrate 
acidified with hydrochloric, nitric, or sulphuric acid, according to 
the character of the salt. 

With some of the solutions a change was noted in the appearance 
of the calomel, either immediately or on standing. 

Solution of 


Hydrosulph. Acid. 


Potass. Bromide . . 


Characteristic ppt. 

Lead colour. 

„ Chlorate . . 

No action 

No action 


„ Cyanide . . 


Characteristic ppt. 

Dark, nearly hlack. 

,, Hypopliosphite 

No action 

No action 


,, Nitrate. . . 



,, Sulphate . , 




,, Siilphite . . 


No ppt. Separation 
of S. 

Greenish grey. 

Pot. and Sod. Tartrate 


Characteristic ppt. 


Ammon. Bromide,. , 

)) )> 

Slate colour. 

,, Chloride . . 

11 M 


„ Iodide . . 


Orange red ppt., 

Turns yellow, then 

which gradually 

dark with green 

turns dark, same 

tint. Solutionis 

as Hg CL in 





Characteristic ppt. 

Dark at point of 
contact. Grey 
on agitating. 

,, Sulphate. . 


11 1! 


Sodic Chloride . . . 


i> )> 

Ferric ,, 

No action 

No action 


„ Pyrophosphate . 



Of the two following salts, about a dram of each was rubbed, 
with an equal bulk of calomel, in a porcelain mortar for fifteen 
minutes. They were then macerated with a small quantity of water, 
filtered, and the filtrates acidified. 

Filtrate from 


Hydrosulphuric Acid. 

Bismuth Subnitrate . 
Ferric Ferrocyanide 

No action 

Peculiar ppt. Not characteristic of 

No action. 


Note on a Test for Alcohol. — Dr.H. Hager. (Pharm. Cen- 
tralhalle, 1877, 154.) A solution of 1 part of molybdic acid in 
10 parts of strong sulphuric acid has been recommended as a test 
for ethyl alcohol and other alcohols. In a more concentrated form 
the same reagent has been in use for some time as a test for 
morphine (Frdhde's test), and has since its introduction for this 
purpose been applied to a good many other substances possessing 
the properties of reducing agents. For its application as a test for 
alcohol, Davy recommends the following precautions : — Three to 
four drops of the reagent should be gently heated in a porcelain 
capsule, and one or two drops of the liquid to be tested then added ; 
if the latter is likely to contain but a very small proportion of 
alcohol, the mixture should be warmed in a water bath. 

Following these directions the author has repeatedly tried the 
test, but has failed to obtain the reaction. 

Practical Hints about Dialysis. — (New Bemedies, 1877, 229.) 
Dialysis is a species of osmosis, that is, a diffusion or passage of 
fluids through organic membranes. The late Thomas Graham, to 
whom we are indebted for the first knowledge of the law of diffu- 
sion, divides bodies, in respect to their diflPusibility, into two classes : 
one of these he termed crystalloids, being mostly crystallizable sub- 
stances, or closely approaching them in character. They have a 
strong affinity for their solvents, and retard the evaporation of the 
latter by their presence. The other class he denominated colloids, 
which are uncrystallizable, of a glassy or horny structure when dry 
(like gelatine, etc.), and generally of an insipid taste. 

These two classes of bodies may be almost entirely separated 
from each other by placing the mixture containing them on one 
side of an organic membrane which is in contact with water on the 
other. A double osmosis then takes place ; from one side the 
crystalloids pass through the membranes into the water, and from 
the other side water passes into the mixture. The ratio of diS'usion 
is inversely proportional to the densities of the liquids on either 
side : a dense liquid will pass slowly ; a dilute liquid, or pui^e water, 
more rapidly. The colloid substances, however, are not absolutely 
retained on one side ; they also pass through the membrane, but at 
so slow a rate that the crystalloids may nearly all have penetrated 
the membrane before an appreciable amount of colloids has accom- 
panied them. 

The apparatus employed for this process is genei"ally constructed 
in the following manner : — A light hoop of wood, or of gutta percha, 
or better, of glass, about 2 inches deep and 5-10 inches in diameter, 


is covered with a piece of moistened bladder or parcliment-paper — 
which have been found in practice to be the most suitable mem- 
branes for this purpose — so as to form a sieve-like vessel. The disk 
of bladder or parchment-paper should be considerably larger in 
diameter than the hoop, and it should be bound to the latter by a 
string, or by another hoop of similar material. The membrane 
must be entirely free from rents or pin-holes, which may be as- 
certained by sponging one side with water, and observing whether 
any wet spots appear on the other side. In the latter case, the 
defects may sometimes be remedied by applying liquid albumen, 
and coagulating it by heat. Broad glass shades, or lamp-chimneys, 
or similar articles, may also be used. In absence of these, a funnel, 
the neck of which is broken oflF, may answer ; only in this case the 
membrane is placed inside of it, folded in the form of a star-filter. 
The apparatus then, prepared in any of these ways, is called the 

This is floated upon a quantity of pure water contained in an- 
other larger vessel, which has received the name cxarysator. The 
size of the latter and the amount of water contained in it depend 
upon the object to be accomplished. If the colloid substance re- 
maining in the dialyser be our chief object, it is best to employ a 
large quantity of water at once ; the crystalloid bodies pass into 
this in the form of a dense solution, which sinks to the bottom and 
causes the lighter unsaturated water to be constantly pushed up 
towards the membrane. If we, however, want to separate the 
crystalloids, to the neglect of the colloids, we must use as small a 
quantity of water as possible. 

The liquid to be dialysed is poured into the dialyser to the height 
of about one-half inch, or a little more, but never to exceed one- 
fourth of its depth, and the apparatus then floated on the w^ater in 
the exarysator. The best way is to introduce just as much liquid 
into the dialyser as will cause the latter to sink into the water to 
one-third of the height of the contained liquid. These precautions 
are necessitated by the fact that water will difi'use upwards into the 
dialyser more rapidly than the crystalloids will pass through the 
other way ; and this is more particularly the case when bladder is 
used. The solution of crystalloids produced in the surrounding 
water is called diffusate. In most cases the difiusiun may be greatly 
accelerated by the application of a gentle heat. 


PART ly. 


A New Process for the Estimation of Chicory in Coffee. A. 
Smith. (Chemical News, 34, 1876, 283.) Take 5 grams of the 
coffee, and pour upon it about 25 c.c. of boiling water, and filter ; 
then pour it into a Nessler tube, and add acetate of lead, which will 
throw down the colouring matter of the coffee, but leave that of 
the chicory, which can then be estimated by comparing it with a 
standard of a known quantity of chicory. 

The Presence in Beer of a Substance Resembling Colchicine. 
H. van Greldern. (Archiv der Pharm., July, 1876.) E. Danue- 
berg stated recently that he had obtained from beer an alkaloid re- 
sembling colchicine in its reactions (Archiv der Pharm., May, 1876.) 
The writer has obtained the same body, in 1874, by the method of 
Stas and Otto, and found then that it could also be obtained from a 
mixture of unadulterated hops and gelatin. The latter body is 
always present in beer, and is possibly the cause of the precipitate 
formed with the general reagents for alkaloids, and which are not 
produced if pure hops alone be employed for the experiment. 

A Spurious Beeswax. (New Remedies, from Pharm. Post.) In 
appearance, colour, fracture, brittleness, pliability, and odour (on 
the outside portions), this pseudo-wax could scarcely be distinguished 
from the genuine. But the freshly-cut surfaces had a lustre differ- 
ent from that of true wax, and on breaking the mass into pieces a 
distinct odour of resin was perceptible. On melting it with a gentle 
heat, the honey odour disappeared entirely, but the pitchy odour 
became gradually more intense and oppressive. These simple means 
having already pointed out the probable composition, the melting 
point and the specific gravity were determined in the following 
manner : — A wide-necked glass flask was filled three-fourths with 
water, and into the middle of this was immersed a thermometer and 
a test-tube containing some fragments of the wax ; the mouth 
having been loosely stoppered, heat was carefully applied, until 
about one-third of the wax had melted. The temperature at this 
point was 70° C. (158° F.), To determine the specific gravity, two 



equally large pieces were dropped into a beaker containing dilute 
alcohol, in •wbicli they sank ; distilled water was now gradually 
added until, after stirring, the pieces floated a little below the level 
of the liquid. The speci6c gravity of the latter, being found to be 
562, corresponds to that of the wax. One gram of the sub- 
stance was warmed in a small flask with 10 grams of chloroform. 
The solution was clear and yellow, but in cooling became opaque, 
and deposited on the sides an almost transparent and colourless 
mass. Another gram was dissolved by heat in 15 grams of 70 
per cent, alcohol, and set aside to cool. This caused the deposition 
of globular colourless masses, leaving the liquid of a clear yellow 
colour. The globules having been separated by filtration, they were 
dried and "weighed. They amounted to 6 gram, and had a spe- 
cific gravity of 0"910. The filtrate, on evaporation, left behind a 
brittle, yellow resin, weighing nearly 0"4 gram. One gram of 
shavings was next boiled in a solution of 1"4 gram of borax in 
20 grams of distilled water, whereby a colourless mass was ob- 
tained, floating on the top of the liquid, which latter was cloudy, 
but did not become either milky or gelatinous on cooling. Japan 
wax was therefore not present. Another portion, in fine shavings. 
was shaken with dilute ammonia ; but the liquid remained clear and 
transparent, and the substance unaltered, which proved the absence 
of stearine as -well as tumeric and Orleans. The above-mentioned 
srlobular masses, free from resin, were now examined for parafQn. 
They had a lustrous, alabaster-like appearance, became soft on 
kneading, -without getting adhesive, and dissolved easily and com- 
pletely in oil of turpentine and benzin, but were entirely insoluble in 
five parts of hot absolute alcohol. They were hence pure paraffin. 
The composition of the substance was therefore 60 parts of paraffin, 
and 40 parts of yellow resin, covered with a thin coating of genuine 
beeswax. The specific gravity in this case was identical with that 
of many .samples of genuine beeswax. 

Koumiss Extract. (Zeitschrift des oesterr. Apoih. Ver., 1876, 526.) 
The following formula yields a good preparation : — 

Powdered Sugar of Milk . . . 100 parts. 

Glucose (prepared from starch) . . 100 ,, 

Cane Sugar 300 „ 

Bicarbonate of Potassium . . . 36 ,, 

Common Salt 33 ,, 

Di.sRolve these ingredients in 600 parts of boiling fresh whey of 
milk, allow the solution to cool, then add 100 parts of rectified spirit, 


and afterwards 100 parts of strained fresh beer yeast. Stir the mix- 
tui'e well, and put it ioto bottles containing a quarter of a litre each, 
The bottles must be well corked and kept in a cool place. 

For the preparation of koumiss add 5 to 6 tablespoonfuls of this 
extract to a litre of skimmed, lukewarm milk contained in a bottle 
of thick glass ; cork well, keep the bottle for half a day in a moder- 
ately warm room (at 16°-20° C), and afterwards in a cool cellar, 
shaking occasionally. The bottle should be filled to within 3-4 
centimetres of the cork. After two days the koumiss is ready for 

Poisonous Materials in Hair Dyes. (The Lancet, January 13th, 
1877.) Out of twenty-one examples of so-called hair restorers, 
including all the best known, examined, no less than fourteen were 
practically identical in their nature. They contained sulphur in 
suspension, and also lead in varying, but always in very considerable, 
quantity. Three of these preparations bore American labels, the 
rest were English. The descriptions varied a good deal. Only one 
was plainly described on the label as poisonous if taken internally, 
while many were described as "perfectly harmless," "free from 
injurious substances," and so on. The prices varied from Is. to Qs. 
per bottle. 

Two more samples, one of them American, were found to contain 
lead and sulphur, but in a different form. The sulphur was present 
as hyposulphide ; and in fact, these preparations may be substan- 
tially imitated by adding hyposulphide of soda to a solution of a 
lead salt. A white precipitate first appears, which dissolves in 
excess, and the solution so obtained does not give a preci'pitate loith 
iodide of potassiiuii. This is noteworthy, because in the handbill 
which accompanies one of the samples purchasers are warned 
against the dangerous hair preparations which contain lead, as 
likely to lead to paralysis of the brain and insanity, and are directed 
to test all preparations with iodide of i)otassium. 

In another sample, an American one, no free or loosely combined 
sulphur was found, but only lead in considerable quantity. Another 
of the preparations was contained in two bottles, in one of which 
ammonio-nitrate of silver, and in the other pyrogallic acid was 
detected. This, therefore, belongs to an entirely different class 
from the preceding. 

The remaining three preparations analysed were intended for 
lightening, instead of darkening, the colour of the hair. No sub- 
stantial difference between these samples was detected. Each was 
found to contain a tolerably concentrated and slightly acidulated 


Bolntion of peroxide of hydrogen. It is well known that this is the 
active agent in preparations of this kind. It can hardly be con- 
sidered as poisonous, but its action on the hair is said to be 
injurious. The silly fashion which prompted its use is, the authors 
believe, dying out. 

It will be seen that, out of the twenty-one samples examined, no 
less than seventeen contained lead. This lead was present, it must 
be remembered, not as a mere trace, but in most cases in large and 
deleterious quantity. In one sample, and that not the worst, was 
found five grains and a half of lead (equivalent to about 10 grains 
of crystallized sugar of lead) in each fluid ounce of the liquid. 

A subsidiary question arises out of this inquiry which deserves 
the most careful consideration of the medical profession. Is it not 
possible that lead poisoning may sometimes be produced by the 
incautious use of these preparations ? Evidence upon the point is 
conflicting, and many physiologists hold that such an absorption 
through the scalp cannot take place unless the skin is broken. 
Taylor quotes a case to the contrary which came within his own 
observation, and many others of the same kind have been noticed. 
But few, if any, of these cases are definitive, and real proof 
appears still to be lacking. It is, perhaps, not likely that such 
poisoning commonly occurs, if it ever does. In the majority 
of instances the liquid would probably be used with a certain 
amount of discretion, and would be applied mainly to the hair 
rather than to the head. But if the preparation were used incau- 
tiously, if the lead solution were rubbed frequently and in consider- 
able quantity into the skin of the head, there would be danger, 
especially if the skin were broken. 

Many recorded cases show that very minute quantities of lead 
may after a time produce symptoms of poisoning. Certain circum- 
stances, moreover, induce the authors to think that incipient lead 
poisoning is more common than is generally suppo.sed. In all 
chemical laboratories the testing for lead in drinking water is a 
common experience. The number of samples of water sent for this 
purpose is surprising. Now, in a great many instances no lead is 
found ; and it is worthy of consideration, whether in some of these 
cases the symptoms which threw suspicion unjustly on the water 
may not have been caused by the use of lead cosmetics. 

Regeneration of Spent Albumen by Means of Pepsin. J. "Wagner 
and G. Witz. (Journ. Cliem. Soc, Aug., 18~G, from Dinrjl. polyt. 
Journ., ccxix., 166.) The property of an aqueous solution of albumen 
to deposit the albumen in the insoluble form on aj^plicatiou of heat. 


is applied to the fixing of a variety of important colours upon 
cotton. Both soluble and insoluble colours are mixed with the cold 
solution, printed on the cotton piece, and the latter is then steamed, 
which converts the soluble albumen into the insoluble variety, 
forming a kind of fixed and elastic varnish upon the cloth, and 
mechanically fixing the colouring matter. Both egg and blood 
albumen pass into the insoluble form, either wliolhj or partially, if the 
temperature of the drying chamber has passed 35°, or even if 
exposed to the sun accidentally, or after allowing it to stand too 
long. Now, the problem has been, how to recover albumen which 
has thus become insoluble and is lost, so as to obtain it again in the 
soluble form for further service ? Dilate alkaline carbonates or 
hydrates could bring such albumen into solution again, but such a 
solution lacks the power of coagulating on application of heat ; in 
fact, the constitution of the albumen is altered by the alkalies, a 
portion of its sulphur being abstracted, and the substance in solu- 
tion is therefore not albumen at all. 

This prejudicial action of alkalies is at times experienced in 
working ; thus, if the basic lead chromate be not completely freed by 
washing from adhering lime, and be then thickened with albumen 
and printed, the bright orange is not obtained on the cotton on 
steaming, but through presence of lead sulphide, a muddy brown. 

At lensfth J, Wagner devised the foUowino' successful method : — 
He brought 350 to 400 grams of such unserviceable albumen into 
contact with 30 grams of calf's stomach, cut into little pieces and 
distributed through 1 litre of water. The water was treated with 
10 grams of concentrated hydrochloric acid, and had a tempei-ature 
of 37'5°. After 24 to 36 hours' standing the whole was passed 
through a fine sieve, and the filtrate neutralized with ammonia, and 
thus an albumen solution was obtained which answered every 
purpose completely. Witz uses a sheep's stomach, and to 1 litre of 
acidified water nearly 125 grams of dry insoluble albumen. He 
states that pig's stomachs are even more active than sheep's. He 
further digests for 40 hours at a temperature of 35^ to 40°, whereby 
somewhat more than half the albumen goes into solution. The dis- 
solved portion being separated by a sieve, the insoluble portion is 
treated once more with acidified water in the same manner, to bring 
a further portion of albumen into solution. The solution so obtained 
is without odour and but little coloui-ed, a fact worthy of note as 
regards blood albumen. It has also the property, after neutraliza- 
tion by ammonia, to become coagulated either by boiling or by 
addition of alcohol. Experiments as to the use of this albumen in 


ultramarine printing, showed that on steaming a pure fast blue is 
obtainable, unaffected by boiling soap solution. There is one reac- 
tion which marks a difference between albumen recovered by pepsin 
and ordinary albumen. The former treated with acetic acid, before 
or after neutralization with ammonia, either does not at all become 
turbid, or only slightly, and in no case gelatinizes, even after long 
standing. On the conti-ary, one part of egg albumen dissolved in 10 
parts of water, so that the filtered solution has a sp. gr. of 1'027, 
and treated with an equal or half volume of acetic acid of sp. gr. 
I'OSO, immediately forms a solid transparent jelly. This also takes 
place if hydrochloric acid be added. Witz has proved conclusively 
that under no circumstances whatever is coagulated albumen soluble 
in acetic acid. The text-books usually state that albumen solutions 
are not precipitated at all by acetic acid ; and are thus in great 
eiTor. Digestion with pepsin is thus a certain method of bringing 
coagulated albumen again into solution. Just as cloth, which has 
undergone some injury in finishing, may be quite freed from its 
size by digestion with malt, and much more easily than by long- 
treatment with boiling water, so by the help of pepsin printed 
albumen colours, even after steaming, can be completely removed 
from the fabric. 

For this purpose the piece is placed in warm, slightly acidified 
water, together with some pieces of the membrane of a calf's 
stomach. The pepsin in presence of the dilute acid dissolves the 
albumen, and the colouring matters, as chrome green, lampblack, 
chrome yellow, ultramarine, ochre, etc., are now readily removed 
by washing. Pepsin can bring about the solution of albumen co- 
agulated by boiling, as well as that of otherwise insoluble albumen ; 
but the two solutions differ, as the former will not coagulate on 
boiling, but the latter will. The presence of a small quantity of 
free hydrochloric acid is indispensable in aiding the solution of the 
albumen by the pepsin. Dilute hydrochloric acid (1 part of sp. gr. 
1*169 in 100 of water) alone, after some days, at a temperature of 
38°, can effect the solution of insoluble albumen. The solution will 
coagulate on boiling, and answers well in printing. By digesting 
blood- fibrin in dilute hydrochloric acid, a fibrin solution is obtained, 
which coagulates on boiling, exactly as the albumen solution above- 
mentioned does. It is thus possible that fibrin would make a good 
substitute for egg albumen. Coagulated fibrin, like albumen, on 
treatment with acidified pepsin solution, dissolves, but apparently 
in an altered or modified form, as the solution will not coagulate 
on boiling. Coagulated fibiin can also be dissolved gradually by 


dilute hydrochloric acid (1 part of sp. gv. 1'169 to 100 of water). 
On heating the solution precipitates the fibrin as a thick, solid jelly. 
Mistura Salicylica Effervescens. (Pharmaceut. Goitralhalle, 187 7 

^. Acidi Salicylic! 8,0 grams. 

Syrupi Aurantii corticis . . . 30,0 ,, 

Aquffi destillatae 207,0 ,, 

In lagenam immissis adde 

Sodie bicarbonatis .... 5,0 „ 

lageuam statim obtui-audo. Sepone loco frigido, donee 
solutio effecta fuerit. 
Sign. 3SS vel 51 singulis vel secundis horis. 

Boli Taenifugi. (Pharmaceut. Centralhalle, 1877, 76.) 

9, Florum Kosso 30,0 grams. 

Kamalae 15,0 ,, 

Extracti Filicis maris aetherei . . 4,0 ,, 

Mellis depurati . . . . . q. s. „ 

Misce. Fiaut boli sexaginta. 

Coumarm and its Uses. L. von. Cotzhausen. (Amer. Journ. 
Pharm., Sept., 1876, 405.) In preparing coumarin from touka 
beans, they were grated and exhausted by ether; on evaporating 
the solvent, crystals of coumarin, rendered impure by fatty matter, 
were obtained and purified by repeated crystallization from alcohol. 
Sixteen troy ounces of tonka yielded 117 grains of coumarin. This 
is the process of Boullay and Boutron-Charlard. A somewhat 
smaller amount was obtained by substituting petroleum benzin for 
the ether, and this solvent is recomm.ended as being more eco- 
nomical. Coumarin was obtained in a similar manner also fi'om 
the dried herbs of Asperula odorata, Lin., Melilotus officinalis, Pers., 
Liatris odoratissima, Willd , and Galium triflonmi, Mich. 

The last-named herb is frequently collected in this country under 
the supposition that it is the Waldmeister (Asperiola odorata') of 
Germany, which is prepared by macerating the herb in a cheap 
quality of Rhine wine, and adding sugar and a few drops of orange 
or lemon juice to suit the taste ; cider may be used in place of 
wine. Galium, like asperula, belongs to the order Ruhiacece, and on 
drying acquires a fragrant odour, due to coumarin, and contains 
also an astringent principle, a yellow resin, a fatty, rather un- 
pleasant oil, and grape siigar. 

Coumarin is proposed by the author as an ingredient in the fol- 
lowing preparations, taking the place of tonka beans and some of 
the herbs mentioned above : — 


Exlr. Nero Mown Hay. — Coumarin, gr. xij. ; essence of rose, 5SS. ; 
cologne spirit, ^ij. 

Exfr. Mille Fleurs. — Coumarin, gr. x. ; oil of cinnamon, gtt. ij. ; 
oil of rose, gtt. iij . ; oil of neroli, gtt. v. ; oil of lemon, gtt. xv. ; tinc- 
ture of musk, gr. xv.; tinct. benzoin, gtt. xx.; cologne spirit, 3iij. 

Extr. Tonquin Music. — Musk, gr. x.; cologne spirit, 3iij. Digest, 
filter, and add oil of neroli, gtt. j.; coumarin, gr. xij.; extract of 
vanilla, 5ij. 

Fltcid Extract of Tonl-a. — Digest tonka, ^viij., with strong alco- 
hol, reserve the first six fluid ounces, evaporate the remainder to 
two fluid ounces, and mix. 

Sachet Mille Fleurs. — Tonka, 3J . ; vanilla, 5iij . ; cinnamon and 
cloves, each 5iv. ; rose leaves, ^ij.; on-is root, 5V.; oils of mirbane, 
lavender, and rose-geranium, each gtt. x. Comminute by grating, 
cutting, or bruising, and mix. 

May- Wine Essence. — Coumarin, gr. iv. ; spirit of orange (made 
with freshly grated orange peel), water, each f ^xij. Dissolve, mix, 
and if desirable colour with caramel. A few ounces are sufficient 
to flavour a gallon of Rhine or Califomian wine. 

Ethyl Bromide as an Anaesthetic. M. Rabuteau. (Comptes 
Rendus, Ixxxiii., 1294.) The author gives some details of an in- 
vestigation of the physiological properties and mode of elimin- 
ation of bromide of ethyl. 

Bromide of ethyl (Co H- Br), or " hydrobromic ether," is a 
colourless liquid, with an agreeable odour ; it boils at about 40° C, 
has a density of 1'43, and bums -nnth difficulty. The boiling point 
and density are therefore intermediate between those of chloroform 
and sulphuric ether. 

Bromide of ethyl absorbed by the respiratory passages produces 
absolute anaesthesia as rapidly, or even more rapidly, than chloro- 
form. This result has been established with frogs, rabbits, dogs, 
etc. After five minutes', sometimes after two minutes', inhalation, 
by means of a sponge saturated in bromide of ethyl, dogs are com- 
pletely anaesthetized. The animals recover more rapidly than when 
chloroform is used. 

When a solution of hydrochlorate of narceia or hydrochlorate of 
morphia was injected under the skin of dogs, before inducing 
anaesthesia, an action was observed analogous, but perhaps inferior, 
to the simultaneous action of narceia or morphia and chloroform. 

Bromide of ethyl is not caustic, nor even irritant, compared to 
chloroform. It can be ingested without difficulty, and applied 
without danger, not only subcutaneously, but to the external audi- 


torj meatus and to the mncoiis membrane. In tins respect it is 
preferable to chloroform, which is very caustic, and to sulphuric 
ether, of which the ingestion is nearly impossible. Introduced into 
the human stomach in doses of 1 to 2 grams, bromide of ethyl does 
not produce antesthesia as when absorbed in suflBcient quantity by 
the respiratory passages. It soothes pain, and does not disturb the 

This ansBsthetic is nearly insoluble in water. Nevertheless, 
water shaken with it acquires a pleasant taste and odour. Frogs, 
placed in water so saturated, undergo anaesthesia in ten or fifteen 

Bromide of ethyl is eliminated nearly entirely, if not completely, 
by the respiratory passages, whatever may have been the mode of 
absorption. At most, only traces of it are found in the urine when 
it has been introduced into the stomach, and an extremely small 
quantity can be detected in that liquid when it has been inhaled. 
The author finds that bromide of ethyl does not decompose in the 
organism to form an alkaline bromide, such as bromide of sodium, 
a salt that is easily eliminated by the renal passages. 

From his experiments, the author concludes that bromide of ethyl 
is an anaesthetic agent possessing properties intermediate between 
those of chloroform, bromoform, and ether. 

Detection of Common Resin as an Adulterant in Shellac. F. 
Dietlen. {Dingl. pohjf. Jourii., ccxxii., 190.) Shellac adulterated 
with common resin breaks with a shining instead of a dull fracture. 

Ligroin dissolves common resin but not shellac, and may there- 
fore be applied both for the detection and the quantitative estimation 
of the adulterant. 

Hydrobromic Acid. Dr. J. Milner Fothergill. (British 
Med. Journ., July 8, 1876.) The formula for the production of 
the acid in quantities of two quarts, is as follows : — Dissolve 
3X. 5vj. gr. xxviij. of bromide of potassium in four pints of water ; 
then add 3xiij. 5j. gr. xxxvij. of tartaric acid. The bitartrate of 
potash is precipitated, and the hydrobromic acid remains in a clear, 
bright, almost colourless fluid, possessing an acid taste, and the 
ordinary acid properties, as well as the peculiar properties of 
bromide of potassium as compared with any other salt of potash. 

It prevents the occurrence of headache after doses of quinine, 
in those who before had to desist from taking quinine for that 
reason. It is, perhaps, not invariably successful, but its power is 
very marked. It also prevents the fulness felt in the head by some 
persons, especially those labouring under cerebral anaemia after 


doses of iron. It is also useful after nervous conditions, and, witli 
quinine, is excellent in those cases when there is much nervous 
exhaustion from excessive indulgence in tea or in alcohol ; this 
having been tried in a case of nervous excitability and sleeplessness 
where there had been much resort to chloral hydrate. 

In forms of excited action of the heart, connected with general 
nervous excitability or nervous exhaustion, hydrobromic acid is 
most useful ; given vnth quinine (of which it is a capital solvent) 
and digitalis, it gives better results than bromide of potas&ium and 

In all hysterical conditions connected with ovarian excitement, 
it seems to have all the properties of bromide of potassium. It is 
equally useful in the vomiting of pregnancy, and seems to exercise 
quite as powerful an influence over acts of reflex origin as does the 
bromide. It is especially adapted for the relief of menorrhagia 
associated with sexual excitement, and is even more eSective here 
than the bromides themselves. It is also of use in whooping-cough, 
and combines conveniently with quinine, forming an effective 
measure in this troublesome aftection ; with spirit of chloroform 
and syrup of squill, it forms a most agreeable cough mixture of 
no mean potency. It is also of use in case of cough of reflex 
origin. When there is gastric irritability, it is the most useful of 
all acids, possessing the usual properties of acids generally, and of 
the bromine as well. 

The dose of the acid, prepared as above, is one dram as a full 
dose ; half a dram is the quantity ordinarily employed. Hydro- 
bromic acid has the further advantage of not producing the 
troublesome eruption so often the result of doses of the bromide 
of potassium ; at least so far as the author's experience has yet 
extended. There are many qualities about this acid to render it 
a useful member of our therapeutical armamentarium. Dr. Wade 
states that it is useful in the treatment of fever. It would seem 
the acid par excellence Avhen there is much cerebral excitement in 
pyretic affections ; but of this the author has no personal experi- 

The Use of Salicylic Acid in the Household. Dr. von Hey den. 

1. Raw Meat. — It frecpently hapjiens, especially in warm 
weather, that meat, particularly such as contains easily decom- 
posable fat and blood (tongues, etc.), although otherwise irre- 
proachable, upon closer examination or upon boiling, gives off 
a disagreeable smell. This may easily be removed, either by 
laying the meat, before cooking, in lukewarm water, containing 


I to 1 gram of salicylic acid to the liti-e, or by throwing some 
small crystals of acid into the water during the boiling. 

When it is desired to preserve meat for some days, it is re- 
commended to lay it in a solution of salicylic acid in water, ^ 
to 1 gram to the litre ; or to rnb lightly salicylic acid into the 
meat, especially the bones and fat parts. The preservation, as 
well as the cleaning for the dressing, is done in the usual way. 

Although meat treated with salicylic acid loses its red colour 
on the exterior, it undergoes no change internally. Moreover, 
it becomes tender with less boiling. 

2. Milli. — Pure cows' milk, to which dry salicylic acid (not 
in aqueous solution) has been added, in the proportion of ^ to 
1 gram to the litre, curdles at the ordinary temperature after 
about thirty- six hours, retaining its properties, the cream sepa- 
rating and yielding butter perfectly. 

3. Preserved Fruits (cherries, currants, I'aspberries, plums, apri- 
cots, peaches) may be prepared advantageously, by placing layers 
of fruit and sugar alternately, without water, in a not very 
wide mouthed pickle bottle, strewing over them a pinch of 
crystallized salicylic acid (about | gram to a kilo, of contents), 
closing the jar with parchment paper that has been steeped in 
solution of saKcylic acid, and boiling the bottles in the ordinary 
way in a water bath. Bilberries are best boiled without sugar, 
allowed to cool, filled into a naiTow mouthed flask, some crystal- 
lized salicylic acid strewn over, corked, etc. Fruit thus preserved 
has been kept in excellent condition during two seasons. Another 
method is to lay over the surface of fruit preserved in bottles, 
a closely-fitting piece of blotting paper, that has been steeped 
in a strong solution of salicyKc acid in rum. Preserved gherkins 
may be similarly treated. For those preserved in vinegar and 
sugar (Essiggurken), the salicylic acid is boiled with the vinegar, 
and when boiled poured over the gherkins. For salt gherkins 
(Snuergurl-en) the acid, | to 1 gram to the litre, is added during 
the boiling ; in other respects the preparation is as usual. 

4. Butter, kneaded with water containing | to 1 gram of salicylic 
acid to the litre, or packed in cloths saturated in such a solution, 
remains good longer than usual. Butter that has already become 
rancid, can be improved by careful washing with aqueous solution 
of salicylic acid (2 to 3 grams to the litre), and afterwards rinsing 
with pure water. 

5. Preserved Vegetables, and similar articles, may also have a small 
quantity of crystallized salicylic acid added. 


6. Fttmlgaiion. — Diy salicylic acid, volatilized from a hot plate, 
puriBes the air and perfectly disinfects the walls of a closed 

7. Vessels, GorJcs, etc., to which a disagi^ceable smell or taste 
attaches, are thoroughly purified by Avashing in solution of salicylic 

The solutions of salicylic acid for the above purpose are best 
prepared by rapidly boiling the acid in water, in the proportion 
of from 1 to 3 grams to the litre, and leaving to cool. Any excess 
that then separates is fit for fresh use ; or if stirred up and used in 
suspension, causes a corresponding increase in the action of the 

Solubility of Silk in Alkaline Copper Solutions. J. Lowe. 
{Biiigl. polijt. Journ., 187G, 274.) Chloride of zinc, hydrochloric 
acid, and ammoniacal solutions of the hydrates of nickel and copper 
have been recommended as solvents for silk. The author prefers a 
solvent prepared by dissolving 16 grams of sulphate of copper in 150 
grams of distilled water, and adding 10 grams of glj-ceriu and so 
much solution of caustic soda that the precipitate at first formed is 
just redissolved. This solution, if made from pure materials and 
kept in a stoppered bottle, will remain free from the slightest de- 
composition for au indefinite period. Silk introduced into this 
solution soon swells up and then gradually disappears, forming a 
thick, mucilaginous solution, from which hydrochloric acid precipi- 
tates the silk as a whitish jelly. Coloured silk is generally as 
soluble in this liquid as the uncoloured ; but silk dyed black with 
iron salts resists the solvent unless it be previously immersed in 
ammonium sulphide, washed with water, and treated with dilute 
hydrochloric acid to remove the iron. 

Wool, cotton, and linen are not attacked by this solvent, not 
even after several hours' contact, and may therefore be detected and 
roughly estimated in mixed fabrics containing one or the other of 
these materials together with silk. 

Formulae and Preparations of New Medicaments. J. M. Maisch. 
(^Amer. Jotirn. Phann., 1877, 2:^3.) The recent French journals 
contain a number of formulas which have been discussed before 
the Pharmaceutical Society of Paris, and from which the fol- 
loAving are selections : — 

THYiiic Acid. — Add solution of potassa or soda to oil of thyme, 
agitate well for some time, separate from the uncombined hydro- 
carbon, decompose the alkaline solution by hydrochloric acid, wash 
the oily liquid with water, and purify by distillation. ThjTnic acid, 


or flnjmol, tlius prepared, is liquid, of a weaker odour of thyme, 
little soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol, possesses caustic 
properties, and has the composition C^q H^j 0. 

Solution of Thymic Acid (1 per mille) . — Dissolve 1 gram of thymic 
acid in 4 grams of stronger alcohol, and add 995 grams of water. 
This solution is employed in lotions, injections, inhalations, etc. 

Crystallized Aconita. — Powdered aconite root is exhausted by 
strong alchohol, containing one per cent, of tartaric acid ; the liquid 
is distilled at a moderate heat, contact with the air being avoided ; 
the residue is taken up with water to remove fatty and resinous 
substances, and then agitated with ether to remove colouring 
matter. An alkaline bicarbonate is now added to the acid aqueous 
solution until effervescence ceases, after which it is agitated with 
ether, the ethereal liquid concentrated and mixed with some light 
petroleum benzin, when the aconitia will be obtained in colourless 
rhombic or hexagonal tables, which are soluble in alcohol, ether, 
benzol, and chloroform, and insoluble in glycerin and the oils of 
petroleum. Its composition is represented by Cg^ H^q N Oiq- 

Crystallized nitrate of aconitia is readily obtained by neutralizing 
nitric acid, sp. gr. 1"42, with the alkaloid, and concentrating the 
solution ; the crystals are voluminous. 

Apomorphia. — 1 part of pure morphia and 20 parts of pure 
hydrochloric acid are introduced into a strong tubular glass vessel, 
having at least fifteen times the capacity of the mixture ; the open 
end is then carefully sealed, the tube introduced into a metallic 
tube, closed by a screw tap, and the whole immersed for three 
hours in an oil bath, heated to between 140° and 160° C. (near 
300° F.). After cooling, the tube is opened (no gas being disen- 
gaged), the liquid diluted with water, and bicarbonate of sodium 
added in excess, whereby apomorphia mixed with morphia is pre- 
cipitated. The liquid is decanted, and the precipitate exhausted by 
ether (or chloroform ? ), which dissolves only the apomorphia. The 
ethereal solution is mixed with a few drops of hydrochloric acid, to 
precipitate crystalline chlorhydrate of apomorphia; the crystals are 
rapidly washed with some cold water, and recrystallized fi'om 
boiling water. To obtain the new alkaloid from this hydrochlorate, 
its concentrated aqueous solution is precipitated by bicarbonate of 
sodium, the white precipitate is rapidly w^ashed with a little cold 
water, and at once dried. 

Thus prepared, apomorphia is a greyish amorphous powder, 
which is pretty freely soluble in water, the solution rapidly turning 
gi'een in contact with air ; its solution in syrup, kept in well-closed 


vials, does not tinclergo this change. It is distinguished from mor- 
phia by its complete solubility in ether and benzol ; it is reddened 
by nitric acid, and turns browu with iodic acid, but ferric chloride 
imparts a rose (not a blue) colour. Composition C^^ H^^ N O.j. 

Monobromated camphor is recommended to be prepared by pouring 
upon camphor contained in a retort a thin stream of bromine until 
the camphor is liquefied, heating by a water bath until bromhydric 
acid ceases to be given off, and crystallizing tlie residue from boiling 

Cataplasm of Fdcus Crispos. — A sheet of carded wadding is 
evenly spread out, a concentrated mucilaginous infusion of Fucus 
crispus (Irish moss) poured on it, and this covered with another 
sheet of wadding of tlie same size. By beating lightly with a brush 
the jelly is made to penetrate the wadding veiy evenly, and the 
whole is exposed to the moderate heat of a drying closet until the 
water has been expelled, when it resembles a sheet of thick cotton, 
and has acquired no odour. When intended for use, sufficient of 
the wadding is placed in a large plate and moistened with nearly 
boiling water, whereby the jelly swells considerably, the saturated 
solution of the emollient principles of the fucus remaining inclosed 
in the wadding. 

Strupof Chlorhtdrophosphate op Calcium. — 12'50 grams calcium 
phosphate (prepared by precipitating chloride of calcium with phos- 
phate of sodium) are diffused in 34-0 gTams distilled water, and just 
sufficient (about 8 gi'ams) hydrochloric acid added to dissolve the 
calcium salt ; 630 grams white sugar are dissolved in the liquid 
without heat, and 10 grams essence of lemon mixed with the 
strained syrup. Syrap of lactophosphate of calcium is prepared 
like the preceding fi'om 12'50 gi'ams calcium phosphate, sufficient 
(about 14 grams) concentrated lactic acid, 340 gi'ams distiUed 
water, 630 grams sugar, and 10 grams essence of lemon. 

Syrup of acid phosphate of calcium is prepared in precisely the 
same manner, only substituting for the lactic acid a just sufficient 
quantity (about 18 grams) of phosphoric acid, sp. gi\ 1'45. 

The solutions corresponding to the three syrups above are made 
by employing 17 grams of the calcium phosphate, increasing the 
corresponding acid in proportion, and using enough distilled water 
to make the whole weigh 1000 grams. 

Glycerite of Sucrate of Calcium. — Mix 80 grams of burnt lime 
with 160 of sugar, and add in small quantities gradually 100 grams 
of water. After twenty-four hours, filter ; add to the filtrate 160 
grams glycerin, and enough water to make 1 litre. 


Liniment of Sucbate of Calcium. — Olive oil, 200 grams; glycerite 
of sucratc of calcium, 100 gi-ams. Mix. 

Infusion of Coca. — Coca leaves, 10 gi-ams ; boiling water, 1000 

Wine of Coca. — Bruised coca leaves, 30 grams ; 60 per cent, 
alcohol, 60 grams. Macerate for twentj-four hours, then add wine 
(vin de Lunel), 1000 grams. Macerate for ten days with frequent 
agitation, and filter. 

Elixir of Coca. — Coca leaves, 100 grams ; 60 per cent, alcohol, 
600 grams. Macerate for ten days ; express strongly, and mix the 
liquid with 400 grams simple syrup ; filter. 

Extract of Coca is made by displacement Math 60 per cent, alco- 
hol, and evaporation to a soft extract. 

Syrup of Coca. — Coca leaves, 100 grams ; boiling water, 1000 
grams. Infuse for twenty-four hours, express, filter, and dissolve 
175 grams sugar in each 100 grams of the filtrate. 

loDiNiZED Cotton. — 2 grams of finely powdered iodine are sprinkled 
over 25 grams of cotton as uniformly as possible, which is then 
introduced into a wide mouthed, glass stoppered bottle that has 
been kept for a few minutes in nearly boiling water to expel some 
air. The stopper is then securely fastened, and the bottle heated 
for at least two hours to a temperature of 100° C, until the cotton 
has become uniformly impregnated with the iodine. The bottle 
must be allowed to cool before it is opened; and the cotton, which 
contains 8 per cent, of iodine, must be kept in glass stoppered vials. 
(See also Year-Boole of Phannacy, 1876.) 

Diastase. — Malt, of which the germ has attained two-thirds the 
length of the barley grain, and dried at 50° C, is ground, macerated 
at the ordinary temperature for five or six hours with twice its weight 
of water ; then expressed, filtered, and the liqiiid mixed with twice 
its bulk of 95 per cent, of alcohol. The precipitate is collected, 
spread in thin layers upon plates of glass, and rapidly dried in a 
current of air at a temperature of 45° C. 

85 grams of diastase added to 200 grams of paste containing 10 
grams of starch yield a liquid which filters very readily, and deco- 
lorizes five times its volume of Fehling's solution. 

Syrup of Chloral Hydrate. — Dissolve 50 grams of crystaUized 
chloral hydi'^te in 950 gi^ams of orange-flower syrup. A table- 
spoonful (20 gi'ams) contains 1 gram of chloral hydrate. 

Tincture of Quillaia. — 100 grams of quillaia bark are digested in 
500 grams of alcohol in a suitable apparatus, placed in a water bath, 
the temperature being maintained near the boiliag point for half 


an hour ; the whole is then macerated for 48 houi's -with occasional 
agitation, and afterwards filtered. The tincture is mainly employed 
ia preparing emulsions of substances insoluble in water, such as co- 
paiba, tar, oil of cade, which are made according to tlie formula for — 

Emulsion of Tolu Balsam. — Dissolve 2 grams of balsam of tolu 
in 10 grams of 90 per cent, alcohol, add 10 grams of tincture of 
quillaia, and mix with 78 grams of hot water. 

Preparations of Eucalyptus Globulus. — The infusion, wine, 
elixir, and extract are made from eucalyptus leaves, in the same 
manner as the corresponding preparations of coca, (see p. 303.) 

Water of Eucalyptus. — Distil 1 part of dry eucalyptus leaves with 
sufficient water to obtain 4 parts of distillate. 

Si/rup of Eucalyptus. — Infuse 50 grams of eucalyptus leaves foi* 
three hours with sufficient water to obtain, after expressiou and 
filtration, 250 grams of infusion; add 100 grams of distilled eucalyp- 
tus water, and dissolve in the liquid 650 gi-ams of sugar, using a 
covered vessel placed in a water bath. 

Tincture of Physostigma. — Macerate 100 parts of powdered 
Calabar bean in 500 parts of 80 per cent, alcohol for 10 days ; 
express and filter. 

Glycerite of Extract of Physostigma is made in three diflferent 
proportions. The alcoholic extract of Calabar bean is well mixed 
with 10, 20, or 100 times its weight of glycerin, and dissolved by the 
aid of a moderate heat. It sho^^ld be completely dissolved. 

Bromide of Iron. — The solution of this salt does not keep well, 
and is at once made up into syrup or pills. It is made by using 
40 grams of iron filings, 216 grams distilled water, and 80 grams 
bromine, and contains one-third its weight of ferrous bromide. 

Pills of Ferrous Bromide. — 15 grams of the preceding solution 
and 10 grams powdered iron are evaporated in a porcelain capsule, 
until the water has been driven oif ; the mass, while still hot, is 
transferred to a warm mortar, mixed with sufficient powdered gum 
arable and licorice root until a mass is obtained, which is divided 
into 100 pills ; they are to be rolled in lycopodium or covered with 
a mixture of gum and sugar. 

Syrup of Ferrous Bromide. — 15 grams of the solution are mixed 
with 985 grams of syrup of gum, flavoured with orange-flower water. 

Ferrous Chloride is made by dissolving iron in hydrochloric acid 
and evaporating the filtered solution rapidly to dryness. 

Syrup of Ferrous Chloride. — Dissolve 5 grams of dry ferrous chlo- 
ride in 20 grams of orange-flower water, and add 800 grams syrup 
of gum and 175 grams syrup of orange-flower. 


• Pills nf Ferrous Chloride. — Dry ferrous cliloride, powdered marsli- 
raallow-root, each 10 grams, mucilage sufficient. Make into. 100 
pills, which are to be silvered. 

DiALYSED Oxide of Iron. — 100 grams solution of ferric chloride 
of 30° B., are mixed in small quantities with o5 grams ammonia 
water of 22° B. The precipitate dissolves at first rapidly, afterwards 
very slowly. When the liquid has become transparent it is intro- 
duced into a dialysator, and this placed in distilled water, which is 
to be frequently renewed, until the liquid is no longer precipitated 
by nitrate of silver and is destitute of acid reaction. It still contains 
a small quantity of hydrochloric acid, which may be recognised by 
precipitating with ammonia, acidulating with nitric acid, and testing 
with silver nitrate. 10 c.c. of the liquid, which is entirely free from 
disagreeable ferruginous taste, are evaporated, and from the weighed 
residue the amount of water is calculated which must be added to 
obtain a solution containing in 100 c.c. 1 gram of solid matter. 

Syrup of Ferrous Chlorhydro-phosphate. — Ferrous chloride,, 
medicinal phosphoric acid, of each 5 grams ; distilled water, 350 
grams ; sugar, 64<0 grams. Make a syrup. 

Syrdp of Pyrophosphate of Iron and Sodidm. — Dissolve 25 
grams of sodium pyrophosphate in 250 grams of distilled water, and 
5 grams of dry ferric sulphate in 100 grams of water ; add this last 
to the former solution, and in the clear and colourless liquid dissolve 
620 grams of sugar. 

The solutions of the last two preparations are obtained by omitting 
the sugar and adding enough distilled water to make 1 litre of 

Gi.YCERiTEs OF SuBNiTRATE OF BiSMUTH, of laudanum, of extract 
of lead, and of extract of i-hatany are made with 1)0 parts glycerite 
of starch, by mixing it intimately with 10 parts of subAitrate of bis- 
muth, of Sydenham's Laudanum, of Goulard's Extract, or of extract 
of rhatany, the latter to be previously dissolved in the smallest 
possible quantity of glycerin 

Tar Water. — The wood tar should be of a red-brown colour, 
transparent, and free from resinous deposits. Mix 5 grams of such 
tar intimately with 10 grams of pine- wood sawdust, and macerate 
for twenty-four hours with 1000 grams of distilled or rain water, 
stirring frequently. 

Syrup of Tar. — 15 grams of tar and 30 grams pine-wood saw- 
dust are mixed, and digested at 60° C. with 1000 grams water, with 
occasional agitation. Filter at the end of two hours upon the sugar, 
190 grams of which are to be used for every 100 grams of the fil- 


trate, and effect the solution in a closed vessel, heating it by means 
of a water bath. 

Strcp of Iodotannin (Sirop lodotannique). — Dissolve 1 gram of 
iodine in 11 grams of 90 per cent, alcohol, add to syrup of rhatany 
(containing 2-5 per cent, of extract of rhatany) 988 grams, and mix 
well. The combination will be completed at the ordinary tempera- 
ture in twenty-four hours, when the syrup has again its original 

lODiNiZED Strup OF HORSERADISH is made in precisely the same 
way as the preceding, substituting the same weight of compound 
syrup of horseradish. 

Syrup of Iodide of Starch. — Dissolve 10 grams of soluble iodide 
of starch in 330 grams of distilled water, and use this solution for 
dissolving 640 grams of sugar, by the aid of a gentle heat. 

PiLOCARPiNA. — The leaves or bark of Pilocarpus pennatifolius are 
exhausted with 80 per cent, alcohol, containing in the litre 8 grams 
of hydrochloric acid, and the tincture is distilled and evaporated to 
the consistency of a liqiiid extract, which is mixed with a small 
quantity of water, and filtered. The filtrate is treated with a slight 
excess of ammonia, and then with a large quantity of chloroform. 
The chloroform solution is agitated with water, to which hydro- 
chloric acid is added, drop by drop, in sufficient quantity to neutra- 
lize the alkaloid, the hydrocblorate of which is obtained in long 
needles on evaporating the aqueous solution, while foreign principles 
remain dissolved in the chloroform. By dissolving the crystals in 
water, treating the solution with ammonia and chloroform, and 
evaporating the latter solution, pilocarpina is obtained as a soft 
viscous mass, which is little soluble in water, but freely soluble in 
alcohol, ether, and chloroform. 

Effervescing Carbonate of Lithium. — Take of citric acid 40 
grams, bicarbonate of sodium 50 grams, and carbonate of lithium 
10 grams. Powder and mix well, then introduce into a wide flat- 
bottomed dish, and heat to about 100° C. (212° F.), stirring con- 
stantly until the powder becomes granular. Separate the ganules of 
uniform size by means of appropriate sieves, and preserve theto in 
well-stoppered bottles. 

Extract of Malt. — Take of malt, the germ of which has attained 
two-thirds the length of the grain, dry at 50° C. (122° F.), grind and 
treat it with 2 parts of water at the ordinary temperature, stir- 
ring the mixture occasionally. After five or six hours express, strain, 
filter, and evaporate in a shallow dish at a temperature not exceed- 
ing 45° C (113°F.) 


Strup of Narceina. — Dissolve 1 gram of narceiua in 100 grams 
of water containing "6 gram hydrochloric acid ; add to the solution 
250 grams of water, and then dissolve 650 grams of white sugar. 
Eiach tablespoonful of 20 grams contains '02 gram (J gi-ain) of 

Panceeatin. — Pancreas is freed from foreign matters, bruised and 
mixed with water containing some chloroform, to prevent decomposi-* 
tion. After some time the mass is expressed, and the liquid filtered 
and evaporated rapidly in shallow dishes by means of a current of 
air, at a temperature not exceeding 45° C. (113°F.) -10 gram of 
pancreatin disgested with 5 grams of fibrin and 25 grams of water, 
at a temperature of 50° C. (122° F.) for twelve hours, yields a solution 
which, when filtered, is scarcely rendered turbid by the addition of 
nitric acid. "10 gram of pancreatin, added to 100 grams of paste 
containing 5 grams starch, yield a liquid which filters easily and 
decolorizes four times its volume of Fehling's solution. 

Ferroctanhydrate of Quinia. — Four parts of quinia sulphate and 
enough distilled water to form a not too thick mixture are mixed 
with a concentrated solution of one part of ferrocyanide of potassium; 
the whole is heated to boiling for a few seconds, and then allowed 
to cool. The mother-liquor, from which more of the salt is obtained 
DU concentration, is poured oS" from the resin-like mass, the latter 
washed with hot water and crystallized from boiling alcohol. 
It is in small yellowish needles, bitter, slightly soluble in water, 
freely in alcohol, and efflorescent in the air. 

Bromhtdrates of Quinia. — The basic salt is obtained by heating 
10 grams of quinia sulphate with 80 grams of water to boiling, and 
adding 3"40 grams dry barium bromide, dissolved in 20 grams of 
water; the sulphate of barium is filtered off and the filtrate evapo- 
rated and crystallized. It forms silky needles, which require 60 
parts of cold water for solution. 

The neutral salt is made in a similar manner, except that the 
quinia is dissolved by the aid of just sufficient sulphuric acid, and 
6"80 grams of barium bromide, dissolved in 25 grams of water, are 
used for decomposition; the mixture is heated to boiling, filtered, 
the filtrate evaporated to 35 grams, and crystallized. It crystallizes 
in handsome prisms, which are soluble in 7 parts of cold water, and 
freely soluble in alcohol and hot water. Both salts must be free 
from barium. 

Tannate of Quinia. — To a neutral solution of quinia salt add a 
.solution of gallotannic acid, free from resinous matter, until the 
white precipitate is redissolved ; neutralize exactly with solution of 


bicarbonate of sodium, whereby the quinia tannate will be precipi- 
tated; collect upon a filter, drain, dry, powder, and wash with distilled 
water ; then dry again. It is a white amorphous powder, 3"5 parts 
of which correspond with 1 part of quinia sulphate; if prepared 
from the latter salt, it always retains a certain quantity of sulphuric 

Lactate op Sodium is made by neutralizing lactic acid with sodium 
bicarbonate, and evaporating. It is very deliquescent. 

SuLPHOVlNATE OF SoDlCM. — 1000 grams of sulphuric acid are 
carefully, and with constaut agitation, added to 1000 grams of 
strong alcohol, and set aside for several hours ; the liquid is then 
diluted with 4 litres of distilled water, neutralized with barium 
carbonate, and filtered from the precipitated barium sulphate. The 
filtrate is decomposed by a solution of sodium carbonate, and the 
filtrate concentrated in a water bath and set aside to crystallize ; if 
necessary, the crystals are purified by recrystallization from water, 
and when dry preserved in well-stoppered bottles. The yield is about 
1000 grams. The salt forms hexagonal tables, which are very 
soluble in alcohol and water, have a scarcely bitterish taste, and 
when heated to 120° C. (248°F.) liberate alcohol. Its aqueous 
solution is not precipitated by barium chloride or by potassium 

Syrup of Hypophosphite of Sodium. — Dissolve 6 grams of the 
salt in 445 grams of simple syrup, and add 50 grams of orange- 
flower syrup. A tablespoonful weighing 20 grams contains 0'20 
grams (3 grains) of sodium hypophosphite. 

The Pharmaceutical Preparations of Physostignia. G. W. 
Kennedy. (Abstracted from a paper read at the fifth session of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association.) The writer does not 
favour the use of strong alcoholic preparations, as the active prin- 
ciple of Calabar bean is best extracted by a mixture of alcohol and 
water. The follomng embraces all the preparations of the bean 
which have hitherto been in use : — 

JExtradum PJujsostigmatis. 

Ps Calabar Bean in moderately fine 

powder ..... 12 troy ounces. 

Alcohol (95 per cent.) ... 9 fluid ,, 

Water (distilled) . . . . 3 „ 

Glycerin 1 ,, ,, 

Mix the alcohol, water, and glycerin together; moisten the pow- 
der with five fluid ounces of the mixture, pack in a conical glass 


pBVuolator, and cover the surface of the powder with a disc of 
paper ; pour on the bahxnce of the mixture, cork the percolator, 
and cover closely, and set aside in a moderately warm place for four 
days, after which remove the cork, and proceed with the percola- 
tion, with a menstruum composed of three parts alcohol and one 
part water, until completely exhausted ; distil oiF the alcohol, and 
evaporate in a porcelain vessel by means of a water bath to the 
proper consistence. The object of the glycerin is to keep the ex- 
tract in a soft condition, which makes it more convenient for mani- 
[)ulation, and especially when it forms one of the component parts 
of a pill mass. 

Extradum Physostigmatis Fhddum. 

5b Calabar Bean in moderately fine 

powder ...... 16 troy ounces. 

Alcohol (95 per cent.) . . . 12 flnid ,. 
Water (distilled) . , . • i „ 

Moisten the powder with six fluid ounces of the above men- 
struum ; pack in a conical glass percolator, after which cover the 
surface of the powder with a disc of paper, and pour upon it a suf- 
ficient quantity of the menstruum until the liquid begins to drop 
from the percolator ; then close the lower aperture with a cork, 
and cover closely, and set aside in a moderately warm place for four 
days, after which the cork should be removed, and more men- 
struum added until thoroughly exhausted, the first twelve ounces 
being reserved, and the balance to be evaporated to four fluid 
ounces, and mixed with the reserved portion, and after standing a 
few days should be filtered through jjaper. This prejiaration is but 
little used, but makes an excellent basis for preparing calabarized 
paper or calabarized gelatin. 

Tinctura Physostigmatis. 

^ Calabar Bean iu moderately fine 

powder 4 troy ounces. 

Alcohol (95 per cent.) . . . 24 fluid ,, 

"Water (distilled) . . . . 8 „ 

Mix the alcohol and water ; moisten the powder with two fluid 
ounces of the menstruum ; pack in a conical glass percolator, and 
<;over the surface of the powder with a disc of paper, and pour six 
fluid ounces of the above menstruum on it ; cork and cover the 
{lercolator closely, and allow it to remain in this condition foui 


days, after which remove the cork, and proceed with the percola- 
tion and with the same menstruum until two pints of tincture are 
obtained, which will be found sufficient to thoroughly exhaust the 
bean. Some of the formulae which have been published for makinir 
this preparation contain a much larger proportion of the bean. 
The writer's object in mating it four troy ounces to the quart of 
tincture is to make it conform, in the proportion of solid material, 
with most other tinctures. 

Cnlabarized Paper. 

This is readily prepared by taking paper deprived of its size — 
thin letter paper, not ruled, is the best — and the size got rid of by 
boiling in water and drying. By dipping the paper three or four 
times in the fluid extract, and drying it after each immersion, the 
paper will be impregnated with a sufficient amount of the extract 
to perform the necessary service when applied to the eye. This 
plan of obtaining the effijcts of Calabar bean is objectionable, by 
being inconvenient, as it necessitates the removal of the paper sub- 
sequently. Calabarized gelatin is a much preferable preparation, 
for which the following formula is recommended : — 

Calabarized Gelatin. 

$b Gelatm 30 grains. 

Water (distilled) .... 2 fluid ounces. 

Glycerin ....... gtt. xx. 

Fluid Extract Physostigma . . . . rry. c. 

Make a solution of the gelatin in the w%ater and glycerin, and, 
while the solution is still warm, filter through paper in a warm 
funnel ; add the fluid extract, and evaporate. When it is evapo- 
rated to the proper consistence, spread on a glass plate or marble 
slab, with edges slightly raised, and with perfectly even surface, 
and place another glass plate or slab on top, which will keep it 
even and smooth ; when it is hard enough, remove the plates, and 
divide into one hundred equal squares of about an eighth of an inch, 
square, or, as some might perhaps prefer, in circular form. The 
object here of the glycerin is to prevent its brittleness. The slabs 
.should be slightly greased and warm, so as to prevent the shrink- 
ing and sticking of the gelatin. One of these small'discs, containing 
about one grain of the bean, placed in the eye, will be immediately 
dissolved by the secretions, and the remedial agent absoi'bed, and 
the effijcts of the bean produced. 



is obtained by treating the extract as prepared according to the 
formula given, with a small quantity of dilute sulphunc acid, and 
diluting the mixture with water, filtering, and supersaturating with 
ammonium carbonate. The whole is now shaken with strong ether, 
and the ethereal solution which contains the alkaloid is separated 
after standing, which yields on evaporation the physostigmine in an 
impure condition, being contaminated with a red foreign matter, 
which obstinately adheres to it, and requires repeated solution in 
ether and crystallization to remove all the impurities. 

The Syrups of Phosphates in General Use. E. C. Saunders. 
(Pharm. Jouni., ord series, vii., 41.) The chief reason for the dif- 
ference met with in the various makes of the preparation known as 
" Parrish's Chemical Food " is to be found in the fact that the prin- 
cipal published formula, that in Parrish's " Pharmacy," is an utterly 
unpractical one. It is well known that glacial phosphoric acid un- 
contaminated with phosphate of soda is hardly to be found in the 
market at present ; but even if it were, it is next to impossible to 
obtain a good preparation with it, as it is a monobasic acid, while 
the direction to add " quantum S7ifficit " of hydrochloric acid is ex- 
ceedingly vague. But apart from this, it is evident that the for- 
mula cannot be strictly followed, as if the quantity of ferrous phos- 
phate directed to be present in each fluid dram of the completed 
syrup is attended to, thirty-two troy ounces of sugar will have to 
be made into thirty-six fluid ounces of syrup, — a manifest impossi- 
bility ; while if the quantity given as the amount of solution to be 
formed for the sugar to be dissolved in is adhered to, the result will 
be about forty-six fluid ounces of syrup, which will not contain the 
requisite amount per dram of iron and lime. All the formulae at 
present in use seem merely modifications of that given by Parrish. 
In the following formula, the author has only followed Parrish as 
far as the result to be obtained is concerned, viz., that the finished 
syrup shall contain in each fluid dram one grain ferrous phos- 
phate Fe.5 Po Og, 2| grains calcic phosphate Ca.5 Po Og, and traces of 
sodic and potassic phosphates, with free phosphoric acid. 

p, Iron Wire (clean, No 20) . . . 2-iO grains. 
Syrupy Phosphoric Acid ( 1'75), 3 oz. by weight. 
Water (distilled) .... 4 fluid ounces. 

Mix the acid and water, and dissolve the wire in the mixture in 
a flask, loosely stopped with tow; the hydrogen evolved then pi-o- 
tects the solution from oxidation. When all action has ceased. 



heat to boiling })oint, and filter tlirouo-h pa})er in a funnel with a 
long neck reaching tp the bottom of a beaker containing a little 
syrup, -vvliicli floating on the iron solution will effectually prevent 
any oxidation. 

|l Slaked Lime (fresh) .... 923 grains. 

Phosphoric Acid (sp. gr. 1-75) . 9J oz. by weight. 

Water (distilled) . . . .14 fluid ounces. 

Mix the acid and water, and di.ssolve the lime in the mixture. 
Filter the solution. 

5c Crystallized Sodic Carbonate . , .54 grains. 

Potassic Carbonate 72 gi-ains. 

Phosphoric Acid (sp. gr. 1-75) . • | oz. by weight. 
Water (distilled) .... 1 fluid ounce. 

Dissolve and filter. Then mix all the solutions ; and having added 
distilled water to make the solution measure 28 fluid ounces, dis- 
solve in it, with heat, sugar, 3j ; powdered cochineal, 85 grains; 
and strain wliile bot. When cold add orange-flower water, 2 fluid 
ounces, and sufficient distilled water to make the wbole measure 
64 fluid ounces. The product is a nice clear syrup, entirely free 
from sulphate of soda, or amnionic chloride, both of which are b}' 
no means uncommon impurities- -from the difficulty of washing thci 
precipitates — when the syrup is made in the old way ; while thei 
whole process will be found very much less troublesome and tedious. 
Calcic hydrate is generally sufficiently pui-e as commonly obtained ; 
though where the chemist has the facilities for doing it, it is besii 
for him to make the lime himself, by igniting precipitated chalk in 
a crucible at a full red heat for an hour. 

It may be remarked here that the last edition (1872) of Pereira's 
" Materia Medica " contains the astonishing information, on page 
213, that " Hypophosphite of lime is an important constituent in 
Parrislrs chemical food " — a statement that is liable to mislead 
physicians in a serious manner. 

Eas ton's syrup is another preparation that is frequently badly 
made, and very often deficient in iron. The precipitate so fre- 
• piently met with, in the form of phosphate of quinine, is probably 
always owing to the use of an acid containing metaphosphoric acid. 
The change in colour is due to exposure to the air, chiefly from 
oxidation of the iron salt, but partly to the quinine changing colour. 
It may be entirely avoided, as has been often remarked, by com- 
pletely filling the bottles in which the syrup is kept, and corking so 
as to have as little air left in the bottle as possible. 

No trouble will be found in 'making a satisfaclury preparation 

NOTES AND rouMUL.?^:. 313 

if the following formula be strictly followecl, and care taken to 
avoid exposure to the air of the iron solution. 

R Ii-on Wire (No. 20) ... . 240 grains. 
Phosphoric Acid (sp. gr. 1-7'j) . 3 oz. by weight. 

Water ...... 4 fluid ouuces. 

Dissolve, with the precautions directed above in the formula for 
Parrish's syrup. 

Pi Quinine Sulph 625 grains. 

Liq. Arumon., 

Distilled Water, 

Dilute Sulphuric Acid . . . . . aa q. s. 

Precipitate the quinine, secundum artcm, and wash on a filter with 
a pint of very cold distilled water, press strongly, and dissolve in 
half an ounce by weight of phosphoric acid, diluted with an ounce 
of water in which sixteen grains of strychnine have been dissolved. 
Mix with the solution of iron, add enough distilled water to make 
the whole measure 10 fluid ounces, and mix thoroughly with 54 
fluid ounces of simple syrup. The resulting syrup will contain 
in each fluid dram one grain ferrous phosphate, Fcg Po Og ; one 
grain quiuic phosphate, (Coq H^i No Oo)3 2 H3 P 0^. and ^^^nd part 
of a grain of strychnine. 

These two syrups afford good examples of two classes of syrups 
that present considerable] difficulties in manij)ulation with the for- 
mulae in general use, which are quite removed in the two just sub- 
mitted. Both have now been tested on a large scale for some time, 
and found very satisfactory in their products. No originality is 
claimed in the use of metallic iron in place of precipitated ferrous 
phosphate. It was first suggested by Mr. H. W. Jones, in the 
columns of the Pharmacutical Journal. The chief point is the im- 
portance of using tribasic (ortho) phosphoric acid, H., PO^; both 
metaphosphoric acid, H P O3, and pyrophosphoric acid Hj Po 0^, if 
present in the acid to even a small extent, are certain to cause 
trouble. The precaution given as to filtering the solution of ferrous 
phosphate will be found useful in many other cases. A beaker full 
of solution of ferrous iodide filtered in a similar manner, Avith a 
layer of syrup the eighth of an inch thick floating on the surface, 
can be left exposed for twenty-four hours without injury to the 
solution. It is, of course, necessary that the solution should have 
the greatest specific gravity. 

Coloured Fires. S.Kern. (Ghem. Ne^us, Sept. 29, 1876.) In pre- 
paring coloured fires for fireworks according to the usual formulse 



given in manuals of pyrotechiiy, it is often important to know the 
speed with which they burn ; as in some cases, such as decorations 
and lances, they should bum slowly ; whereas in others, such as 
wheels, stars for rockets, and Roman candles, they ought to burn 
quicker. The following tables are so arranged that every formula 
with a higher number yields a slower burning mixture than one 
with a lower number. Thus, No. 5 burns quicker than No. 6, and 
slower than No. 4, 

Chreeii- coloured Fires. 


Potassium Chlorate 

Barium Nitrate 

Sulphur per 

per cent. 

per cent. 






























































Red-coloured Fires. 


per cent. 


per cent. 

per cent. 

Carbon Powder 
per cent. 






































































Violet- coloured Fires. 





per cent. 





per cent. 

per cent. 

per cent. 












































































Influence of Bottles on Wine. (Pharmaceut. Gentralhalle, 1877, 
126.) Wine of excellent quality has been observed to go bad in 
consequence of its action on the glass of the bottles in which it 
is kept. The glass in such a case ceases to be transparent. This 
observation has been confirmed by an investigation carried out 
by competent chemists at the instigation of the Chamber of Com- 
merce at Bordeaux. From their report it appears that a good 
bottle glass, fully resisting the action of the wine, has the following 
chemical composition : — 


. 58-4 per cent 

Potash and Soda 

• 11-7 

Alumina and Oxide of Iron 

• 11-0 


. 18-6 

The glass which had proved injurious to the wine was found to 
contain : — 

Silica .... 
Potash and Soda 
Alumina and Oxide of Iron 
Lime .... 

52*4 per cent. 

The acids of the wine appear to act principally upon the lime. 
The best glass contains 18 to 20 per cent, of lime to 59-60 per cent, 
of silica ; the worst 25 to 30 per cent, of lime to 50-52 per cent, of 
silica. In bottles of the latter composition the wine soon becomes 
thick and tasteless. 


Phenicated Camphor. (Phann. Jourv., .3rd series, vii., 7t)^\ and 
Journal de FJiarmncie [4], xxv., 32, from the BulJefin Thempeutique.) 
The preparation which has been introduced by Dr. Soulez under 
this name is a simple solution of 2| parts of camphor in 1 part 
of carbolic acid. The liquid thus obtained is pale yellow, of an 
oleaginous consistency, and smells slightly of camphor, without any 
admixture of the carbolic odour. Plienicated camphor is insoluble 
in water, in glycerin, and in alcohol ; but it dissolves in all pro- 
portions in the fat oils (olive and almond), and readily emulsifies 
with water containing saponin. 

This preparation is recommended by Dr. Soulez as a preventive 
of fermentation in dressings for wounds. The dressings are steeped 
in a mixture of 10 parts of phenicated camphor and 200 parts of 
olive oil, or one of 10 parts of phenicated camphor and 200 parts 
(if infusion of saponaria. The infusion may be prepared by pouring 
1000 parts of boiling water upon 100 parts of saponaria leaves. 
Dr. Soulez, however, prefers to make a tincture by macerating 250 
grams of Quillaia saponaria bark for ten days in a litre of 90° 
alcohol. This tincture, mixed with its weight of phenicated cam- 
phor, forms a concentrated emulsion, which is diluted with ten 
|)arts of water when required for use. 

Cod Liver Oil and Ferrous Iodide. The following formiila for 
this preparation has been published in the Nieu Zi/ihchrift voor de 
Pharmacie in Ncderland, by a commission which the Netherlands 
Pharmaceutical Society has appointed to examine secret remedies 
and specialities: — 

P> Iodine ... .... 1 part. 

Pulverized Iron ..... 1 part. 

Pale Cod Liver Oil 80 parts. 

Triturate the pulverized iron in a mortar with the iodine and 
one-fourth of the oil, and heat the mixture in a water batli with 
continual stirring, until the brown colour of the iodine has entirely 
disappeared and given place to a deep purple colour, showing that 
the ferrous iodide has been formed and dissolved. Then add the 
remainder of the oil, mix carefully, and after standing decant into 
dry bottles, which are to bo completely filled, closed immediately, 
and kept sheltei-ed from the light. 

This oil is of a purple colour, and differs in taste but little from 
the ordinary medicinal cod liver oil. Exposed to the light it changes 
after a few days to a red-brown colour. Although the taste is but 
little altered, it is important to prevent this change of colour which 



always indicates the liberation of iodine. In well-stoppered bottles 
the oil remains unaltered ; but it is as well not to prepare too much in 
advance. The taste and colour furnish good criteria for its condition. 
Syrup of Liquorice Koot. A. P. Brown. (From a paper read 
in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, October 7th : Amer. 
Journ. Phann., Nov., 1876, 487.) Having had occasion to prepare 
some ammoniacal glycjrrhizin, it occurred to the author that the 
use of ammonia in preparing syrup of liquorice root might be an 
advantage. He therefore devised the following formula : — 

1^ Liquorice Eoot .... 4 troy ounces. 
Cold Water .... sufficient quantity. 
Solution of Ammonia ... 1 fluid ouuce. 
Granulated Sugar . . . .13 troy ounces. 

Grind the root in a mill, and place it in a wide-mouth bottle, with 
a tightly fitting stopper ; pour upon it one pint of water mixed with 
the solution of ammonia ; macerate for forty-eight hours ; then trans- 
fer it to a funnel, and allow the liquid to drain from it, and add suffi- 
cient water until two pints of hquid has passed ; allow it to stand 
until the particles have subsided, then decant and evaporate to 
eiglit fluid ounces ; filter, and having added the sugar, dissolve it 
with the aid of heat. 

Experiments were made with the ordinary liquorice root and the 
Russian peeled root, and of the two the syrup made from the 
Russian root was decidedly the finest. The cortical portion of 
liquorice root is acrid, without possessing the peculiar virtues of 
the root ; the Russian root, being deprived of the epidermis, will 
therefore make the best preparation. 

The syrup thus prepared is of a dark brown colour, and contains 
all the sweet principles of the root without the starch and other 
inert matter. Sulphate of magnesium, iodide and bromide of 
potassium lose most of their taste when mixed with this syrup. 

The author said he had also made and used ammoniacal glycyr- 
rhizin to mask the bitter taste of quinine ; two drams of the glycyr- 
rhizin are dissolved in one pint of syrup, then to each fluid dram 
is added one grain of quinine sulphate. In making ammoniacal 
glycyrrhizin care must be observed to use chemically pure sulphuric 
acid in the precipitation ; and in the preparation of the compound 
mixture of liquorice by the process suggested, an excess of ammonia 
must be avoided. 

The author has also prepared a brown mixture from liquorice 
root and ammonia by the following process : — 


5t Liquorice Eoot ... .4 troy ounces. 
Water of Ammonia . . . . 1 fluid ounce. 
Water sufficient quantity. 

Proceed in the same manner as for syrup of liquorice root, but 
in.stead of evaporating to eight fluid ounces, evaporate to twelve 
tiuid ounces, and mix this with the gum arable, suy;ar, and other 
ingredients. Lastly, add water of ammonia until a clear solution is 
obtained, taking care not to add an excess. Brown mixture, pre- 
pared by the above process, is of a brownish yellow colour, and 
almost entirely free from sediment. 

Croton Oil Pencils. M. Limousin. (Eepert. de Pharm., 1877, 
129.) For the local application of croton oil the author recom- 
mends the use of pencils made according to the following formula : 
— Two parts of croton oil are added to one of cacao butter and one 
of white wax, melted over the water bath : when the mixture begins 
to cool it is poured into cylindrical moulds, in which it soon solidi- 
fies. Although the pencil only contains 50 per cent, of oil, still, 
owing to the avoidance of all loss through volatilization, the revul- 
sive action of the drug is found to be even more powerful in this 
form than in its natural condition, and it has been successfully em- 
ployed with the view of obtaining this action by Dr. Jules Simon at 
the Hopital des Enfants Malades. Dr. Lailler has used these pencils 
in the treatment of tinea tonsurans. The pencils seem to retain 
their properties for several months. 

Sjrrup of Coffee. R. H. Bernhardt. (Druggists' Circular and 
Chemical Gazette, Sept., 1876.) The preparation of this elegant 
syrup has long been within the province of the pharmaceutist ; yet 
with all the various formulae for its production contributed from 
time to time, it has not yet attained any appreciable degree of per- 
fection. Its liability to fermentation has continually been a barrier 
to its more general adoption. 

Syrup of coffee, like some other officinal syrups, is possessed of 
little or no medicinal value. Its importance as a pharmaceutical 
preparation lies exclusively in its remarkable power of disguising 
tbe taste of nauseous medicines, and the delicate flavour it imparts 
as an adjunct or diluent. 

The following formula, in which is used the process known as 
" cold percolation," has been found after many experiments the 
most appropriate : — 

JL Roasted Coffee .... 2 troy ounces. 

Crushed Sugar .... 28 troy ounces. 

Distilled Water .... sufficient quantity. 


Moisten the coffee, previously reduced to a moderately fine powder, 
with half a fluid ounce of distilled water ; introduce it into a conical 
glass percolator, and gradually pour distilled water upon it until 
sixteen fluid ounces of infusion have passed. Add this to the sugar 
contained in a glass percolator, in the oriflee of which a piece ot 
soft sponge has been introduced ; and in order to prevent the 
itrimediate escape of the liquid, a cork is to be tightly fitted in the 
rube of the percolator at the bottom. The whole is tlien to be closely 
covered and set aside for about two hours, or until the sugar has 
dissolved down to half its former bulk. Then the cork can be 
removed and the liquid allowed to drop. If the liquid has all 
[)assed and there still remains a quantity of undissolved sugar in 
the percolator, pour it again upon the sugar until the desired result 
is effected. This last proceeding is, however, entirely unnecessary, 
and only occupies time ; an essential precaution (and in this simple 
mechanical contrivance depends the success of the entire process) is 
to carefully insert the sponge in the orifice, not too tightly, but also 
not too loosely — just sufficiently close to allow the syrup to ^sass drop 
hy drop. 

It is also requisite to the immediate transparency of the prepar- 
ation, that the infusion obtained by percolation should be perfectly 
clear. To accomplish this in the quickest and most convenient man- 
ner, it is only necessary to close the orifice of the percolator with a 
wad of dry, well compressed cotton, tightly inserted. It will be 
noticed that there is not the slightest degree of heat used in prepar- 
ing this delicious syrup, further than in the parching of the cofiee ; 
and the transparency, reliability, and beauty of the product can- 
not be surpassed by any generally known formula. 

The strength of this preparation can be made as individual fancy 
or desire may dictate. The above afi'ords a very handsome dark 
brown coloured liquid, pretty well impregnated with the odour of 
coffee; and for ordinary purposes serves exceedingly well. For dis- 
guising the bitter taste of alkaloids, etc., the writer recommends a 
preparation double the strength of the above ; this is easily obtained 
by simply substituting twice the amount (4 troy ounces) of coffee, 
and treating as directed in the general formula. 

Fluid Extract of Jaborandi. F. V. Greene. {Amer. Joum. 
Pharm., 1877, 395.) 

9> Jaborandi leaves, in moderately fine 

powder 16 troy ounces. 

Alcohol (50 per cent.) . . sufficient quantity. 


Moisten the powder thoroughly with the menstruum, pack in a 
conical glass percolator, place a layer of two inches of well- washed 
sand on the top of the cloth covering the material, add menstruum 
until the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, when the lower ori- 
fice is to be closed with a cork, and the percolator, securely covered, 
set aside in a moderately warm place for four days. At the expir- 
ation of this time remove the cork, and add more menstruum by 
degrees until the material is exhausted. The first fourteen ounces 
of the percolate are to be reserved, and the remainder evaporated 
on a water bath, with constant stirring towards the close, to two 
fluid ounces, which are to be added to the reserved portion. If the 
percolation and evaporation have been properly performed, the fluid 
extract will not require to be filtered. 

Mustard Paper. E. Disterich. (Pharm. Post., August 16th, 
1876, from Chem. and Drugg., 1876, 393.) There are now few 
pharmacies in which mustard paper does not form part of the stock, 
and many physicians prescribe the use of it. Being officinal it is 
matter of astonishment that during the compilation of the Pharma- 
copoeia, the claims which might reasonably have been advanced in 
favour of a well-made article were not put forward. Having noted 
down numerous observations made during the preparation of mus- 
tard paper, the author proposes to fill the hiatus. 

A good mustai'd paper can only be made from a mustard flour, 
which has been so thoroughly freed from the fat oil, that not even 
a trace remains. In the other case, the article is less active, the 
mustard clings only lightly to the paper, and on being applied easily 
fixes itself to the skin ; and lastly, such a paper loses its activity 
altogether by keeping, because of the development of rancidity in 
the fat oil. On the part of the manufacturer, the use of too high a 
temperature during the pressing or drying of the mustard meal 
would also cause failure. This may be determined by observing 
whether a small sample, when moistened, develops the odour of 
mustard oil. Whether, on the other hand, the mustard has been 
completely deprived of fixed oil ; and therefore the paper prepared 
from it will retain its activity on lying by, is best ascertained by 
macerating some of the paper for an hour in petroleum benzin, and 
then filtering into a test-tube. If the column of liquid, on looking 
down through it vertically, is without < olour, the removal of the oil 
is complete ; but if golden yellow, the mustard, or mustard paper is to 
be avoided. The author here mentions that the fixed oil of mustard 
colours intensely yellow any solvent of it ; and this characteristic is 
used as a test to determine the extent to which it has been removed 


from the meal. A paper prepared with meal not thoroughly free 
from oil, shows this yellow colour ; a good paper should give a 
whitish grey colour. The action of the latter should also commence 
in forty seconds (at most in sixty seconds) from the time it 
is applied. 

Essence of Vanilla. C. Becker. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., August, 
1876, 342.) The following formula is stated to give an excellent 
preparation : — 

|b Vanilla Beans 8 ounces. 

Cut Loaf Sugar 72 „ 

Dilute Alcohol . . . sufficient quantity. 

Slice and cut very fine the vanilla beans ; then with the sugar 
gradually added, reduce in a wedgewood mortar to a coarse powder 
(it should pass freely through a sieve of twenty meshes to the inch) ; 
pack this in to a cylindrical glass percolator, and very sloivly displace 
with dilute alcohol 1 gallon of percolate. The first of this percolate is 
a dark syrup ; and if the process is carefully conducted, the last few 
ounces of the gallon will pass almost void of colour or vanilla flavour. 

Formulae for Elixir of Monobromated Camphor. 

1. The following formula is suggested by M. Dambier in the 
L'Union Pharmaceutique, xvii., 354 : — 40 grams of powdered sugar 
are dissolved by the aid of heat in 60 grams of alcohol of 56 per 
cent. ; the solution is then filtered, and 05 gram of monobromated 
camphor dissolved in it with gentle heat. The preparation can be 
flavoured to suit the taste. 

2. J. Mundy prefers glycerin to sugar, and stiggests the following 
(Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, vii., 712.) : — 

Monobromated Camphor 

Alcohol at 90° 

Eau de fi. de Granger . 


.SO centigrams. 
12 grams. 


Mix the alcohol, glycerin, and orange flower water together, and 
dissolve the monobromated camphor by aid of a gentle heat. 

In a subsequent paper, the same writer states that glycerin has 
not sufficient sweetening properties to overcome the nauseous taste, 
and introduces the following formula as answering better than the 
previous one : — 

p, Monobromated Camphor . . . . 9j. 

Sp. Cinnamon (1 in 50) .... 3V. 

Red EUxir (U. S.) ^x. 

SjTup, a sufficient quantity to make =iv. 



Mix the sp. cinnamon, red elixir, and syrup together, and add the 
monobromated camphor, and dissolve in a flask in a water bath ; 
taking care to use no more heat than is absolutely necessary, or else 
the monobromated camphor will recrystalhze. 

The product contains two grains in each half-ounce, and the 
author thinks it will be found a convenient form for administering 
this drug where it is preferred in a liquid form. 

He also gives a formula for a compound elixir which is frequently 
prescribed; — 

HjUxit Uainpli. Mi 

mobrom. (Jo 

Croton Chloral 

. gr. iij. 

Tr. Gelsem. Semper. . 

m. X. 

Monobromated Camphor 

• gi- ij- 

Sp. Cimiam. (1 in 50) . 


EedEUxir , 


Syrup ad. 


Dissolve the croton chloral in the sp. cinnamon, mix with the red 
elixir, gelsemium and syrup, and dissolve the monobromated cam- 
phor as directed for the simple elixir. 

Santonate of Soda. M. Lepage. {Journal de Pharmacie [4], 
xxiv., 311 ; Pharvi. Jotirn., 3rd series, vii., 313.) Having failed to 
get satisfactory results with either of the two published processes 
for preparing santonate of soda, the author proposes the following 
modus operandi, which he finds to give a satisfactory result: — 

Powdered Santonin 

100 grams 

Alcohol (190°) 

. 500 „ 

Distilled Water . 

. 500 „ 

Quick Lime 

80 „ 

Carbonate of Soda 

90 „ 

Dissolve the santonin in alcohol and water at the temperature of 
a water bath ; then add the lime, pi-eviously slacked and suspended 
in a very small quantity of water, and stir frequently. The liquid 
immediately takes a magnificent rose colour; but after about ten or 
fifteen minutes it loses its colour, and presents the appearance of a 
clear soup. This is due to the formation of santonate of lime, which 
is but slightly soluble in the alcohol and water. Allow the mixture 
to remain in the water bath some minutes longer, to insure the 
complete combination of the calcium oxide and santonin ; then 
pour in the carbonate of soda dissolved in double its weight of pure 
water ; agitate briskly, allow the liquor to deposit, and filter. Dis- 
til the filtrate in a water bath to recover the alcohol ; concentrate 
the residue in a dish placed in hot water, until the consistence of a 


syrnp, weighing 200 to 220 grams. After about twelve hours, when 
it has soliditied, powder it and suspend it in 800 grams of 90° alco- 
hol ; agitate freely to facilitate solution, and after some hours of 
contact decant the clear liquid. Wash the portion remaining undis- 
solved (excess of carbonate of soda) -with 200 grams of fresh alcohol, 
and add this to the other alcohol, filter, distil to recover about 
three-fifths of the alcohol, and terminate the operation by concen- 
trating the residue in a water bath until reduced to about 400 grams. 
Let this stand, and at the end of twenty-four to thirty-six hours 
it wiU form a cry.stalline mass of small prismatic needles, which after 
drying will weigh 150 to 160 grams. The mother-liquor, by further 
concentration, will still yield from 20 to 25 grams of the salt. 

The santonate of soda thus obtained is perfectly white, and con- 
tains, according to the author's analysis, 51 per cent, of santonic 
acid. It dissolves completely in three parts of water, at the ordinary 
temperature, and in four parts of alcohol at 90° C. The aqueous 
solution possesses a marked bitter taste, and presents an alkaline 
reaction with litmus paper. No turbidity or precipitation should be 
caused by oxalate of ammonia, chloride of barium, or carbonate of 
soda. Acids added in slight excess precipitate the santonic acid. 

Syrup of Santonate of Soda. The author recommends the follow- 
ing formula for a vermifuge syrup, which, from its taste resembling 
sugar syrup could be administered without difiBculty to children : — 

|i, Powdered Santonate of Soda . . 5 grams. 

Simple SjTup 900 „ 

Syrup of Orange Flower . . . 100 ,, 

Suspend the santonate in 250 grams of the simple syrup, and heat 
it over a spirit lamp until dissolved ; add the remainder of the syrup, 
then the syrup of orange flower, and mix carefully. A tablespooaf ul, 
or 20 grams, of this syrup will contain 10 centigrams of santonate, 
or the equivalent of 5 centigrams of santonin. For adults, the dose 
might be doubled, or a syrup made containing 20 centigrams to 
the tablespoonful. 

Cosmolin Cream. E. J. Davidson. (Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
March, 1877, 101.) An excellent substitute for cold cream may be 
obtained by the following formula : — 

$»> Cosmolin ...... gsxiv. 

White wax, 

Spermaceti ...... aa 5^ij- 

Glycerin . . . . . . f 5iij. 

Oil of Eose Geranium . . . . £3]. 


Melt the wax and spermaceti, add the cosmolin ; then stir until 
nearly cold ; add the glycerin and oil, and continue to stir until cold. 

Extract of Malt. Dr. H. Hager. (From New Remedies, 
August, 1876.) Extract of malt has become a popular dietetic 
remedy, and is particularly esteemed as demulcent and nutritive 
food for children. 

Its syrupy appearance, however, offers many inducements to fraud. 
The simplest and cheapest adulterant is glucose (syrup), which is 
in general used by brewers to increase the amount of extractive 
matter in beer. But there is no ready method known to detect this 
admixture. And as a complete analysis is in most cases impracti- 
cable, the consumer must generally rely upon the honesty of the 

The author reports having received a sample of malt extract, 
which in external appearances resembled the genuine completely ; 
although it had a peculiar faint, foreign taste. From its behaviour 
towards reagents, in which it greatly differed from the genuine, it 
was judged to be a mixture of glucose, glycerin, and about thirty 
per cent, extract of malt. To confirm these results, comparative re- 
actions were make with three samples of extract of malt, one of 
which had been evaporated in an open vessel, and had a darker 
colour than the others. The main difference between extract of 
malt and glucose (syrup) is probably the amount of soluble modifi- 
cations of protein-bodies in the former. It might be conjectured that 
the adulteration with glucose would produce a greater amount of 
reduction in alkaline copper solution. But the results obtained do 
not permit any such conclusion to be drawn ; one gram of the three 
last-named extracts reducing respectively 43, 44"5, and 46 c.c. of the 
copper solution, while the submitted sample (X) reduced 48'5 c.c. 

The presence of glycerin in moderate quantity, say up to 10 per 
cent., cannot be called an adulteration, as it is no doubt added for 
the purpose of preserving the extract ; but then the glycerin must 
be employed in a pure state. The above-mentioned sample of ex- 
tract (X), however, contained 26 per cent, of glycerin (extracted 
by ether-alcohol), which could not have been very pure, owing to 
the considerable quantity of calcium chloride present. The author 
considers the examination of the following points sufficient to de- 
cide on the genuineness and qualities of a malt extract. 

1. The extract must have its own peculiar sweet taste and the 
refreshing odour of fresh bread. 

2. The watery solution must be nearly clear. On dissolving 
5 grams of the extract in 45 grams of distilled water, under stirring 


and without heat, a slightly cloudy solution is obtained, which may 
be filtered without difficulty. The insoluble matters were found to 
be different under different circumstances, and consisted of amor- 
phous coagalum, ferment-bodies, and columnar, four or six-sided 
(sometimes also star-shaped) crystals. 

3. 10 c.c. of the filtered solution, prepared as just stated, are 
placed into a test-tube, 1"5 cm. {=fV inch) wide, aud mixed with 
10 c.c. of an aqueous cold saturated solution of picric acid. In the 
case of good extracts, a strong cloudiness appears at once, which gra- 
dually increases, and after ten minutes has become so intense as to 
prevent the passage of daylight through the liquid. The adulterated 
sample (X) showed only a slight cloudiness with picric acid, nor did 
it after ten minutes become so intense as to be impervious to light. 

If it is desired to determine the quantity of the protein com- 
pounds in solution, 10 grams of the extracts are digested for half an 
hour at a gentle heat in 100 grams of cold saturated aqueous solu- 
tion of picric acid, and the whole set aside to allow the precipitate 
to deposit. The latter is collected in a tared filter, washed, and 
dried in the water bath. Its weight, divided by 2, is approximately 
equal to the quantity of the proteides. 

4. Another portion of the filtered 10 per cent, solution is mixed 
with tincture of galls in excess, and well shaken. A copious whitish 
precipitate, remaining suspended in the liquid and making it imper- 
vious to light, must make its appearance. Sample X gave only 
a slight cloudiness. 

The same relationship which exists between pepsin and fibrin, or 
other animal protein-compounds, holds good between the diastase of 
extract of malt and vegetable starches. The latter, which form a 
main constituent of our vegetable diet, are converted by diastase 
into dextrin. Extract of malt, therefore, owing to its proteides and 
to diastase, is an excellent adjunct in the nutrition of infants. 

Various other remedies have been combined with the extract of 
malt, to modify its action ; or it is used as a pleasant disguise for 
disagreeable medicines. But since those agents which are capable 
of arresting or preventing fermentation would exert the same 
influence upon the diastase, and consequently would prevent the 
latter from acting upon starch, they should not be given in combi- 
nation with malt extract, or at least only in very small quantities. 
Tannic acid, salts of quinine, salts of iron (ferric), with organic 
acids and potassium iodide, should be given in comparatively large 
quantities of the extract. Hager mentions the following compounds, 
or preparations, as in use in Germany : — 


Extractum Malti Quinatnm {Malt Extract with Qiiinia) was 
formerly prepnred by addinpf 1 part of quinia snlphafe to 250 parts 
of the extract; but the bitterness of the mixture caused it to bo 
frequently rejected by children. At present the usual method 
is to add 1 part of quinia tannate to 100 parts of the extract. 
A trial with a perfectly neutral extract, prepared by J. D. Riedel, 
yielded a solution which hadl not deposited any sediment after 
eight days, and which exerted but a very slightly diminished 
action upon starch. Hager proposed to call this Extractum malti 

Extractum Malti Ferratnm (Ferrated Malt Extract^. — A formula 
for this preparation is given by the German Pharmacopoeia. It is 
best prepared by dissolving 2 parts of soluble ferric pyrophosphate 
in parts of pure glycerin, and adding it to 93 parts of the extract. 
The taste of the resulting product is, however, slightly modified, 
and Hager recommends to use saccharate of iron, 3 parts; glycerin, 
7 parts ; and extract, 90 parts. This wou-ld be Extractum malti 
sacch ar of err a turn. 

Extractum Malti lodatum (Iodized Malt Extract) is a solution of 
1 part of potassium iodide in 10,000 parts (rather dilute? Ed. N.B.) 
of extract. 

Extractum Malti Pepsinatum (Malt Extract ivith Pepsin) is said 
to be more nutritious than the simple extract, and to be especially 
valuable in dyspeptic complaints. For this purpose a saccharated 
pepsin of -50 per cent, is recommended. Two parts of this are rubbed 
with 5 parts of glycerin, and added to 93 parts of the extract. It 
is best to prepare this mixture only when wanted. 

Extractum Malti Iiuptdinatum (Extract of Malt loith Hops) is a 
preparation made by J. D. Riedel, of Berlin. Although originally 
intended to be added to weak malt liquors or beers for the purpose 
of giving " body," it may be used medicinally. It has an agreeable 
aromatic taste, and is probably a solution of alcoholic extract of 
hops in extract of malt. 

Substitute for Solution of Citrate of Magnesium. J. Rhinehart. 
(Amer. Journ. Pharm., March, 1877, 101.) 

p. Acidum Citricum (in moderately sized crystals) 5J. 

Magnesii Sulphas . 
Syrupus simplex 
Extractum Limonis 
Potassii Bicarb, (in crystals) 
Aqna pura, sufficient for 
M. Secundum artem. 



gr. xl. 


Place the acid and the epsom salts in a 12-oz. bottle .; then add the 
simple syrup, water, and extract of lemon ; lastly, add the potassium 
bicarb., and cork ready for use. By using the acid and potassium 
bicarb, in crystals the danger of losing carbonic acid gas is obvi- 
ated, as the gas does not begin to generate before the cork can be 
fiiTnly secured. 

The above formula is much cheaper, more expeditious, and con- 
tains in a greater degree the required properties of a good, mild 
laxative, than does the officinal solution of magnesium citrate ; it 
also has a very pleasant flavour, the bitter taste of magnesia being 
entii'cly absent. 

Elixir Glycyrrhizge. G.W.Kennedy, (Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
May, 1877, 229.) An elixir by the above name has been introduced 
as an adjuvant to disguise and cover the extremely bitter taste of 
the chinchona alkaloids, epsom salt, and other nauseating and bittei' 

The following- formula furnishes an excellent elixir: — 

Radio. Glycyrrhizas opt. 

• . • Jij. 

Spir. Vini rect. fort. 

. . f^vj 


• fSvj. 

Syr. sunplic. 

• fSiv 

Spir. Anrantii 

. f5iss 

Spir. Cinnamonii . 

IL- -1 - 1_ _1 • 1 • 

. tiiviij. 

_ -1 n • n 

The spirits are made by dissolving 1 fluid ounce of the oil in 
15 fluid ounces of stronger alcohol. 

Make a moderately coarse powder of the root, mix the alcohol 
and water, moisten the powder with the mixture, allow it to stand 
12 hours, pack in a conical percolatoz', and pour on the balance of 
alcoholic mixture and suflicient diluted alcohol until 12 fluid ounces 
of percolate are obtained; then add the syrup, and finally the spirits 
of orange and cinnamon. 

Alcoholic Solution of Shellac. A. Peltz. {Pharm. Journ., 3rd 
series, vii., 94, from Pliarm. Zeitung fur Russland.) The production of 
a clear alcoholic solution of shellac has been the subject of numerous 
experiments ; but hitherto none has turned out satisfactory except 
slow filtration. As is known, by digestion of one part of shellac 
with six or seven parts of 70 per cent, alcohol, a solution is obtained 
which, when warm, is almost clear, but on cooling becomes turbid, 
and is only partially clear after standing a week. The plan of pour- 
ing sufficient alcohol over coarsely powdered shellac to form a thin 
paste yields, upon the addition of more alcohol after the lapse of 


eight or ten hours, a liquor that does not deposit any more, but 
which is not clear. Anotlier method suggested, of boiling the 
alcoholic shellac solution with animal charcoal, gives a clearer 
liquid, but there is always loss through absorption by the animal 

The object sought by the author was to obtain a clear alcoholic 
solution in a short time without mx;ch loss. Previous communi- 
cations upon the substance occurring in shellac to the extent of 
five per cent., which renders its alcoholic solutions turbid, and is 
described by some authors as wax, and by others as a fat acid, 
suggested an attempt to effect its removal before dissolving the 
shellac. The shellac, therefore, was boiled wich water, from one to 
five per cent, of soda or ammonia being added, but without satis- 
factory result ; a somewhat larger addition of the alkali caused the 
solution of the shellac. 

The author next prepared a solution with one part of shellac and 
six parts of 90 per cent, alcohol at the ordinary temperature, which 
was eflFected with frequent shaking in ten or twelve hours. To this he 
added carbonate of magnesia to about half the weight of the shellac 
used, and heated the mixture to 60° C. The solution so obtained 
cleared more rapidly than a solution to which magnesia had not 
been added, and filtered in less time; but it did not supply what 
was sought. When powdered chalk was substituted for magnesia, 
the solution after standing some hours became three-fourths clear, 
whilst the lower turbid portion could be rapidly filtered. It only 
required a little alcohol to wash the filter, and a clear alcoholic 
solution of shellac was obtained. Further experiments, for instance, 
with sulphate of baryta, did not give a better result. When such 
a solution is made on a large scale, it would be best filtered through 

Notwithstanding that the object of the author had thus been 
attained, one or two other experiments were tried. To three parts 
of the above-mentioned shellac solution, one part of petroleum ether 
was added, and the mixture Avas vigorously shaken. After standing 
a few moments the liquid separated in two layers : the upper light 
coloured layer was the petroleum ether, with the wax dissolved in 
it ; the lower yellow brown layer was a clear solution of shellac, 
with only a little petroleum ether adhering. Upon allowing the 
petroleum ether to evaporate spontaneously, the wax that had been 
dissolved out of the shellac was obtained as a white residue. By 
using a stronger alcohol (95 per cent.) to dissolve the shellac, and 
subsequently adding petrolei;m ether, a perfectly clear solution was 



obtained, that only separated into two layers after the addition of 
water. Consequently, an alcohol weaker rather than stronger than 
90 per cent, should be used. 

The shellac solution obtained by means of petroleum ether, how- 
ever, has the disadvantage that the shellac is left, after the evapor- 
ation of the petroleum, in a somewhat coarser form, and easily 
separates ; this may be obviated by the addition of one to three per 
cent, of Venice turpentine. 

Further experiments showed that the petroleum ether could be 
replaced by the ordinary commercial benzin. 

Aromatic Elixir of Liquorice. J. P. Remington. (Amer. Journ. 
Pharm., May, 1877, 231.) Since the remarkable property possessed 
by preparations of glycyrrhizin was noticed — of influencing the 
gustatory nerve, so that bitter and disagreeable substances can be 
administered without betraying their presence — several forms of 
using this valuable addition to the materia medica have been sug- 
gested. An aromatic elixir of liquorice has been one of the most 
desirable and successful of these attempts, and the author submits a 
formula which seems to be satisfactory : — 


Star Anise 



Ton qua 



Cloves (all in jBue powder) 

Ammoniacal Glycyrrhizin 

Oil of Orange (fresh) . 




6 grams. 
4 „ 












Mix the oil of orange with the alcohol and water, and percolate 
the aromatics, recovering one thousand grams of percolate by pour- 
ing sufficient water upon the top to accomplish the purpose. Dis- 
solve the ammoniacal glycyrrhizin in a small quantity of boiling 
water, and add to the rest after mixing with the syrup. 

If an agreeable, simple elixir is at hand, the ammoniacal glycyr- 
rhizin may be simply dissolved in it, in the proportion of one gram 
in fifty grams of simple elixir. 

If it is desired to administer sulphate of quinia, all that is neces- 
sary is to pour into a teaspoon or glass a small quantity of the 
elixir, add the sulphate of quinia, and swallow before the bitter salt 


dissolves to any extent ; then follow with a fresh teaspoonfnl of elixir, 
and the deception is complete. 

A Convenient Mode of Producing Ozone. M. Lind er . {Pharma- 
ceut. Centralhalle.) A mixture of equal parts of manganese dioxide, 
potassium permanganate, and oxalic acid, when brought in contact 
with water, furnishes a good supply of ozone. Two spoonfuls of 
this powder placed on a dish and gradually mixed with water 
would be sufficient for a room of medium size. More water is added 
in small portions, from time to time, as the evolution ceases. The 
powder may be kept in a bottle ready for nse. 

Peroxide of Hydrogen as a Disinfectant. C. T. Kiugzett. 
{Pharm. Journ., 3rd series, vii., 450.) The extraordinary powers 
of hydrogen peroxide as a disinfecting and oxidizing agent have 
been known for a long time, but the complicated and tedious 
method of its preparation has been a bar to its adoption on a 
large scale. The author, in conjunction with Mr. Zingler, has 
recently instituted some experiments, based on certain researches 
on the hygienic influences of the pine and eucalyptus trees, by which 
they ascertained that by exposing a mechanical mixture of water 
and turpentine to a current of air at normal summer temperature, 
a solution containing hydrogen peroxide and camphoric acid — the re- 
sult of splitting up of the turpentine — may be readily obtained. The 
solution is an aqueous one, containing no oil of turpentine ; it 
appears to be non-poisonous, and is absolutely without harm to tex- 
tile fabrics. It does not injure carpets or furniture when applied to 
them, and is slowly but perfectly volatile. It is hoped shortly to 
produce large quantities on a manufacturing scale, for use in water- 
ing roads and streets, and in private houses, hospitals, and other 
localities where prompt disinfectants are required. 

Notes on Perfumery. W. Saunders. (From a paper read 
before the American Pharmaceutical Association.) The writer first 
refers to the ingredients entering into the composition of perfumes, 
and then gives the formulae for the preparation of the latter. 

Alcohol. — One of the first requisites in the manufacture of good 
perfumes is pure alcolfol, free from fusel oil or other foreign flavour. 
This purer grade of spirit is known in commerce as pure spirits, 
.silent spirits, or deodorized alcohol ; and may readily be distinguished 
from ordinary alcohol by the absence of that peculiar pungency of 
odour which is present to a greater or less extent in most commercial 

Oftos or Essential Oils. — It is of the greatest importance that these 
should be strictly pure and of the finest quality. 


Pomades. — From these are prepared some of tlio simple extracts 
in the appended foi'multe, such as jasmine, tuberose, aiid cassia. 
The quality must be that known as triple pomade. The simple 
extracts are prepared as follows : — One pound of the pomade is cut in 
small pieces and placed in a bottle of sufficient capacity, in which is 
pat a pint of pure spirit. Place the bottle suitably stoppered in a 
water bath, and apply heat sufficient to barely melt the pomade, 
shake well togethei', and repeat the shaking frequently until the 
fatty matter solidifies. In this way the pomade will be reduced to 
a finely divided or granular state, permeated thoroughly by the 
spirit. Allow this to stand for several days, giving it an occasional 
shake, then drain off the liquid extract into another bottle ; if this 
fall short of a pint repeat the operation -with a sufficient quantity of 
alcohol to make up to this measure. By subsequent and similar 
treatment, a second and even a third quantity of extract may be 
made, which, although much weaker, will be found useful in the 
preparation of cheaper perfumes. 

Extract of Orris. — Seven pounds of finely ground orris root of 
good quality, is treated by percolation with pure alcohol until one 
gallon of extract is obtained. 

JExtrad of Vanilla. — Four ounces of vanilla beans of the finest 
quality powdered finely in a mortar with a sufficient quantity of 
dry white sugar (from four to six ounces) ; pack in a percolator, and 
percolate with proof spirit until one gallon is obtained. 

Extract of Tonha. — Take one pound of tonka beans, reduce to a 
coarse powder, and percolate with alcohol, to make one gallon. 

Extract of Mush. — Take of pure grain musk of the first quality 
two drams. Mix half an ounce of liquor potassaB with four ounces of 
proof spirit, and triturate the musk with this mixture until it is 
thoroughly softened, and reduced to a creamy state ; add enough 
proof spirit to make up about one pint ; stir well, then allow the 
coarser particles to subside, and pour off the supernatant fluid. Rub 
the coarser portions again with a fresh portion of spirit, proceeding 
as before, and repeat the process until the musk is entirely reduced, 
and the quantity of extract measures three pints. Allow this to 
stand for a fortnight with occasional shaking, when it will be ready 
for lise. 

Extract of Styrax. — Eight drams of sty rax balsam dissolved in one 
pint of alcohol. 

Benzoic Acid. — Only that prepared from gum benzoin should be 




Jockey Club. 

Ext. Jasmin . 

5 ounces. 

,, Orris 

20 „ 

,, Musk . 

7 „ 

„ Vanilla . 

n .. 

Otto Eose, Virgin 

li dram. 

,, Santal. Flav. 

n „ 

,, Bergamot 

2* „ 

,, Neroli Super 

40 minims 

Benzoic acid 

2 di'ams. 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 

In this, as well as in all the following extracts, before adding the 
last portion of the spirit, replace as much of it with water as the 
perfume will bear without milky, which will vary from, 
two to eight ounces or more. This addition will make the perfume 

White Eose. 

Otto Eose, Virgin 

2 drams. 

„ Eed Cedar Wood (true) 

6 minims 

,, , Patchouli .... 

•i „ 

,, Orange (fresh) 

J dram. 

Ext. Tuberose .... 

2 omices. 

,, Orris 

2 „ 

,, Jasmin. .... 

2 „ 

,, Musk 

2 „ 

Benzoic Acid . . . . . 

1 dram. 

Pure Spirit (to which four ounces of rose-water have 
been added), sufHcient to make four pints. 


Otto Eose, Virgin .... 

2 drams. 

,, Neroli Super 

2 „ 

„ Bergamot .... 

4 „ 

,, Coriander .... 

16 minims 

,, Pimento .... 

2i „ 

,, Lavender, English 

16 „ 

Ext. Jasmin .... 

2 ounces. 

,, Orris 

16 „ 


2 „ 

Benzoic Acid .... 

2 drams. 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 


Moss Rose. 

Otto Eose, Virgin 2 drams. 

„ SantaL Flav 2 „ 

Ext. Musk 12 ounces. 

,, Vanilla 4 ,, 

„ Orris 2 „ 

,, Jasmin . . . . . 4 ,, 

Benzoic Acid 1 dram. 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 



otto Patchouli . 

2 drams. 

,, Santal. Flav. 

40 minims 

,, Eose, Virgin 

40 „ 

Ext. Musk . 

8 ounces. 

„ Orris . 

8 „ 

„ Vanilla 

4 „ 

,, Styrax. 

2 drams. 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 


P= Otto 


Eose, Virgin 

Eed Cedar Wood (true) 

1 dram. 
1 ,. 

Orange (new) 

1 ,. 

20 minims 

Onis .... 

6 ounces 
2 „ 


Tonka .... 

1 „ 

4 „ 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 

Ess. Bouquet. 

Ext. Musk .... 

4 ounces. 

,, Tuberose 

• 2 „ 

Otto Eose, Virgin . 

1 dram. 

,, Bergamot 

• 1| ,. 

,, Neroli Super 


2 11 

,, Verbena (true) 

8 minims 

,, Pimento 

. 10 „ 

,, Patch oiili 

. 3 „ 

„ Eed Cedar Wood (true) 

i dram. 

„ Lavender, English 

. 12 minims 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 







Ext. Musk .... 

1 pint. 

,, Orris 

6 ounces. 

,, Vauilla 

2 „ 

„ Styrax 

2 di-ams. 

Otto Santal. Flav. 

1 ,, 

,, Bergamot 

2 „ 

„ Neroli Super 

10 minims 

„ Patchouli 

12 „ 

,, Lavender, English 

• 15 „ 

„ Cinnamon (true) . 

6 „ 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make fom- pints. 

Thing Ylang. 

Est. Tonka 

3 ounces. 

,, Musk . ..... 

4 „ 

,, Tuberose 

4 „ 

,, Cassia 

4 „ 

,, Orris 

8 „ 

Otto Orange (new) .... 

2 drams. 

Neroli Super .... 

4 M 

Pui-e Spirit, sufficient to make foiu- pints. 


Ext. Tuberose 

24 ounces. 

,, Musk .... . . 

4 „ 

., Jasmin 

1 ,, 

Otto Rose, Virgin .... 

1 dram. 

,, Neroli Super .... 

10 minims 

Benzoic Acid ..... 

2 di'ams. 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 

West End. 

Ext. Orris 

12 ounces. 

,, Jasmin 

4 „ 

,, Musk 

8 „ 

„ Cassia ...... 

4 „ 

,, Styrax 

1 „ 

Otto Bergamot 

3 drams. 

,, Verbena (true) .... 

15 minims. 

,, Neroli Super .... 

i dram. 

,, Eose, Virgin .... 

1 „ 

„ Red Cedar Wood (true) 

1 „ 

Benzoic Acid .... 

1 „ 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 




Wood Violet 

Ext. Orris 12 ounce 

,, Tuberose 

2 „ 

„ Jasmin 

1 „ 

,, Musk . 

4 „ 

Otto Bergamot 

2 drams. 

,, Lavender, English 

1 „ 

„ Verbena (triie) 

10 minims 

,, Auiygd. Amar. 

12 „ 

„ Coriander . 

6 „ 

„ Sweet Flag . 

4 „ 

„ Bay Leaves . 

4 , 

Benzoic Acid 

. H „ 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 

New-Mown Hay. 

Ext. Tonka . . . . 

25 ounces. 

,, Musk . . . . 

6 „ 

„ Orris . . . . 

8 „ 

,, VaniUa 

1 „ 

,, Stj'rax 
Otto Bergamot . 
,, Neroli Super 
,, Eose, Virgin 
,, Cloves . 


1 di-am. 
15 minims 
10 „ 

6 „ 

,, Lavender, English 
„ Patchouli 

. 10 „ 
10 „ 

,, Santal. Flav. 

1 dram. 

Benzoic Acid 

. H „ 

Pure Spiiit, sufficient to make four pints. 



Otto Lavender, English 

1 ounce. 

,, Cloves ...... 

h „ 

,, Bergamot .... 

h n 

„ Eose Geranium, Turkey 

2 drams. 

,, Cinnamon (true) . 

20 minims 

,, Eose, Virgin 

10 „ 

,, Santal. Flav. 

1 dram. 

Ext. Musk 

2 ounces. 

,, Orris ..... 

4 „ 

,, Vanilla .... 

2 „ 

Benzoic Acid .... 

1 di-am. 

Pure Spiiit, sufficient to make fom' pints. 




fb Ext. Cassia . 
Musk . 
Orris . 
Tonka . 
Otto Rose, Virgin 
,, Neroli Super 
Benzoic Acid 

4 ounces. 
4 „ 

3 „ 
1 dram. 
i „ 
1 ,. 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 



Ext. Orris .... 

4 ounces. 

,, Tuberose 

2 „ 

„ Musk .... 

4 „ 

,, Vanilla 

. 2 „ 

„ Jasmin 

1 ,, 

„ Styrax 
Otto Neroli Super 
„ Eose, Virgin 

1 dram. 

5 )) 

,, Santal. Flav. 

1 ,j 

„ Eed Cedar Wood (true) 

1 ,, 

„ Pimento 


2 )) 

,, Cassia .... 

20 minims 

,, Bergamot 
,, Ginger 

,, Lavender, Englisli 
Benzoic Acid . . . . 

4 dram. 
4 drops. 
6 „ 
2 drams. 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 

Clove PinJc. 

Ext. Jasmin 12 ounces. 

„ Orris . 

12 „ 

„ Musk . 

8 „ 

Otto Eose, Virgin 

1 dram. 

,, Cloves 

2 „ 

„ Neroli Super 

1 „ 

„ Pimento 

10 minims 

,, Patchouli . 

20 „ 

„ Santal. Flav. 

2 drams. 

Benzoic Acid 

1 ,, 

Pure Spirit, sufficient to make four pints. 



Spring Flowers 

Ext. Orris 

4 ounces. 

„ Jasmin .... 

4 „ 

„ Musk 

4 „ 

Otto Bergamot .... 

2 drams. 

„ Neroli Super 

i „ 

„ Verbena (true) 

10 minims 

„ Red Cedar Wood (true) 

1 dram. 

Benzoic Acid 

1 „ 

Piu'e Spirit, sufficient to malie foiu- pints. 




2 pints. 


Tuberose .... 

4 ounces 


Vanilla .... 

3 „ 



3 „ 


Tonka .... 

2 „ 


! Spirit, sufficient to make four 


Camphorated Phenol as an. Application. (Zeitschr. des oesterr. 
Apoth. Ver.) 12 grams of camphor are dissolved in an alcoholic 
solution of 2 grams of carbolic acid ; with this solution pieces of lint 
are moistened and applied in a number of layers to the affected part. 
To prevent evaporation the lint is covered with gutta percha tissue. 
The application relieves pain, and may be used as a substitute 
for Lister's dressing. 

Mixtures of Quinine and Ammonia. "William Mclntyre. 
(Amer. Journ. Pharm., November, 1876, 488.) While quinine and 
ammonia are generally incompatible, an excess of the latter will 
determine a solution, and several pharmaceutical preparations of 
this character are now in use. 

The following formulae of ammoniacal solutions of quinine have 
been published : — 

Liquor Quinice Ammoniahcs (Bastick). 

[Now officinal in the B. P.] 

P> Sulphate of Quinine ... 32 grains. 

Alcohol, 49 per cent. . . . 3J fluid ounces. 
Solution of Ammonia . . . i fluid ounce. 

Diffuse the quinine in half the spirit, add ammonia to the re- 
mainder, and mix aU together. 



Tinctura Quinice Ammoniata (Ince). 

p, Sulphate of Quinine ... 32 graios. 

Alcohol, 49 per cent. . . . 3^ fluid ounces. 
Spirit of Ammonia . . . i fluid ounce. 

The increased alcoliolic strengtli is considered an improvement by 
the author. 

Liquor Quinice Ammoniatus (Squire). 

9= Sulphate of Quinine ... 32 grains. 

Strong Solution of Ammonia . 1 fluid dram. 

Alcohol, 49 per cent., sufiicient to make 4 fluid ounces. 

Mix as in the first formula. 

Tiiictur'd Quinice Ammoniata (Curtis). 

^ Quinine (alkaloid) ... 32 grains. 

Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia . 4 fluid ounces. 

The qninine will readily dissolve ia the spirit, and the strength of 
the preparation can be increased, if desired. These solutions are 
permanent ; with water they make turbid mixtures, and are too 
pungent to be taken undiluted. 

The following, which is taken from Squire's " Pharmacopoeias of 
the London Hospitals," agrees with the three first formulee in quinine 
strength, but is notably stronger in ammonia and alcohol. 

Liquor Qiiinim Amm/Oniatus, 

|b Sulphate of Quinine .... 24 grains. 

Strong Solution of Ammonia . . 4 drams. 

Eiectified Spirit (sp. gr. 838) . . to 3 ounces. 
Dose : 30 to 60 minims. 

Black Writing Inks. C. H. Viedt. (Dingl. polyt. Journ., 
ccxvi., 453.) The aqueous solution of the tannin of the gall nuts 
undergoes the following change by fermentation, the ferment being 
present in the Aleppo galls : — 

Tannin. Gallic Acid. Sugar. 

C27H22 0i7 + 4H20 = 3(C7He05) + C6Hi2 06. 

On boiling the nuts with water, and exposing the solution to the 
air, this fermentation sets in. The Chinese galls do not contain this 
ferment, and therefore to bring about the above decomposition some 
yeast must be added. Concentrated solutions of ferous salts give, 


with tannic acid, a "wliite voluminous precipitate; in dilute solutions 
no change takes place. Ferric oxide solutions, with excess of tannic 
acid, give a blue-black precipitate of ferroso-ferric tannate, a part of 
the higher oxide being reduced to the lower one. This ferroso-ferric 
tannate is also formed when solutions of ferrous tannate are exposed 
to the air, partial oxidation taking place. With great excess of 
tannic acid even ferric salts give no precipitate, being thus reduced 
to ferrous salts. After a long time the solution becomes blue-black ; 
later on blue-black tannate is precipitated, the solution remaining of 
a dirty green colour. By boiling a mixture of a ferric salt with 
tannic acid, it becomes colourless, with liberation of carbonic acid ; 
and thus it becomes evident that prepared gall-nut inks ought never 
to be heated to boiling. The behaviour of gallic acid to iron salts 
is nearly analogous to that of tannic acid. Ferrous salts have no 
effect on gallic acid, but on exposure to air the solution becomes at 
first reddish, then violet, then dark blue, and at length an insoluble 
and blue-black fei'roso-ferric gallate is precipitated. This insoluble 
gallate precipitates much more quickly than the corresponding 
tannate, but the supernatant solution of the gallate remains some- 
what strongly coloured with gallate retained in solution. In choos- 
ing tannic acids for the manufacture of ink, it should be remembered 
that only those giving blue reactions with iron yield the best coloured 
inks; those which give a gi'een colour, as sumach tannic acid, cannot 
be recommended. Many of the former variety also contain sub- 
stances which damage the colour of the ink ; as the tannic acid of 
the Torment ilia ereeta, which contains an injurious red pigment 
besides tannic acid. 

Gall nuts are considered the best source of the tannic acid; and of 
these the Chinese galls, with 72 per cent, of tannin, are recom- 
mended as cheapest and best, because they also contain less extrac- 
tive mucilaginous bodies than the Aleppo galls; they furnish an ink 
less liable to become mouldy. To extract the tannic acid from the 
gall nuts they are coarsely pulverized, and mixed with an equal 
quantity of straw cut small. This mixture is shaken in a high, 
narrow vessel of oak wood, furnished with a tap at the bottom, and 
close above a perforated false bottom. Hei-e it is treated with luke- 
warm water, and the tannic acid extract is allowed to flow very 
slowly out, after which it is returned several times, still further to 
exhaust the powdered galls. The mixture of chopped straw is to 
obviate the difficulty caused by the swelling of the galls on lixivi- 
ation, and the yielding of a quantity of slimy mucilage, which 
would otherwise have rendered the mass impermeable. It is sug- 


gestcd that a row of small " diffusers," similar to those employed by 
the sugar-refiner, might be nsed with even greater advantage. 

To preserve the prepared ink from mildew, three to five drops of 
pure carbolic aa'd should be added, or if the smell of this be objected 
to, salicylic acid. The presence of lime in the water used for ink 
making is not injurious. The ferrous salt rcommended is ferrous 
sulphate, "green vitriol;" the proportions will \ye 100 j^f^'^fs of 
tajinin to 90 2^'-irts of crystallized ferrous sulphate. Of course, by the 
use of the pure ferrous salt the ink at first is very light coloured, 
though it afterwards darkens on exposure to air. To overcome 
the difficulty of this pale writing, the ink is coloured with logwood 
extract, or some soluble colouring matter. Logwood and cupric 
sulphate are used for ink making, besides gall nuts and ferrous 
sulphate. Both yield beautiful blue-black precipitates ; galls and 
cupric sulphate, however, give a slimy brown-black colour, which 
spoils the tint of the ink. It is better, therefore, not to use the 
copper salt at all. 

Detection of the Principal Colouring Matters Employed in the 
Sophistication of Wines. M. G. Chancel. (Gompt. Bend., Feb- 
ruary 19th, 1877 ; Chemical News, xxxv., 106.) The author takes 
10 c.c. of wine, and adds 3 c.c. of a dilute solution of subacetate 
of lead, allowing the mixture to subside for a few minutes, to 
make sure that -the precipitation is complete. If this is not the 
case, a slight excess of the reagent is added. After stirring and 
heating for a few moments, it is thrown on a very small filter, the 
filtrate collected in a test-tube, and the precipitate washed three or 
four times in hot water. If the filtrate is coloured magenta is 
present, and may be sought for by the aid of the spectroscope. 
But if the wine contains a mere trace of this colour, it is retained 
in the precipitate, and is sought for in the manner directed below. 
To discover the colouring matters which may be contained in the 
plumbic precipitate, it is treated upon the filter with a few c.c. of a 
solution of carbonate of potassa (2 parts of the dry salt to 100 of 
water), taking care to repass the same solution several times through 
the precipitate. Any magenta present is thus extracted, along with 
carminamic (ammoniacal cochineal) and sulphindigotic acid. The 
colouring matters of logwood and of alkanet remain undissolved. 
"With a genuine wine the alkaline liquid takes a very faiut yellow, 
or greenish yellow tint. For the detection of magenta the filtrate 
is mixed with a few drops of acetic acid, and it is then shaken up 
with amylic alcohol. The magenta dissolves in this alcohol with a 
fine rose tint, and its presence is proved by spectroscopic examination. 


Carminaraic and sulphindigotic acids remain in the aqueous solution, 
and are decanted off. A couple of drops of sulphuric acid are added, 
and the mixture is again shaken up with amjlic alcohol, which now 
dissolves the ammoniacal cochineal. It may be detected by the 
spectroscope. The sulphindigotic acid remains undissolved in the 
amylic alcohol, and may be found in the blue aqueous residual 
liquor by means of the spectroscope. Logwood is most conveniently 
sought for in a fresh portion of the wine by digestion with a little 
precipitated carbonate of lime, adding a few drops of lime-water, 
and filtering. In a natural wine the filtrate has a faint greenish 
yellow colour, but if logwood is present it takes a fine red shade, 
and the absorption-bands of logwood may be detected with the 
spectroscope. On treating the lead precipitate above mentioned 
■with an alkaline sulphide, washing with boiling water, and then 
treating with alcohol, the colouring matter of alkanet, if present, is 
dissolved, and may be detected by spectroscopic examination . 

Sytnpus Maticae et Radicis Granati. M. Per ret. (Pharm. 
Zeitung,x-s.[., 733.) This preparation is very strongly recommended 
in diarrhoea, dysentery, and internal haemorrhage. It is prepared 
by infusing 20 grams of matico leaves, and 120 grams of pome- 
granate root bark, with 1200 grams of boiling water, allowing the 
infusion to stand in a covered vessel for twelve hours, then strain- 
ing, pressing, and heating the strained liquid with 2000 grams of 











Constitution and Ecles of the Conference. 

Alphabetical List of Membees' Names and Addresses. 

Alphabetical List of Towns at which Members Reside, 

Programme of Transactions of the Conference at Plymouth, 1877 ; in- 
cluding Titles of Papers. 

The Transactions of the Conference, including the Papers read and 
Discussions thereon. 

Geneeal Index to the Year-Book and Transactions. 

grtftslj Ijljurmutcuticul Conference. 


Art. I. Tliis Association shall he called The British Pharmaceutical Conference, and its 
objects shall be the following : — 

1. To hold an annual Conference of those engaged in the practice, or interested in the 

advancement, of Pharmacy, with the view of promoting their friendly reunion, and 
increasing their facilities for the cultivation of Pharmaceutical Science. 

2. To determine what questions in Pharmaceutical Science require investigation, and 

when practicable, to allot them to individuals or committees to report thereon. 
3 To maintain uncompromisingly the principle of purity in Medicine. 
4. To form a bond of union amongst the various associations established for the advance- 
ment of Pharmacy, by receiving from them delegates to the annual Conference. 
Art. II.— Membership iii the' Conference shall not be considered as conferring any guarantee 
of professional competency. 


1. Any person desiring to become a member of the Conference shall be nominated in 

writing by a member, and be balloted for at a general meeting of the members, two-thirds 
of the votes given being needful for his election. If the application be made during the 
recess, the Executive Committee may elect the candidate by a unanimous vote. 

2. The subscription shall be 7s. 6d. annually, which shall be due in advance upon .July 1. 

3. Any member whose subscription shall be more than two years in arrear, after written 
apphcation, shall be liable to be removed from the list by the Executive Committee. Members 
may be expelled for improper conduct by a majority of three-fourths of those voting at a 
general meeting, provided that fourteen days' notice of such intention of expulsion has 
been sent by the Secretaries to each member of the Conference. 

4. Every association established for the advancement of Pharmacy shall, during its 
recognition by the Conference, be entitled to send delegates to the annual meeting. 

5. The Officers of the Conference shall be a President, four Vice-presidents by election, 
the past Presidents (who shall be Vice-presidents), a Treasurer, two General Secretaries, one 
local Secretary, and nine other members, who shall collectively constitute the Executive 
Committee. Three members of the Executive Committee to retire annually by ballot, the 
remainder being eligible for re-election. They shall be elected at each annual meeting, by 
ballot of those present. 

6. At each Conference, it shall be determined at what place and time to hold that of the 
next year. 

7. Two members shall be elected by the Conference to audit the Treasurer's accounts, 
such audited accounts to be presented annually. 

8. The Executive Committee shall present a report of proceedings annually. 

9. These rates shall not be altered except at an annual meeting of the members. 

10. Reporis on subjects entrusted to individuals or committees for investigation shall be 
presented to a future meeting of the Conference, whose property they shall become. All 
reports shall be presented to the Executive Committee at least fourteen days before the 
annual meeting. 

*«* Authors are specially requested to send the titles of their Papers to either of the General 
Secretaries two or three weeks before the Annual Meeting. The subjects will then he eatensiveUj 
advertised, and thus full interest will be secured. 


I Nominate 



as a Member of the British Pharmaceutical Conference. 



The nomination must be legibly written, and forwarded to one of the Honorary General 
Secretaries, Prof. Attfieid, 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C, or F. Baden Bengeb, F.C.S., 
7, Exchange Street, Manchester, either of whom, or any other officer or member, wiU duly 
sign the paper. 

Pupils and Assistants, as weU as Principals, are invited to become members. 




Professor P. Wendover Bedford, College of Pharmacy, New York City, 
U.S.A., Corresponding Secretary of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, 278, Greenwich Street, New York. 

Professor L. A. Buchner, Munich. 

Senhor Joaquim Correa de Mello, Campinas, Brazil. 

M. Augustiu Ambroise Delondre, Membre de la Societe Botanique de 
France, de la Societe d'Acclimatation, Chevalier de I'Ordre Imperiale 
dela Rose (Bresil), etc., Rue des Juifs, 20, Paris. 

Professor Dragendorflf, Pharmaceutische Institut, Dorpat, Russia. 

Professor Albert E. Ebert, Corner of State and Twelfth Streets, Chicago, 
Illinois, U.S.A. 

Dr. John Baker Edwards, Ph.D., F.C.S., Box 3981, Post Office, 
Montreal, Dominion of Canada. 

Professor Friedrich August Fliickiger, Ph.D., Professor of Pharmacy, 
The University, Strassburg. 

Professor J. M. Maisch, 1607, Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia. 

Professor G. F. H. Markoe, Professor of Pharmacy in the Massachu- 
setts College of Pharmacy, U.S.A. 

Saunders, Mr. W., London, Ontario. 

Mr. Carlos Murray, Buenos Ayres. 

Dr. Carl Schacht, 56, Mittelstrasse, Berlin. 

Professor J. Leon Soubeiran, Ecole de Pharmacie, Montpellier, France, 
Secretaire de la Societe d'Acclimatation, Officier de I'Ordre Im- 
periale de la Rose (Bresil), Knight of the Royal Order of Charles 
the Third of Spain. 

Dr. E. R. Squibb, 56, Doughty Street, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 

Dr. J. E. de Vrij, the Hague. 

Professor E. S. Wayne, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. 



Abraham, Mr. J. S., George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Ambrosse, Mr. J. D. L., Corner of M'Gill and Notre Dame Streets, 
Montreal, Canada (Year-Books, per enclosure, Messrs. J. Campbell & 
Son, St. Bride Street, B.C., to Mr. W. Drysdale, Montreal). 
Alexander, Mr. J. L., Bathurst, New South Wales. 
Allen, Mr. C, 532, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book per 

Messrs. Maw, Son, & Thompson.) 
Atkinson, Mr. S., 18, Trinita di Monti, Kome (viii Belgium). 
Baker, Mr. G. S., Geneva. 
Baldwin, Mr. A. H., The Fort, Bombay (Year-Book, etc., to W. 

Colclough, Esq., 38a, King William Street, E.G. 
Beynon, Mr. E., Bycnlla, Bombay (care of G. Brownen, F.C.S., 143, 

New Bond Street, W.). 
Booth, Mr. C. W., 532, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book 

per Messrs. Maw, Son, & Thompson.) 
Brera, Mr. B., 16, Via Stella, Milan, Italy. 
Browne, Mr. M., Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. 
Bellemey, Mr. R. T., Warwick, Queensland (Year-Book, to Mr. Moses 

Ward, Druggist, Queen's Street, Brisbane). 
Burrell, Mr. J. C, 252, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book to 
Messrs. A. S. Hill, 10, Southwark Street, S.E. ; for enclosure to 
Mr. Senior, 252, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W.). 
Butterworth, Mr. H., Bathurst, New South Wales. 
Carter, Mr. A., 532, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book per 

Messrs. Maw, Son, & Thompson.) 
Catford, Mr. J. P. (Senor Don .lose D. Moron, Chemist), Arequipa, 

Peru (Letters, etc., Messrs. Sawers & Woodgates, Liverpool). 
Clark, Mr. W. L., Shanghai (Year-Book, etc., to Norton Villa, Midsomer 

Norton, Bath). 
Cleave, Mr. S. W., Shanghai (Letters, etc., to Messrs. Maw, Son, & 

Collins, J., F.B.S., Raffles' Museum, Singapore. 
Cox, Mr. S., West-End Dispensary, Cape Town. 
D'Albites, Mr. H. A., 532, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book 

per Messrs. Maw, Son, & Thompson.) 
Daji, Mr. Narayan (G.G.M.C., Bombay). Care of G. Brownen, F.C.S., 

143, New Bond Street, W, 
Dymock, W., M.D., Bombay. 

Eames, Mr. W. D., Regent Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Egan, Mr. Miles, Hyde Park Terrace, Sydney, N.S.W. 
English, Mr. J., (Messrs. Kempthorne, Prosser, & Co., Dunedin, New 

Finch, Mr. C. C, 216, Paramatta Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Fitzgibbon, Mr. J. H., Fortitude Valley, Brisbane (Year-Book, care of 

Mr. Moses Ward, Druggist, Queen's Street, Brisbane). 
Gopal, Mr. Pandurang (G.G.M.C., Byculla, Bombay). Care of G. 

Brownen, F.C.S. , 143, New Bond Street, W. 
Grayson, Mr. F., 149, Via Frattina, Rome. 
Green, Mr. G. E., 11, Malop Street, Geelong, Australia. 
Griffiths, Mr. H. W., 145, Main Street, Cambridge Port, Massachusetts, 

U.S.A. (Year-Book to Mr. Morris, 3a, Victoria Street, Merthyr). 
Groves, Mr. H., 15, Via Borgognissanti, Florence (Letters, etc., to Mr. 
T. B. Groves, Weymouth). 


Hallavrell, Mr. T., Rio Grande de Sul, Brazil (Letters, etc., to 10, College 

Lane, Liverpool.) 
Hamilton, Mr. J., Recent Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Hortou, Mr. R., 252, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book to 

Messrs. A. S. Hill & Co., 101, Southwark Street, S.E. ; for enclosure 

to Mr. Senior, 252, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W.). 
Hughes, Mr. J., Corner of Elizabeth and Devonshire Streets, Sydney, 

N. S.W. 
Hustwick, Mr. T. H., Blenheim, New Zealand. 
Jackson, Dr. H. W., Svdnev, New South Wales. 
Jackson, Mr. W. H., 252, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book 

to Messrs. A. S. Hill & Co., 101, Southwark Street ; for enclosure to 

Mr. Senior, 252, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W.). 
Jenkins, T. E., M.D., corner Third and Walnut Streets, Louisville, 

Kentucky, U.S.A. 
Kemp, Mr. D. S., 5, Elphinstone Circle, Bombay (Letters, etc., to Mr. 

W. B. Davis, 106, Leadenhall Street, E.C.). 
Kinch, E., F.C.S., Agricultural College, Home Department, Tokio, 

Leslie, Mr. J., Port Elizabeth, Cape of Good Hope. 
Long, Mr. M. H., Sydney, New South Whales. 
Luscombe, Mr. R, J., Muswellbrook, N.S.W. 
Mclntyre, Mr. E., 874, Broadway, New York. 
Mercer, Mr. N., Notre Dame Street, Montreal 
Meyler, Henry, M.D. , Winchelsea, Victoria, Australia. 
Mills, Mr. W.", Sydney, N.S.W. (Letters, etc., to Mr. G. Harvie, Princes 

Street, Helensburgh). 
Morel, Dr. J., 1, Rue Courte des Violettes, Gand, Belgium. 
Osley, Mr. H. L., Palermo (Letters, &c., to Mr. C. S. OKley, Calder 

Farm, Mirfield, Yorks). 
Parker, Mr. J., jun., Anson Street, Orange, N.S.W. 
Pedler, Prof. A., l-la, Sudder Street, Chowringhee Road, Calcutta. 
Petit, Monsieur A., Rue Favart, 8, Paris. 
Penney, Mr. H, , Paramatta Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Plimnier, Mr. W. T., L.H.C.L., Fort, Bombay (Letters, etc., to Messrs. 

Treacher & Co., 38a, King William Street, *E.C. 
Pollard, Mr. W. H. (Messrs. Symes &: Co., Simla, India). 
Pond, Mr. J. A., 63, Queen Street, Auckland, New Zealand (Letters, etc., 

to Mr. Pond, New Park Road, Brixton Hill, S.W.). 
Potts, Mr. H. W., Brisbane (Year-Book, care of Mr. Moses Ward, 

Druggist, Queen's Street, Brisbane). 
Power, Mr. J. B., Brisbane (Year-Book, care of Mr. Moses Ward, 

Druggist, Queen's Street, Brisbane). 
Pratt, Mr. W., 519, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Letters, etc., to 

Messrs. Maw, Sou, & Thompson. 
Purcell, Mr. T. F., 532, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book, 

per Messrs. Maw, Son, & Thompson). 
Kammell, Mr. E. (Messrs. Treacher & Co. , Bombay), Letters, etc. , to 

38a, King William Street, E.C. 
Eeeler, Mr. J. W., 36, Adderley Street, Cape Town (Year-Book to Messrs. 

Burgoyne, Burbidge, & Co., for enclosure). 
Richardson, Mr. R., 252, George Street, Sydney (Year-Book to Messrs. 

A. J. Hill & Son, 101, Southwark Street, S.E. ; for enclosure to Mr. 

F. Senior, 252, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W.). 
Rogers, Mr. H. (Messrs. Rogers & Co.), Bombay. 
Row, Mr. Warren Elfe, Balmain, Sydney, N.S.W. (Letters, etc., to 

Messrs. Johnson & Archer, 147, Fenchurch Street.) 
Ruttonjc-e, Mr. Horrausjee, Bombay (Letters, Messrs. J. Mackinlay & 

Co., 29, St. Vincent Place, Glasgow). For address to which to send 

Year-Book write M. & Co., annually. 


Sadler, Mr. H. W., 226, William Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 

Samuel, Mr. J. B., Mussoorie, India (Letters, etc., to Messrs. Allen & 

Hanburys, Plough Court, E.G.) 
Saunders, Mr. E. C. , 281, Maine Street, Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A. 
Sequiera, Mr. E. C, Rio Grande de Sul, Brazil (Letters, etc., to 

Mr. J. C. Sequiera, Hawthorn Terrace, Pendleton, Manchester). 
Smith, Dr. J., Livei'pool Asylum, N.S.W. (Letters, etc., to Messrs. 

Lonf;mans, Green, Ryder & Co., 30, Paternoster Row). 
Speechley, Mr. E., Karachi (Mr. J. D. Adcock, Alcester). 
Spooner, Mr. F., 259, Pitt Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Stapleton, Mr. Thos., Paramatta, N.S.W. (Year-Book to be sent to 

Messrs. Burgoyne & Burbidges; for enclosui-e to Mr. N. Weekes). 
Tavlor, Mr. A. M., 5, Rampart Row, Bombay (Yeai'-Book to Messrs. 

Aldridge & Co., Leadenhall Street, E.G.). 
Tavlor, Mr. W.G. (G.G.M.G., Fort, Bombay), careof G. Brownen, F.C.S., 

143, New Bond Street, W. 
Thibon, Blons. Denis, 6, Rue de Pont Neuf, Nice, France. 
Thompson, Mr. G. B., 17, Court Street, Buffalo, U.S.A. 
Thompson, Mr. G. B., 5, Rampart Row, Bombay (Year-Book to Messrs. 

Aldridge & Co., Leadenhall Street, E.G. 
Turner, Mr. J. C., 532, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book 

per Messrs. Maw, Son, & Thompson. 
Verge, Prof. C., M.D., Leval University, Quebec. 
Ward, Mr. M., Queen Street, Brisbane, Queensland. 
Watkins, Mr. R., Timarn, Canterburv, New Zealand (Letters, etc., to 

Mr. J. Wade, 194, Warwick Street," Pimlico, S.W.). 
Watson, Mr. S., Calcutta (Year-Book to G. Brownen, F.C.S., 143, New 

Bond Street, W.). 
Watts, Mr. A. J., 532, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. (Year-Book 

per Messrs. Maw, Son, & Thompson. 
Weekes, Mr. N., 219, Pitt Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Whitford, Mr. H. F., Grafton, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Wills, J. L.. F.G.S., Piedimielera, Val d'Ossola, Italy. 
Wiltshire, T. P., F.G.S., Room 8, 271, Broadway, New York. 
Wood, C. H., F.C.S., Government Cinchona Plantations, Rnngbee, 
near Dai^feeling and Calcutta, India (Letters, etc. , to Mr. Baldock, 3, 
High Street, S. Norwood, S.E.). 
Woodward, C. M., M.D., Chicago Street, Tecumseh, Michigan, U.S.A. 
Woolcott, Mr. H. W., Paramatta, N.S.W. (Year-Book to be sent to 

Messrs. Burgoyne & Burbidges ; for enclosure to Mr. N. Weekes. 
Wright, Mr. G. E., Hill End, N.S.W. (Lettere, Year-Book, etc., to be 
sent to address of H. Butterworth, care of Lynch & Co., 171a, Alders- 
gate Street, E.G.). 
Zambeletti, Sig. L., 5, Piazza San Carlo, Milan, Italy. 


Members iv'dl please report any inaccuracies in these lists 

Pkofessor Attfibld, Hon. Gen. Sec, 

17, Bloomsbu7-i/ Square, 

Lraclon, W.G. 



For Alphabetical List of Towns, see page 391.| 

Abbott, Mr. J., 145, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, 

Abraham, Mr. J. , 87, Bold Street, Liverpool. 

Abram, Mr. F. W., Market Place, East Dereham, Norfolk. 

Ackerman, Mr. T., 39, Redcliff Hill, Bristol. 

Adam, Mr. T., 440, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

Adams, Mr. A. A., Woolston, Southampton. 

Adams, Mr. F., Stoke-on-Trent. 

Adams, Mr. J. H., Stoke-on-Trent. 

Adams, Mr. R. W., Park Place, Dover. 

Adlingtou, Mr. W. B., 6, Weymouth Street, Portland Plac«, W. 

Agar, Mr. W. , Westgate, Mansfield. 

Ainslie, Mr. W., 58, George Street, Edinburgh. 

Aitken, Mr. J., 44, Broughton Street, Edinburgh. 

Aitken, Mr. R., 338, Oxford Street, W. 

Alcock, Mr. H., Market Street, Tunstall, Staffs. 

Alexander, Mr. J., 81, Athol Street, Liverpool. 

AUanson, Mr. C, Montpelier Parade, Low Harrogate, 

Allatt, Mr. F. T., Frizington. 

Allchin, Mr. A., England House, Primrose Hill Road, N.W, 

Allen, A. H., F.C.S^, 1, Surrev Street, Sheffield. 

Allen, C. A., M.D., M.R.C.S.L., L.M., L.A.H., 52, South Richmond 

Street, Dublin. 
Allen, Mr. W. H., 108, Patrick Street, Cork, 
Allen, Mr. W. H., 3, Liverpool Terrace, Canning Town, Essex. 
Allis, Mr. F., 137, High Street, Tewkesbury. 
Allison, Mr. E., 13, Blanket Row, Hull. 
Amoore, Mr. A. S., 173, Sloane Street, S,W. 
Amos, Mr. D., 1, Parade, Canterbury. 
Amyot, T. E., F.R.C.S., Diss. 
Anderson, Mr. A. B., 38, Princes Street, Dundee. 
Anderson, Mr. D. S., Forfar, N.B. 
Anderson, Mr. E. H., Denny, Stirlingshire. 
Anderson, Mr. H. D., Park House, Guernsey. 
Andrews, Mr. F., 23, Leinster Terrace, W, 
Anholm, Dr, A., 11, Smeaton Street, Hull. 
Appleby, Mr. C. , Market Place, East Retford. 
Appleby, Mr. E. J., 8, Argyle Street, Bath. 
Applegate, Mr. E., 5, Hercules Terrace, Holloway Road, N. 
Appleyard, Mr. R., 50, Park Lane, Bradford. 
Arblaster, Mr. C. J., 40a, New Street, Birmingham. 
Archbold, Dr. G., Messrs. Hill & Underwood, Norwich, 
Archer, Mr. A., Ridge way, near Chesterfield. 
Archer, Mr. J., Lechlade, Gloucestershire. 
Archer, Mr. J. S., Guiseley, Leeds, 

Archer, Prof. T. C, Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, 
Archibald, Mr. G. T.,56, Low Church Street, Workington. 
Armitage, Mr. E. H., Dartford. 

Armitage, Mr. G., 30, Hamilton Street, Greenock, N.B. 
Armstrong, Prof., H, E,, F,R.S., London Institution, Finsbury Circus, 

Armstrong, Mr. J., Newgate Street, Bishop Auckland, 
Arnold, Mr. S., Mount Ephraim, Tunbridge Wells. 


Arnold, Mr. A., Commercial Arcade, Guernsey. 

Arundel, Mr. M. H., 9, Mildmay Park, N. 

Ashton, Mr. W., 36, Sloane Square, Chelsea, S.W. 

Ashton, Mr. W. , 77, Lord Street, Southport, Lancashire. 

Ashworth, Mr. T., Brierfield-in-little-Marsden, near Burnley, Lanes. 

Aspinall, Mr. J., Whitworth, near Rochdale. 

Asquith, Mr. W. C, Market Street, Colne. 

Astin, Mr. E., 114, Abbey Street, Accrington. 

Astley, Mr. J., 4, Broadgate, Coventry. 

Atherton.J. H., F.C.S., Nottingham, 

Atkins, Mr. S. R., Market Place, Sahsbury. 

Atkins, Mr. T. W., High Street, Poole, Dorset. 

Atkins, Mr. W. R., The Mount, Elm Grove, Salisbury. 

Atkins, Mr. W. S., 106, Broad Street, Birmingham. 

Atkinson, Mr. J., Tynemouth, Northumberland. 

Atkinson, Mr. L., 121, Greenwich Road, S.E. 

Atmore, Mr. G., High Street, King's Lynn, Norfolk. 

Attenborough, Mr. H. R., Address unknown. 

Attfield, Prof. J., Ph.D., F.C.S., 17, Bloomsbury Square, "W.C. 

Attwood, Mr. A., 147, Cannon Street, E.C. 

Ault, Mr. J., Eastwood, Notts. 

Austin, Mr. H. F., 126, Bermondsey Street, S.E, 

Babtie, Mr. J., Dumbarton. 

Backhouse, Mr. H. N., 76, New Bond Street, W. 

Bagnall, Mr. W. H., 7, New Street, Lancaster. 

Bagshaw, Mr. W., 37, Terrace Buildings, Yorkshire Street, Oldham. 

Baigent, Mr. W. H., Chfton Road, Shefford, Beds. 

Baildon, Mr. H. B., 73, Princes Street, Edinburgh. 

BaHdon, Mr. H. C, 73, Princes Street, Edinburgh. 

Bailey, Mr. J. B., 9, Coley Hill, Reading. 

Bailey, Mr. J. H., 3, Morniugton Terrace, Wanstead, E. 

Bailey, Mr. J. T., Thornton, near Bradford. 

Bailey, Mr. W. , Horseley Fields Chemical Works, Wolverhampton. 

Baily, Mr. J., 1.56, Clapham Road, S.W. 

Baine, Mr. J. A., 9, West Blackball Street, Greenock. 

Baker, Mr. C. P., High Street, Chelmsford. 

Baker, Mr. F. , Harnet Street, Sandwich. 

Baker, Mr. G., High Street, Cosham, Hants. 

Baker, Mr. P. C, Magdalen Street, Norwich. 

Baker, W., F.C.S., 46, High Street, Sheffield. 

Balch, Mr. E., 25, Queen Street, Ramsgate. 

Balchin, Mr. E. S., 135, Penton Place, Newington Butts, S.E. 

Balcomb, Mr. J., 10, Suffolk Parade, Cheltenham. 

Baldock, J. H., F.L.S., F.C.S., 3, High Street, South Norwood, S.E. 

BalkwiU, Mr. A. P., 106, Old Town Street, Plymouth. 

Ball, A., M.R.C.S., St. Leonards, York. 

Ball, Mr. E., 1, Spring Gardens, Buxton. 

Ball, Dr. T., Belfast. 

Ball, Mr. W., 65, Russell Street, Landport. 

Balls, Mr. G., 189, High Street, Deptford, S.E. 

Baly, Mr. J., 40, High Street, Warwick. 

Bamford, Mr. J. W., 37, Cronkeyshaw Road, Rochdale. 

Bancks, Mr. A., Guisbro', Yorks. 

Banfield, Mr. H. W., 5, Lower Clapton Road, E. 

Bannerman, Mr. C. A., Market Square, Lytham, Lanes. 

Bannister, R., F.C.S., F.R.M.S., Inland Revenue Laboratory, Somerset 

House, W.C. 
Bannister, Mr. W., 108, Patrick Street, Cork. 
Barber, Mr. G., 27, Botanic Road, Liverpool. 


Barclay, Mr. T., 17, Bull Street, Birmingham. 

Barker, Mr. C. D., 51, Wliite Ladies' Road. Cliftou, Bristol. 

Barker, Mr. R., 2, Meadow Place, Mold, Flint. 

Barker, Mr. W. R., 143, New Bond Sti-eet, W. 

Barnard, Mr. J., 338, Oxford Street, W. 

Barnes, Mr. B.. 57, St. Peter's Street, Derby. 

Barnes, J. B., F.C.S., 1, Trevor Terrace, Princes Gate, W. 

Barnett, I\Ir. A., 5, The Colonnade, Buxton, Derbyshire. 

Barnitt, Mr. F., Old Bond Street, Bath. 

Barnitt, Mr. J., 8G, The Parade, Leamington. 

Barr, Mr. R., Gourock, N.B. 

Barraclough, Mr. T., Roscoe Terrace, Chapcltown Road, Leeds. 

Barret, Mr. E. L., 53, Springfield Road, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

Barrett, F. J., F.C.S., Messrs. Wyley's & Co., Coventry. 

Barrett, Mr. T. G., Church Street, Ilchester. 

Barron, Mr. F., 1, Bush Lane, E.C. 

Barron, Mr. W., 37, Winchcomb Street, Cheltenham. 

Bartle, Mr. W. F., il, Blackfriars Road, S.E. 

Barton, Mr. A., Campbeltown, Argyleshire. 

Barton, Mr. A. F. G., 115, Edge Lane, Liverpool. 

Barton, Mr. H. E., High Street, Kenilworth. 

Barton, Mr. H., 77, King's Road, Brighton. 

Barton, Mr. S. W., Nevill Street, Southport. 

Bascombe, Mr. F., 172, New Bond Street, W. 

Bassett, Mr. C, Taff Street, Pontypridd. 

Batchelor, Mr. C, 90, West Street, Fareham, Hants. 

Bateman, Mr. T. H., 5, The Pavement, Forest Hill, S.E, 

Bates, Mr. J., 214, High Street, Deritend, Birmingham. 

Bates, Mr. J., Wellington, Salop. 

Bates, Mr. W. I., 116, Mill Street, Macclesfield. 

Bateson, Mr. T., 23, Stricklandgate, Kendal. 

Bathe, Mr. R. S., 7, Lower Terrace, Notting Hill, W. 

Bathgate, Mr.- W. L., 23, Canning Place, Liverpool. 

Battersby, Mr. S., Cheapside, Lancaster. 

Batting, "Mr. T. G., 98, The New Parade, Calveriey Road, Tunbridge 

Baxter, Mr. G., 13, Foregate Street, Chester. 
Bayley, Mr. G. H., 12, Victoria Road, Saltaire, near Leeds. 
Bayley, Mr. J. T., Brownhills, near Walsall. 

Baynes, J., F.C.S., Laboratory, Royal Chambers, Scale Lane, Hull. 
Beach, Mr. J., Bridport. 
Beal, Mr. E. J., Ilford. 

Beamish, Mr. G. P., Ditchley, Little Island, Cork. 
Beanland, Mr. S., 11, Arctic Parade, Great Horton, Bradford, Yorks. 
Beardslev, Mr. J., Nottinghanr. 

Beaumout, Mr. C. F. J. B., 1, High Street, Chislehurst, S.E. 
Beetham, Mr. M. , 7, Promenade Villas, Cheltenham. 
Belfield, Mr. W., 267, Stamford Street, Ashton-under-Lyne. 
Bell, Mr. C. B., 6, Spring Bank, Hull. 
Bell, Mr. F.. 36, Tvrrel Street, Bradford. 
Bell, Mr. F. E., Tow Law. 

Bell, Mr. F. R., Sussex Street, Middlesboro-on-Tees. 
Bell, Mr. G., Market Place, Hexham. 
Bell, Mr. J. A., Ashton, near Preston. 
Bell, Mr. R. E., 161, East Street, Walworth, S.E. 
Bell, Mr. T., Ambleside. 

Bell, Mr. W., Victoria Villa, Padford Road, Leamington. 
Bell, Mr. W. H., 96, Albany Street, N.W. 
Bellamy, Mr. R., Bedale. 
Bellerby, Mr. M., 25, Shield Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 


Beuger, F. B., F.C.S., 7, Exchange Street, Manchester. 
Bennet, Mr. J. D., Address unknown. 
Bennett, Mr. G., 10, Bridge Street, York. 
Bennett, Mr. H., 112, Upper George Street, Kingstown. 
Bennett, Mr. J., 14, Waterloo Road, Widnes, near Warrington. 
Bennett, Mr. R., 3, Kin? Street, Sheffield. 
Bennett, Mr. S., TunstiU, North Staffs. 

Benson, J. L.. Ph.D., 115, West Parade, off Spring Bank, Hull. 
Bentlev, Prof. R., F.L.S., 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 
Bernays, Dr. A. J., F.C.S., St. Thomas's Hospital, S.E. 
Berry, Mr. E., Tlie Cross, Gloucester. 
Berry, Mr. T., 189, Henshaw Street, Oldham. 
Berry, Mr. W., 15, Albert Villas, Gotham, Bristol. 
Best, T. F., F.C.S., 66, Aldersgate Street, E.G. 
Betty, Mr. S. G., 1, Park Street, Gamden Town, N.W. 
Bevan, Mr. G. F., Church Street, Harwich. 
Bibbings, Mr. J. H., Aqua Villa, Manning's Hill, Newton Abbot. 
Bickerdike, W. E., F.C.S., Surbiton Place, Preston New Road, Black- 
Bicknell, Mr. W., 97, Ebury Street, Pimlico, S.W. 
Biddiscombe, Mr. G., 60, St. James's Place, Plumstead, S.E. 
Bienvenu, Mr. J., Southampton. 
Biffin, Mr. T., 156, Clapham Road, S.W. 
Billing, Mr. T., 86, King's Road, Brighton. 
Billington, Mr. F., 127, Wavertree Road, Liverpool. 
Bindloss, Mr. G. F., 97, Leighton Road, N.W. 
Bing, Mr. E., 41, George's Street, Canterbury. 
Bingley, Mr. J., Northampton. 
Binnie, Mr. R., 1.37, High Street, Dumbarton, N.B. 
Birch, Mr. H. C, 7, Church Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 
Bird, Mr. A., Wood Lane, Shepherd's Bush, W. 
Bird, Mr. W. L., 10, Alexandra Villas, Uxbridge Road, Acton, W. 
Birkett, Mr. J., 16, The Crescent, Morecambe, Lanes. 
Bishop, Mr. A., Specksfields, Booth Street, E. 
Bishop, Mr. W. B., Specksfields, Booth Street, E. 
Bishop, Mr. W. M., 233, High Street, Lincoln. 
Blabey, Mr. J. J., AUerton Road, Woolton, near Liyeq^ool. 
Black, Mr. J., 7, Bothwell Circus, Glasgow. 
Blackhurst, Mr. W. S., Poulton Street, Kirkham. 
Blackshaw, Mr. T., 35, Market Place, Burslem. 
Blades, Mr. F.. 10, Gloucester Road, W. 
Bladon, Mr. W. G., Blackmore House, Malvern Wells. 
Blagmire, Mr. T. C, 2, St. Ann's Square, Manchester. 
Blain, Mr. A. H., 341, Upper Parliament Street, Liverpool. 
Blain, Mr. W., Market Street, Bolton. 
Blair, Mr. R. P., 230, South Street, Perth. 
Bland, Mr. H.. 33, Newborough Street, Scarborough. 
Bland, Mr. J. H., 75, High Street, Stourbridge. 
Blankley, Mr. W., Arnold, Nottingham. 
Blanshard, Mr. G., Smith's Place, Edinburgh. 
Blatchley, Mr. T., Yeadon, Yorks. 
Blelock, Mr. G. J., Bridge Street, Chester. 
Bletsoe, Mr. .!., 124, Southampton Row, W.C. 
Blood, Mr. C, Formbv, Lancashire. 
Bluett, Mr. W. R., 237, Amherst Road, Hackney, E. 
Blyton, Mr. .J., 43, Heywood Street, Cheetham, Manchester. 
Bolam, Mr. J., 38, Northumberland Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Bollans, Mr. E., Leamington. 
Bolton. Mr. C. A.. 1. Goosegate, Nottingham. 
Bond, J. K., B.A., F.L.S., 42, Park Street, Plymouth. 

A A 


Boor, Mr. F., Fallowfield, Manchester. 

Boorue, Mr. C, Union Street, Bristol. 

Booth, Mr. J., 5, Darwen Street, Blackburn. 

Booth, Mr. J., Elmfield, Rochdale. 

Booth, Mr. J., Heckmondwike. 

Booth, Mr. R., Parhament Row, Hanley. 

Booth, Mr. W. G., 30, Swan Street, Manchester. 

Booth, W. H., M.R.C.S., St. James's Street, Sheffield. 

Borland, Mr. J., 7, King Street, Kilmarnock. 

Bordass, Mr. J., Market Place, Driffield, Yorks. 

Borthwick, Mr. A. J., Market Place, Selkirk. 

Borrett, Mr. H., Harleston, Norfolk. 

Bostock, Mr. W., Sylvester House, Ashton-onder-Lyne. 

Botham, Mr. G., Medical Hall, Levenshulme. 

Botham, Mr. J., 180, Bury New Road, Manchester. 

Botham, Mr. W., 19, Old Haymarket, Sheffield. 

Bottle, A., F.C.S., Townwall Street, Dover. 

Bottrill. Mr. G. T., 208, Freeman Street, Grimsby, Lines. 

Boucher, Mr. J., Union Street, Bristol. 

Bourdas, Mr. I., 7, Pont Street, S.AV. 

Bourdas, Mr. I., jun., 48, Belgrave Road, S.W. 

Bowden, Mr. W., 76, Liverpool Road, Patricroft, Lancashire. 

Bowker, Mr. W. , 20, Manor Street, Bolton. 

Bowles, Mr. W. J., 3, Newland Terrace, Kensington Road, W. 

Bowling, Mr. J. H., 1, Dimond Street, Pembroke Dock. 

Boyce, Mr. G., Chertsey. 

Bovce, Mr. J. P., Peascod Street, Windsor. 

Braby, F., F.C.S., F.G.S., M.R.I., Mount Henley, Sydenham Hill, S.E. 

Braddock, Mr. H., 33, Queen's Road, Oldham. 

Bradley, Mr. F., 17, Cross Street, Shepherdess Walk, N. 

Bradley, Mr. T. D., 2, Allestree Villas, Derwent Grove, Dulwich, S.E. 

Bradshaw, Mr. J. , Adlington, near Chorley, Lancashire. 

Brady, Mr. A., 29, Mosley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Bradv. H. B., F.R.S., 29, Mosley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Braithwaite, Sir. J. C, 38, Gloucester Street, N.W. 

Branson, Mr. F. W. , 1, Eversfield Place, St. Leonard"s-on-Sea. 

Bravshay, Mr. T., 38, High Street, Stockton-on-Tees. 

Brayshay, Mr. W. B., 38, High Street, Stockton-on-Tees. 

Brearey, Mr. W. A., Prospect Hill, Douglas, Isle of Man. 

Breeze, Mr. G., 36, Catherine Street, Devonport. 

Bremner, Mr. J., Buckie, Banffshire, N.B. 

Bremridge, Mr. R. , 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Brevitt, Mr. W. Y., Darlington Street, Wolverhampton. 

Brewster, Mr. W., Market Place, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Bridgmau, Mr. W. L., St. Mary Church, Torquay. 

Brierley, Mr. J., 23, Bridge Street, Burton-on-Trent. 

Bright, Mr. R., 29, Broad Bridge Street, Peterboro. 

Brightmore, Mr. W., 237, Maida Vale, W. 

Broad, Mr. J., Rise House, Hornsey Rise, N. 

Broad, Mr. J. M., Rise House, Hornsey Rise, N. 

Brockbank, Mr. E.. Settle. 

Brockett, Mr. R. H., 41, Northumberland Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Brodie, Mr. R., 253, Crown Street, Glasgow. 

Brook, Mr. R., 11, Silver Street, Halifax. 

Brooke, Mr. C, 5a, Walcot Street, Bath. 

Brooke, Mr. T., Aire Street, Leeds. 

Brookes, Mr. F. J. 

Brooks, Mr. C, 355, Wandsworth Road, S.W. 

Broom, Mr. G., Llanelly, Carmarthenshire. 

Broughton, Mr. A., 99, Meadow Lane, Leeds. 


Brown, Mr. A. H., Slianklin, I. of W. 

Brown, Mr. A. J., 55, Trafalgar Terrace, Greenwich, S.E. 

Brown, Mr. D., 93, Abbey Hill, Edinburgh. 

Brown, Mr. E., 66, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds. 

Brown, Mr. E. \V., Thrapstone, Northamptonshire. 

Brown, Mr. G., Sandown, Isle of Wight. 

Brown, Mr. G. B., 48, Church Street, Sheffield. 

Brown, Mr. H., 40, Aldersgate Street, E.G. 

Brown, Mr. H. F., 3, Princess Road, South Norwood, S.E. 

Brown, Mr. J., 187, Mill Street, Great Ancoats, Manchester. 

Brown, Mr. J. F., 4, Market Square, Dover. 

Brown, Mr. R. D., Loose Hill, Loose, near Maidstone, Kent. 

Brown, Mr. W. B., 100, Fishergate, Preston, Lanes. 

Brown, Mr. W. S., 113, Market Street, Manchester. 

Brown, BIr. W. H., 83, Tyne Street, North Shields. 

Browueu, G., F.C.S., 6, Althorpe Road, Wandsworth Common, London, 

Bryant, Mr. R. W., Alford, Lines. 
Buchanan, Mr. J., 52, North Bridge, Edinburgh. 
Buchanan, Dr. T. D., 24, Westminster Terrace, Glasgow. 
Buck, Mr. J. M., 179, Bedford Street South, Liverpool. 
Buck, Mr. R. C, 192, Breck Road, Liverpool. 
Buckett, Mr. A. H., 16, Market Place, Penzance, Cornwall. 
Buckle, Mr. C. F., 77, Gray's Inn Road, W.C. 
Buckley, Mr. R. C, Todmorden. 
Bulgiu, Mr. W., New Koad, Gravesend. 
Bull, Mr. B., High Street, Royston, Herts. 
BuUen, Mr. T., 13, Hereford Road, Bayswater, W. 
Bullock, Mr. F., 5, Hawkhurst Terrace, Anerley Road, Auerley. 
Bullock, J. L., F.C.S., 3, Hanover Street, W. 
Bulmer, Mr. T. P., 4, Low-Ousegate, York. 
Burch, Mr. W., High Street, West Bromwich. 
Burden, Mr. E. M., 38, Duke Street, Grosveno; Square, W. 
Burdon, Mr. J., Claypath, Durham. 
Burdwood, Mr. J., 30, Frankfort Street, Plymouth. 
Burgess, Mr. R., Winsford, Cheshire. 
Burkinshaw, Mr. W. T., Belper, Derbyshire. 
Burlinson, Mr. T., Central Hall, Sunderland. 
Burn, Mr. D. H., High Street, Arbroath. 
Burns, Mr. W., 109, High Street, Ayr, N.B. 
Bun-ell, Mr. G., 116, High Street, Montrose. 
Burrows, Mr. H. C.,29, Leadenhall Street, Leicester. 
Burt, Mr. G. E., 76, York Place, Westminster, S.W. 
Burt, Mr. J., 61, Montague Street, Worthing. 
Burton, Mr. J. D., 397, Cambridge Road, E. 
Burton, Mr. S., 10^, High Cross Street, Leicester. 
Bury, Mr. J., 9, King Street, Manchester. 
Busby, Mr. H. H., 1, High Street, Dulwich Road, Penge, S.E. 
Busby, Mr. J., Harpenden, Herts. 
Bush, Mr. T., Paulton, near Bristol. 
Bushby, Mr. T.. 41, Stockport Road, Manchester. 
Butler, Mr. E. H., Humberstone Gate, Leicester. 
Butler, Mr. J., jun.. Great Bridge, Tipton. 
Butt, E. N., F.C.S., 13, Curzon Street, VV. 
Butterworth, Mr. A., 37, Wakefield Road, Bradford, Yorks. 

Caley, Mr. A. J., Bedford Street. Norwich. 
Callaway, Mr. L., Ipswich. 

Calvert, Mr. R., Market Cross, Stokesley, Yorks. 
Campbell, Mr. G. W., Commercial Square, Leyburn. 


Campbell, Mr. J., 127, Main Street, Glasgow. 

Canning, Mr. W., Great Hampton Street, Birmingham. 

Cardwell, Mr. E., Market Street, Lancaster. 

Cardwell, Mr. E. (Mr. Lang, Kirkdale, Sydenham, S.E.) 

Cardwell, Mr. J., Wakefield. 

Carlton, Mr. W. P., 8, High Street, Horncastle. 

Carnegie, Mr. W., 108, Patrick Street, Cork. 

Carr, Mr. W., 170, Wharf Street, Leicester. 

Carr, Mr. W. G., High Street, Berwick-on-Tweed. 

Carran, Mr. T., Peel, Isle of Man. 

Carruthers, Mr. E. B., 1(5, Bradshaw St., Moss Lane East, Manchester. 

Carteighe, M., F.C.S., 172, New Bond Street, W. 

Carter, Mr. W., 2, Union Terrace, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 

Cartwright, Mr. W., Ironmarket, Newcastle-under-Lyne. 

Cassels, Mr. T., Bloomgate, Lanark, N.B. 

Caunt, Mr. W. F., Penny's Lane, Northwich. 

Caw, Mr. J., Cupar, Fife", N.B. 

Cawdell, Mr. G., 12, London Street, Hyde Park, W. 

Challice, Mr. W. G. W., 34, Villiers Street, Strand, W.C. 

Challinor, Mr. M., 25, Market Street, Bolton. 

Challinor, Mr. S. M., 35, Deansgate, IBolton. 

Chamberlain, Mr. W., Downton, near Salisbury, Wilts. 

Chambers, Mr. J., Eastwood, Notts. 

Chaplin, Mr. J. L., Cornmarket, Wakefield, Yorks. 

Chapman, Mr. H., Marine House, Clevedou. 

Chapman, Mr. R. J., Chipping Ongar, Essex. 

Charity, Mr. W., 50, Lime Street, E.G. 

Chater, Mr. E. M., 129, High Street, Watford. 

Cheese, Mr. H., Coleford, Gloucestershire. 

Chellew, Mr. W. D., 79, Lord Street, Livei-pool. 

Chessall, Mr. R., Fore Street, Sidmouth. 

Cheverton, G., F.C.S., The Broadway, Tunbridge Wells. 

Chifney, G. J., F.C.S., High Street, Mildenhall, Suffolk. 

Chignell, Mr. A., Havant, Hants. 

Chipperfield, Mr. R. , 50, Oxford Street, Southampton. 

Chrispin, W., F.C.S., Villa Place, Thirsk, Yorkshire. 

Church, Prof. A. H., M.A., F.C.S., The Laboratory, Royal Agricultural 

College, Cirencester. 
Church, Mr. H. J., Cambridge. 
Church, Mr. J., 193, Brixton Road, S.W. 
Churchill, Mr. H., 1, High Street, Lower Norwood, S.E. 
Churchouse, Mr. W. B., Medical Hall, Chard. 
Clapham, Mr. J., Wade Lane, Leeds. 

Clapham, Mr. J. W., junr.. Oak House, Meamwood Road, Leeds. 
Clapp, Mr. E. F., 35, Church Street, Stoke Newington, N. 
Clarabut, Mr. J. B., 170, Lower Street, Deal. 
Clark, Mr. E., Market Street, Lancaster. 
Clark, Mr. J., Melbourne Terrace, York. 
Clark, Mr. J., Portsoy, Banffshire, N.B. 

Clark, Mr. J. A., 11, Duncan Place, London Fields, Hackney, E. 
Clark, Mr. J. W., Belvoir Street, Leicester. 
Clark, Mr. R. J., 77, Old Town Street, Plymouth. 
Clark, Mr. S. P., Cambusland, N.B. 
Clark, Mr. W. G., 14, Commercial Street, Leeds. 
Clarke, Mr. A. H., Crown Hill, Croydon. 
Clarke, Mr. G. B., 3, High Street, Woburn. 
Clarke, Mr. I., 45, Blanket Row, Hull. 
Clarke, Mr. J. A., 132, London Street, Glasgow. 
Clarke, Mr. .J. T., 20, Great Clowes Street, Lower Broughton. 
Clarke, Mr. R. F., 11, Strand, Torquay. 



Clarke, Mr. T., 19, Market Place, Stockport. 

Clarke, Mr. T. M., 50, George Street, Richmond, Surrey. 

Clarke, Mr. W., 153, High Street, Stocktoa-on-Tees. 

Clayiiole, BIr. A. H., York Town, Farnborough Station, Surrey. 

Clavton, Mr. F. C, 18, Wheeleys Lane, Birmingham. 

Clayton, Mr. W., 41, Wicker, Sheffield. 

Cleave, Mr. W., Chudleigh. 

Cleaver, E. L., F.C. S., 1, Devonshire Ter., Marloes Road, Kensington, W. 

Clews, Mr. E. J., 35, Darlington Street, Wolverhampton. 

Cliflbrd, Mr. T. A., 3, Kildare Terrace, Westbourne Park, W. 

Clift, Mr. E., Lee Bridge, Lewisham, S.E. 

Clift, Mr. H., 25, Chilworth Street, W. 

Clift, Mr. J., Dorking. 

Clifton, Mr. F., 34, Corn Market, Derby. 

Clifton, Mr. G. F., 45, Fleet Street, Bury, Lanes. 

Glough, Mr. J., 11, High Street, Northwich. 

Coates, Mr. A., King Street, Bakewell. 

Coates, Mr. J. M. , 53, Clayton Street East, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Cocher, Mr. J., 3, St. James Street, Kings Lynn. 

Cocking, Mr. F. J. , 10, Wellington Street, Teignmouth. 

Cocks, Mr. J. L., 88, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

Cocks, Mr. J. W. , 1, Madeira Place, Torquay. 

Cocksedge, Mr. H. B., 20, Bucklersbury, E.C. 

Cockshott, Mr. W., 32, Westgate, Bradford. 

Cockton, Mr. J., High Street, Maryport. 

Codd, Dr. F., 51, Duke Street, Devonport. 

Coker, Mr. O. C, 95, Old Town Street, Plymouth. 

Colchester, Mr. W. M., junr., 2, Grown Street, Hoxton, N. 

Colclough, Mr. W., 38a, King William Street, London Bridge, E.C. 

Coldwell, Mr. D. B., 86, Queen's Road, Peckham, S.E. 

Cole, Mr. A. C, Lee, S.E. 

Cole, Frederic A., F.C.S., 33, Saint Botolph's Street, Colchester. 

Cole, Mr. J., Whittlesey, Cambs. 

Coles, Mr. F., 341, Amherst Road, Stoke Newington, N. 

Coles, Mr. J. C, Chippenham, Wilts. 

Coles, Mr. J. W., 197, Camberwell New Road, S.E. 

Colev, Mr. S. J., 57, High Street, Stroud. 

Collett, Mr. C. B., 19, South Street, Exeter. 

Collier. Mr. J. A., 55, James Street, Bute Dock, Cardiff. 

Collins, Mr. H. G. (Mr. RuRsell's), High Street, Windsor. 

Collins, Mr. T. R., 28, London Road, Lowestoft. 

Coltou, Mr. T., Ousegate, Selby, Yorkshire. 

Commaas, BIr. R. D., George Street, Bath. 

Congreve, Mr. G. T., Rye Lane, Peckham, Surrey. 

Constance, Mr. E., 114, Leadenhall Street, E.C. 

Cook, Dr. E. A., F.G.S., Crosfield, Barrow & Co., 323, Vauxhall Road, 

Cook, R., Esplanade, Ealing, W. 

Cook, Mr. R. , 28, Market Place, Great Grimsby, Lincolnshire. 
Cook, Mr. T. , 52, Northgate Street, Gloucester. 
Cooke, Mr. J., Waterview, Blackrock, Cork. 
Cooke, Mr. P., Church Row, Wandsworth, S.W. 
Cooke, Mr. W., 27, St. Giles Street, Norwich. 
Cooke, Mr. W. K., 80, Argyle Street, Birkenhead. 
Cooper, Mr. Albert, 80, Gloucester Road, South Kensington, S.W. 
Cooper, Mr. A., 45, Market Street, Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 
Cooper, Mr. F. R. , 7, Exchange Street, Manchester. 
Cooper, Mr. G., 101, Fore Street, Exeter. 
Cooper, Mr. H., 20, Moor Street, Soho Square, W.C. 
Cooper, Mr. H. G., 24, High Street, Grantham. 


Cooper, Mr. J. N., Bromwich Grange, St. John's, Worcester. 

Cooper, Mr. M., Chnrch, near AccriuRton. 

Cooper, Mr. T., 44, Market Place, Leicester. 

Cooper, Mr. T., 30, Walmgate, York. 

Cooper, Mr. W. J., 17, Marketplace, Cockermonth. 

Corder, Mr. 0., 31, London Street, Norwich. 

Corfield, Mr. C, Church Street, St. Dav, Cornwall. 

Corfield, Mr. T. J. T., Church Street, St. Day, Cornwall. 

Cornelius, Mr. J., 11, Regent Place, Teignmouth. 

Cornell, Mr. W. , 14, Tavern Street, Ijiswich. 

Cornish, Mr. H. K., 24, Market Place, Penzance. 

Cornish, Mr. W., 174, Western Road, Brighton. 

Cortis, Mr. C, 12, South Street, Worthing, Sussex. 

Cossey, Mr. J., St. John's, Maddermarket, Norwich. 3 

Coswav, Mr. E. C, 19, Notting-Hill Terrace, W. I 

Cotterell. Mr. W. H., 181, Snargate Street, Dover. ■ 

Cotton, Mr. J., Church Street, St. Helen's, Lanes. 

Cottrill, Mr. G. J., Shepton Mallet. 

Cottrill, Mr. J. W., 24, Park Terrace, Regent's Park, N.W. 

Coulter, Mr. G., Sedbergh, near Kendal. 

Count, Mr. S. , Market Place, Beccles. 

Coupland, Mr. J., High Harrogate. 

Courtenay, Mr. A., 5, Llanberis Terrace, Rye Croft Road, Lewisham, 

Coutts, Mr. A., Path-head, Kirkcaldy, N.B. 

Coverley, Mr. E. C, 4, Thayer Street, W. 

Cowan,"Prof., M.D., 159, Bath Street, Glasgow. 

Cowan, W. M., F.C.S., 29, Cathcart Street, Greenock. 

Cowgill, Mr. B. B., Sowerby Bridge, Yorks. 

Coxon, Mr. R. J. (Mr. Robinson's), Chester-le- Street. 

Cracknell, Mr. C, 217, Edgware Road, W. 

Cragg, Mr. J., 52, Fenton Street, Leeds. 

Craig, Mr. G., Duncanstone, Insch, Aberdeenshire. 

Crampton, Mr. J., Post Office, Sawston, Cambridge. 

Crarar, Mr. J., 7, High Street, Blairgowrie. 

Crawley, Mr. H., 19, Phcenix Street, Somers Town, N.W. 

Crawshaw, Mr. E., 15, Charterhouse Street, E.C. 

Cridland, Mr. E., Stradbroke, Suffolk. 

Crisp, Mr. F. A.. 270, Walworth Road, S.E. 

Crispe, Mr. J., 4, Cheapside, E.C. 

Cromwell, Mr. 0., Brixton Rise, S.W^ 

Cronshaw, Mr. C, 20, Market Street, Over Darwen. 

Crook, Mr. C, East Thorpe, Mirfield, Yorks. 

Cross, Mr. C, Winterton, Lincolnshire. 

Cross, Mr. W. G.,juur., Mardol, Shrewsbury. 

Crow, Mr. E. L., Lee Bridge, Lewisham, S.E. 

Croyden, Mr. C, 45, Wigmore Street, W. 

Crozier, Mr. R., Clifton Square, Lytham. 

Crozier, Mr. W., 5, Grainger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Cruickshank, Mr. J., 20, Shore, Macduff, N.B. 

Cruse, Mr. T. H., Palmerston Road, Southsea. 

Cryer, Mr. H., 2, Westbourne Grove, Bavswater, W. 

Cublev, Mr. G. A., 4, High Street, Sheffield. 

Cuff, Mr. R. C, 25, College Green, Bristol. 

CuUen, Mr. R. H., 96, Westbourne Grove, Bayswater, W. 

Cnllen, Mr. T., 12, St. James's Place, Paisley. 

Cnnliffe, Mr. N.. 41, Crook Street, Bolton. 

Cupiss, Mr. F., Diss. 

Currie, Mr. J., 70, Eglinton Street, Glasgow. 

Currie, Mr. J., 479, Sauchieball Street, Glaisgow. 


Curtis, Mr. H., 178, HiKb Street, Lewes. 

Ciitcliflfe, Mr. G. J., 7, Strand, Dawlish. 

Cutforth, Mr. J. D., 9, Brushfielcl Street, Bishopsgate Street, E.G. 

Cuthbert, Mr. 3. M., Bedford. 

Cuthbert, Mr. R., 27, Westgate, Huddersfield. 

Cutting, Mr. J., 33, Bath Street, Leamington. 

Cutting, Mr. T. J., Finkle Street, Selby. 

Dadford, Mr. T., 33, G-old Street, Nortliamptou. 
Dadley, Mr. E., 21, Carter Gate, Nottingham. 
Dale, Mr. J., Cornbrook Chemical Works, Manchester. 
Dale, Mr. J., 353, Park Road, Liverpool. 
Dale, Mr. S., 144, High Street, Woolwich, S.E. 
Dalwood, Mr. J. H., Cheap Street, Sherborne, Dorset. 
Daniel, Mr. A., Oldmeldrum, Aberdeenshire, N.B. 
Daniel, Mr. S., 30, Harbour Street, Ramsgate. 
Daniel, Mr. W. L., 64, High Street, Merthyr. 
Darby, S., F.C.S., 140, Leadenhall Street, E.G. 
Darling, Mr. W. H., 126, Oxford Street, Manchester. 
Darroll, Mr. W., Clun, Salop. 
Darwin, Mr. G. H., Bedford Row, Birkenhead. 
D'Aubney, Mr. T., 82, Shepherdess Walk, Hoxton, N. 
Davenport, Mr. H., 33, Great Russell Street, W.C. 
Davenport, Mr. J. T., 33, Great Russell Street, W.C. 
David, Mr. J., 75, Oxford Street, Swansea. 
David, Mr. S. S., Langharne, St. Clears. 
Davidson, Mr. C, 205, Union Street, Aberdeen, N.B. 
Davidson, Mr. F., 20, Castle Place, Belfast. 
Davies, Mr. D. J., 8, Great Darkgate Street, Aberystwith. 
Davies, E., F.C.S., Royal Institution, Liverpool. 
Davies, Mr. J. H., Terrace Road, Aberystwith. 
Davies, Mr. J. L. , Hay, Breconshire. 
Davies, Mr. M. P., Tenbv. 
Davies, R. H., F.C.S., 280, Goldhawk Road, W. 
Davies, Mr. T., 2, Albert Bridge, Manchester. 
Davis, Mr. D. F., 2, High Street, Leominster. 
Davis, Mr. H., 19, Warwick Street, Leamington. 
Davis, R. H., F.C.S., High Harrogate. 
Davison, Mr. T., 126, Buchanan Street, Glasgow. 
Davy, Mr. H., 20, High Street, Rotherham. 
Dawe, Mr. J., Lower Street, Callington, Cornwall. 
Dawson, Mr. J., 55, High Street, Dudley. 
Dawson, Mr. 0. R., Belle Vue Road, Southampton. 
Day, Mr. J., 116, Briggate, Leeds. 
Davkin, Mr. K., Church Street, Ripley, Derbyshire. 
Days, Mr. F., 6, Fleet Street, Dublin. 
Dean, Mr. S., 320, Roman Road, Bow, E. 
Deane, Mr. J., 17, The Pavement, Clapham Common, S.W. 
Deck, A., F.C.S., 9, King's Parade, Cambridge. 
Deering, Mr. A., 53, Meadow Road, Fentiman Road, Clapham, S.W. 
Delves, Mr. G., 187, High Street, Exeter. 
De Nance, Mr. W. C., 164, Dumbarton Road, Glasgow. 
Dennis, Mr. J. L., Alfretou Road, Nottingham. 
• Dennison, Mr. M., 222, High Street, Dudley. 
Dewson, Mr. S., 90, New Street, Birmingham. 
Dickie, Mr. J., 19, Struan Terrace, Victoria Road, Glasgow. 
Dickins, Mr. J., 2, Commercial Buildings, Bridlington Quay. 
Dinnis, Mr. J., 20, West-Hill Road, Brighton. 
Ditchburn, Mr. P., Crook. 
Diver, Mr. B., Isleliam, Cambridgeshire. 


Dixon, Mr. H., Owersbv Moor, Market Rasen. 

Dixou, Mr. J., 30, Wbitefriargate, Hull. 

Dixon, Mr. J., 84, Crosby Street, Marvport. 

Dixou, J. B., M.D., LL.i)., D.D.S., Grove Street, South Hackney, E. 

Dobbie, Mr. J., 18, New Bridge Street, Ayr, N.B. 

Dobinson, Mr. T., Bishop Auckland. 

Dobsou, Mr. J., 2, Side, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Dodd, Mr. W., 169, Southampton Street, Camberwell, S.E. 

Dodds, Mr. G. F., Medical Hall, Kelso, Roxburjihshire, N.B. 

Dodwell, Mr. J., 178, Camberwell New Road, S.E. 

Donston, Mr. W., High Cross, Tottenham. 

Dott, Mr. D. B., 24, Castle Street, Edinburgh. 

Doughty, Mr. M., 26, Blackfriars Road, S.E. 

Dove, Mr. J., Sherbum, near South Milford, Yorksliire. 

Dowling, 3Ir. R., 24, King Street, Reading. 

Dowmau, Mr. G., 160, High Street, Southampton. 

Downie, Mr. H.,43, Sandhill, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Downing, Mr. J. G., 55, High Street, Braintree. 

Downward, Mr. J., Market Street, UlTerston. 

Dowson, Mr. J., 59, High Street, Redcar. 

Drake, Mr. W., Wyke, near Bradford. 

Drane, Mr. W., 6, Upper Richmond Road, Putney, S.E. 

Drai>er, H. N., F.C.S., 23, Mary Street, Dublin. 

Dresser, Mr. R., 13, Pavement, York. 

Driver, 3Ir. A., 52, Royal York Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 

Driver, Mr. T., Woolton, Liverpool. 

Di-uce, Mr. G. C, 6, The Drapery, Northampton. 

Drury, Mr. G. S., 158, Parrock Street, Gravesend. 

Duck, Mr. W. B., Hazeldean Hoose, Saltburn-by-the-Sea. 

Dudden, Mr. R. M., Sutton Wick, Pensford, Bristol. 

Duncalf, Mr. J. M., 7, Exchange Street, Manchester. 

Duncan, Mr. S., 17, "West Blackball Street, Greenock, N.B. 

Duncan, Mr. W., 13, East Princes Street, Rothesay, N.B. 

Duncansou, Mr. W., 38, Port Street, Stirling. 

Dunkley, Mr. E., High Street, Tunbridge Welle. 

Dunmore, Mr. G. H., 81, Maiden Road, N.W. 

Dunn, Mr. H., 39, Otley Road, Shipley, Leeds. 

Dunn, Mr. J., 360, Scots wood Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Dunn, Mr. S., Fore Street, St. Austell. 

Durden, Mr. H., 13, Comhill, Dorchester, Dorset. 

Durrant, Mr. G. R., Old Cross, Hertford. 

Dutchman, Mr. W., 44, Seven Sisters Road, N. 

Dutton, Mr. P., 15, Town Hall Square, Bolton. 

Button, Mr. J., Rock FeiTy, Birkenhead. 

Dver, Mr. H., Market Place, Trowbridge. 

Dver, Mr. W., Corn Market, Halifax. 

Dyson, Mr. W. B., 21, Gloucester Road, South Kensington, W. 

Earee, Mr. T., High Street, Staines. 

Earland, Mr. W., Bexlev. S.E. 

Earle, Mr. F., 22, Market Place, Hall. 

Earp, Mr. J., High Street, Melbourne, Derby. 

Ebdell, Mr. T., Vicar Lane, Leeds. 

Edgeler, Mr. W. B., Higii Street, Petersfield, Hants. 

Edisbury, Mr. J. F., Wrexham. 

Edwards, Mr. E., 4, Portland Place North, Lower Clapton, E. 

Edwards, Mr. G., Stockport Road, Manchester. 

Edwards, Mr. J., Lewes Road, Brighton. 

Edwards, Mr. J., 1, High Street, Conway. 

Edwards, Mr. R. S., Redrutb. 


Ekin, C, F.C.S., 8, Argj-le Street, Bath. 
Eldridge, Mr. J. H., Earlham Road, Norwich. 
Elias, Mr. J. R., Pentraeth, Anglesey. 
EUiuor, Mr. G., Wicker Pharmacy, Spital Hill, Sheffield. 
EHott, Mr. S., junr., 1, Eton Place, Plymouth. 

Elliott, Mr. J. D., .S, Orchard Place, Woolwich Road, Greenwich, S.E. 
Elliott, Mr. R., 279, High Street, Gateshead. 
ElUs, Mr. T. W., Loddon, Norfolk. 
Ellison, Mr. J. B., Wombwell, near Barnsley. 
Else, Mr. W., 52, King's Road, Brighton. 
Emerson, Mr. C, 8, Church Street, West Hartlepool. 
England, Mr. W., Fern Villa, 32, Ffynonau Terrace, Swansea. 
Ereaut, Mr. G., 12, Bath Street, Jersey. 
Esplin, Mr. A., 7, Cowgate, Dundee. 

Estcourt, C, F.C.S., Borough Laboratory, 8, St. James's Square, Man- 
Ettles, Mr. J., 22, London Road, Brighton. 
Evans, Mr. A. E., Beaufort Street, Brynmawr. 
Evans, Mr. B., Victoria Street, Derby. 
Evans, Mr. D. 0., Medical Hall, Farnworth, Bolton. 
Evans, Mr. E., 11, High Street, Cardigan. 
Evans, Mr. E., Aberavon, Port Talbot. 
Evans, Mr. E., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, Mr. E., junr., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, Mr. E. P., Cleobury Mortimer. 

Evans, H. S., F.C.S., 60, Bartholomew Close, London, E.G. 
Evans, Mr. I. H., Medical Hall, Market Cross, Lymm. 
Evans, J., M.D., 49, Dawson Street, Dublin. 
Evans, Mr. J. J., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, Mr. J. J. 0., 1, Victoria Road, Teignmouth. 
Evans, Mr. J. R., 56, Hanover Street, Liverpool. 
Evans, Mr. R. , 116, West Derby Road, Liverpool. 
Ewing, Mr. J. L., 139, Princes Street, Edinburgh. 
Exley, Mr. G., 48, Hunslet Lane, Leeds. 
Evre, Mr. J. S., High Street, Launceston, Cornwall. 
Eyre, Mr. S., 202, Infirmary Road, Sheffield. 

Fairburn, Mr. J., Northallerton. 

Fairgi-ieve, Mr. T., Clerk Street, Edinburgh. 

Fairlie, Mr. J. E., 569, Gallowgate, Glasgow. 

Fairlie, Mr. J. M., 17, St. George's Road, Glasgow. ■ 

Fardon, Mr. H., 78, Castle Street, Bristol. 

Farie, Mr. G., Bridge of Allan, Stirlingshire. 

Farnsworth, Mr. T., Codnor. 

Farnworth, 3Ir. W., 49, King William Street, Blackburn. 

Farr, Mr. J., Crown Street, Halifax. 

Farrage, Mr. R. , Rothbury, Morpeth. 

Farrer, Mr. F., High Street, Wrentham, Suffolk. 

Farrett, Mr. W. B., 1, Pier Terrace, South Lowestoft. 

Parries, T., F.C.S., 16, Coleman Street, E.C. 

Farrow, Mr. C. H. , 2, Upper Street, Islington. 

Farthing, Mr. T., 11, High Street, Spennymoor. 

Faulkner, Mr. H., 80, Commercial Road, Newport, Monmouthshire. 

Faulkner, Mr. J. R., 33, Ladbroke Grove Road, W. 

Faull, Mr. E., Beeston, Notts. 

Faull, Mr. J., Westgate, Bradford, Yorks. 

Fawcett, Mr. J., New Ferry, Birkenhead. 

Fawthorp, Mr. J., Micklefield Terrace, Rawden, near Leeds. 

Fenn, Mr. J. W. T., 6, Harwood Terrace, King's Road, Fulham, 



Fennings, Mr. A., West Cowes, Isle of Wipht. 
Fentiman, Mr. A., 2, Upper East Sniithfield, Tower Hill, E.G. 
Feawick, Mr. J., 17, Bute Terrace, Queen's Park, Glasgow. 
Ferguson, Mr. J., 6, Strand Street, Livei"pool. 
Ferguson, Mr. W. K., 53, Great George Street, Leeds. 
Ferneley, Mr. C, 61, Tytliing, Worcester. 

Fewtreli, W. T., F.C.S., 41, Gower Place, Euston Square, W.C. 
Field, Mr. A. W., 3, Victoria Buildings, Pimlico, S.W. 
Field, J. J., F.C.S., North Lodge, New Barnet, Herts. 
Field, Mr. W. C, 9, North Street, Taunton. 
Fincham, Mr. R., 57, Baker Street, Portman Square, W. 
Fingland, Mr. J., Thornhill, Dumfries. 
Finlayson, Mr. T., Leith. 

Firman, Mr. H. E., 31, West Hill Street, Brighton. 
Firth, Mr. W., Barker Street, Oldham. 
Fisher, Mr. C, High Street, Ramsgate. 
Fisher, Mr. F. D., 1. Market Place, Grantham. 
Fisher, Mr. H. A., 35, High Street, Ramsgate. 
Fisher, Mr. J. J., 20, Bank Street, Carlisle. 
Fisher, Mr. T., 97, Roxburgh Street, Greenock, N.B. 
Fitch, R., F.G.S., F.S.A., Norwich. 

Fitzgerald, Mr. A. H., 1, Windsor Place, Portobello, N.B. 
Fitzhugh, R., F.C.S., Nottingham. 
Fleeming, Mr. W., Queen Square, Wolverhampton. 
Fletcher, Mr. F. B., Retford, Notts. 
Fletcher, Mr. .J., 23, King Street, Dudley. 
Fletcher, Mr. J., Montpellier Avenue, Cheltenham. 
Fletcher, Mr. T., Smallthorne, Stoke-on-Trent. 
Fletcher, Mr. T. , 1, Church Road, Lytham, Lanes. 
Flint, Mr. J., Ranelagh Place, Liverpool. 
Flower, Mr. T. S., Opposite the Pier, Ryde, Isle of Wight. 
Floyd, Mr. J., Town Hall, Bury St. Edmunds. 
Flux, Mr. W., 3, East India Avenue, E.G. 
Ford, Mr. J., High Street, Kirriemuir. 
Forrest, Mr. R. W., 130, Cumberland Street, Glasgow. 
Forster, Mr. R. H. , Castle Street, Dover. 
Forth, Mr. W., 397, High Street, Cheltenham. 
Fortune, Mr. R. , Rodger Street, Anstruther. 
Foster, Mr. A., Market Place, Dewsbury. 
Foster, Mr. F., 52, King's Road, Brighton. 
Foster, Mr. F. H., 2, Bank of England Place, Plymouth. 
Foster, Mr. J., Callumpton. 
Foster, Mr. J., 82, Corporation Road, Carlisle. 
Foster, Mr. J. A., 7, Wheeler Street, Birmingham. 
Foster, Mr. M. E., 50, Bishopsgate Within, E.G. 
Fothergill, Mr. S., Milnthorpe, Westmoreland. 
Foulkes, Mr. W. H., 20, High Street, Rhyl, Flints. 
Foulkes, Mr. W. J., Birkenhead. 
Fowler, Mr. W. R., 7, Market Place, Boston, Lines. 
FowHe, Mr. G., Turriff. 
Fox, Mr. W., 109, Bethnal Green Road, E. 
Fox, Mr. W. A., 27, Leyton Road, Stratford, E. 
France, Mr. J., 18. Church Street, Rotherham, 
Francis, Mr. G., Market Place, Romsey, Hants. 
Francis, Mr. G. B., 5, Coleman Street, E.G. 
Francis, G. B., junr., F.C.S., 5, Coleman Street, E.G. 
Francis, Mr. R. P., 5, Coleman Street, E.G. 
Francis, Mr. W. H., 5, Coleman Street, E.G. 

Frank, Mr. J. M., Custom House Buildings, Quay Side, Newcastle-on- 


Frankland, Prof. E., D.C.L., F.R.S., Royal College of Chemistry, South 

Kensington Museum, S.W. 
Franklin, Mr. A., 60, West Street, Fareliam. 
Franks, Mr. A., 35, Addingtou Street, Eamsgate. 
Fraser, Mr. A., 5flA, Lord Street, Liverpool. 
Fraser, Mr. J., 17, High Street, Inverness. 
Frazer, Mr. D., 113, Buchanan Street, Glasgow. 
Frazer, Dr. W., Harcourt Street, Dublin. 
Freeland, Mr. J., Bathgate, N.B. 
Freeman, Mr. T. W., Ledbury, Herefordshire. 
Freestone, Mr. T. M., Bedminster Parade, Bristol. 
Frill, Mr. W. E., 15, Avenham Lane, Preston, Lanes. 
Froggatt, Mr. T. \V., Eyam, via Sheffield. 
Froom, Mr. W. H., 75, Aldersgate Street, E.C. 
Frost, Mr. G., 7, Corn Market, Derby. 
Frost, Mr. W. T., Lee Green, S.E. 
Fudge, Mr. C. W., Shepton Mallet. 
Fuller, Mr. T. B., Rampant Horse Street, Norwich. 
Furneaux. Mr. W. H., 52, Treville Street, Plymouth. 
Furniss, Mr. T., 6, Mount Vernon Road, Liverpool. 

Gadd, Mr. H., 97, Fore Street, Exeter. 

Gadd, Mr. R., 1, Harleyford Road, Vauxhall, S.E. 

Gadd, Mr. W. F., 26, St. George's Place, Hyde Park Corner. 

Gain, Mr. W. A., Tuxford, Nottinghamshire. 

Gaitskell, Mr. .J., Gosforth, ina Carnforth. 

Gale, S., F.C.S., 338, Oxford Street. W. 

Gait, Mr. W. D., Thornley, Ferry Hill, Co. Durham. 

Galwey, Mr. R. J., 49, Dawson Street, Dublin. 

Gamble, Mr. H. A., 4, Edwardes Terrace, Kensington, W. 

Gardner, Mr. J., 58, George Street, Edinburgh. 

Gardner, Mr. J., 39, Ossington Street, Bays water, "W. 

Gardner, Mr. J. R.. Royal Naval Hospital, Yarmouth. 

Gardner, Mr. T., Queen Street, Morecambe, Lanes. 

Gardner, Mr. W. , Barnard Castle. 

Gare, Mr. J., 25, Newfoundland Street, Bristol. 

Gare. Mr. W. , Bampton, Devon. 

Garland, Mr. J. F.. Marshfield, Chippenham, Gloucestershire. 

Garner, Mr. J., 119, High Street, Kensington, W. 

Garner, Mr. T., 75, Allen Road, Stoke Newington, N. 

Garratt, Mr. S., 3, Market Place, Rugby. 

Garrett, Mr. J., Newport, Mon. 

Garside, Mr. T., 10, Cross Street, Southport. 

Gaubert. Mr. S., 81, Grosvenor Street, W. 

Gedge, Mr. W. S., 90, St. John Street, Clerkenwell, E.C. 

Gee, Mr. G. , High Street, Sandbach, Cheshire. 

Gee, Mr. S., Castleton, near Manchester. 

Geldard, Mr. J., St. Austell, 

Gemmell, Mr. H., 47, Princes Street, Ardrossan, Ayrshire, N.B. 

George, Mr. H., 68, Broad Street, Worcester. 

George, Mr. J. E., Hirwain, near Aberdare. 

Gerard, Mr. G. R., Great Bedwin, Wilts. 

Gerrard. Mr. A. W., Universitv College Hospital, W.C. 

Gething, Mr. W. B., 75, Fleet" Street, E.C. 

Gibbons, Mr. G., 24, West Street, Weston-super-Mare. 

Gibbons, Mr. T. G., 41, Market Street, Manchester. 

Gibson, Mr. A., Leven, Fife. 

Gibson, Mr. B, W., Barnard Castle, Durham. 

Gibson, Mr. F., 1, Preston Street, Fleetwood. 

Gibson, Mr. J., 86, Upper Brook Street, Manchester. 


Gibson, Mr. J. C, Chapeltown, near Sheffield. 

Gibson, Mr. \V. H., 107, King's Road, Brighton. 

Gilbert, Mr. G., Earl's Shilton, Hinckley. 

Gill, Mr. H., Boston Spa, Yorkshire. 

Gill, Mr. J., 01, Piccadilly, Manchester. 

Gill, Mr. J. W., 57, Broad Street, Pendleton, Manchester. 

Gill, Mr. W., 1, West Street, Tavistock. 

Gillespie, Mr. J., High Street, Irvine, N.B. 

Gillett, Mr. J., 10, Nevill Street, Sonthport. 

Gilling, Mr. J., Saffron Walden, Essex. 

Gilmour, Mr. W., 11, Elm Row, Edinburgh. 

Ginns, Mr. A. B.,Rothwell, Northamptonshire. 

Gittoes, Mr. S. J., 51, High Street, Weduesbury. 

Glaisver, Mr. T.. 12, North Street, Brighton. 

Glassford, J. McL., F.C.S., 8, Adelphi Terrace, Old Ford Road, Victoria 

Park, S. Hackney, E. 
Glazier, Mr. W. H., 20, Boundary Road, St. John's Wood, N.W. 
Glencross, Mr. W., Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire. 
Glover, G. T., F.C.S., Belfast. 
Glover, Mr. H., 51, Spon Street, Coventry. 
Godfrey, Mr. F., Bank Street, Newton Abbot. 
Goldfinch, Mr. G., Hendon, Middlesex. 
Good, Mr. T., 47, Minories, E.G. 
Goodhffe, Mr. G., Medical Hall, Folkestone. 
Goodwin, Mr. J., Lower Clapton, E. 
Goodwin, Mr. J., 6, Merrion Row, Dublin. 
Gordelier, Mr. W. G., 39, High Street, Sittingbourne. 
Gorrie, Mr. A., West End, High Street, Kirkcaldy, N.B. 
Goss, Mr. S. , 4, High Street, Barnstaple. Devon. 
Gossop, Mr. G. K., 88, Church Street, Great Grimsbv. 
Gostling, Mr. T. P., Diss. 
Gostling, Mr. W. A., Diss. 

Goucher, J., F.L.S., 43, High Street, Shrewsbury. 
Gould, Mr. J. , Red Lion Square, Newcastle-under-Lyne. 
Gouldbourn, Mr. W., 14, Pride Hill, Shrewsbury. 
Gow, Mr. A., Dudley Street, Wolverhampton. 
Gowaus, Mr. J., 21, High Street, Perth, N.B. 
Grady, Mr. F., Villa Street, Hockley, Birmingham. 
Graham, Mr. J., Church Street. Carlisle. 
Graham, Mr. W. B., Unthank Ewes, Langholm. 
Granger, Mr. E. .T., Upper Clapton, E. 
Grant, Mr. W., High Street, Blairgowrie. 
Gray, Mr. C, 12, Church Street, Bilston, Staffordshire. 
Gray, Mr. J. T. , Crewe. 

Greasley, Mr. M. F. , 13, North Street, Leeds. 
Greaves, Mr. A., Chesterfield. 
Greaves, Mr. E., Mexbro', Rotherham. 
Greaves, ]\Ir. J., Crewkerne, Somerset. 
Greaves, Mr. W. S., Ironville. 
Green, Mr. J., 19, Wood Street, Swindon. 
Green, Mr. R. P., Witham, Essex. 
Green, Mr. S., 2, York Place, Nunhead, S.E. 
Greenall, Mr. A., 303, Breck Road, Liverj^ool. 
Greenish, T., F.C.S., 20, New Street, Dorset Square, N.W. 
Greenish, Mr. T. E., 20, New Street, Dorset Square, N.W. 
Greenwell, Mr. R. H., Chester-le-Street. 
Greenwood, Mr. .1. F., 22, Market Place, Louth. 
Greig, Mr. W., Glassford Street, Glasgow. 
Griffin, Mr. A. W., Burnham, Lynn, Norfolk. 
Griffin, Mr. T., 3, Woodhill, Northampton. 



Griffith, Mr. J. E., Bangor. 

Griffith, Mr. R., High Street, Slough, 

Griffith, Mr. W. H., 1, Cornhill, Bridgwater. 

Griffiths, Mr. E. H., KidsKrove. 

Griffiths, Mr. W., Stamp Office, Aberayron. 

Griffiths, Mr. W., 44. Wind Street, Swansea. 

Grimwade, Mr. E. W., Mildmay Cliambers, 82, Bishopsgate Street, 

Grimwade, Mr. E. W., St. Clements, Ipswich. 
Grindley, Mr. W., 6, Northgate Street, Cheater. 
Grisbrook, Mr. E., Windsor, Berks. 

Grisbrook, Mr. S., 51, Welhngton Street, Woolwich, S.E. 
Grose, Mr. N. M., 5, Castle Street, Swansea. 
Groves, Mr. T. B., F.C.S., Weymouth. 
Gudgen, Mr. G. B., Kimbolton, St. Neots. 
Guest, Mr. E. P., Brentwood, Essex. 
Guest, Mr. G. C, 17, St. John's Square, Burslem. 
Guest, Mr. W., 13, Carltou Street, Nottingham. 
Guilmette, Mr. J. W., Workhouse Hospital, Manchester. 
Gulliver, Mr. W., 6, Lower Belgrave Street, PimUco, S.W. 
Gunn, Mr. F. J., Axminster. 
Gunn, Mr. W. , Market Place, Dianse, N.B. 
Gurnell, Mr. W.. 34, Union Street, Ryde, Isle of Wight. 
Guthrie, Mr. A. D., Bonnington, Edinburgh, N.B. 
Guy. Mr. F., 12, North Street, Brighton. 
Guyer, Mr. J. B., 11, Strand, Torquay. 
Gwatkin, Mr. J. T., 49, Grand Parade, Brighton. 

Hackett, Mr. J. H., 70, North Marine Road, Scarborough, Yorks. 

Hackman, Mr. L. L., Lake Road, Laudport, Hants. 

Hadfield, Mr. J., 20, Cheetham Street, Rochdale. 

Hadingham, Mr. J. W., 208, High Street, Deptford. 

Haffendeu, Mr. T., 46, Dyke Road, Brighton. 

Haines, Mr. J. J., Market Place, Bromsgrove. 

Hake, H. W., Ph.D., F.C.S., 2, Danes Inn, Strand, W.C. 

Hall, Mr. F„ M.R.C.8., 1, Jermyn Street, S.W. 

Hall, Mr. F., 117, Market Place, Stockton-on-Tees. 

Hall, Mr. H. R. F., 1, Beverlev Road, near Hull. 

Hall, Mr. J. T., Medical Hah.'Levenshulme. 

Hall, Mr. S., 3, Alma Place, Eastbourne. 

Hall, Mr. S., Littleborough, near Manchester. 

Hall, Mr. T., Breckfield Road North, Liverpool. 

Hall, Mr. T., 80, Westgate, Grantham. 

Hall, Mr. T. H., 10, Grey Eagle Street, E. 

Hall, Mr. W., 102, Blackman Street, S.E. 

Hall, Mr. W., Market Street, Lancaster. 

Hallaway, Mr. J., 52, Castle Street, Carlisle. 

Hallawell, Mr. J., 10, College Lane, Liverpool. 

Halley, Mr. A., 2, Cathedral Street, Glasgow. 

Halstead, Mr. H.,Bank Street, Rawtenstall, Lanes. 

Hambly, Mr. C. J., 9, Sydney Terrace, Taunton. 

Hambrook, Mr. J. B., 6, Stroud Street, Dover. 

Hamilton, J. T., M.D., Sackville Street, Dubhn. 

Hamilton, J., M.D. (New York), 404, Oxford Street, W. 

Hammerton, Mr. E., 28, High Street, Colchester. 

Hammond, Mr. C. T., 11, Witham, Hull. 

Hamp, Mr. J., Worcester Street, Wolverhampton. 

Hampson, Mr. R., 205, St. John-street Road, E.G. 

Hanbury, C, F.C.S., Plough Court, Lombard Street, E.G. 

Hanbury, Mr. D. B., Clapham Common, S.W. 


Hanbnry, Mr. F. J., Plough Court, Lombar.l Street, E.G. 

Handford, Jlr. E., High Street, Torringtou. 

Handforth, Mr. E., Lumb Lane, Bradford. 

Ilaudley, Mr. C, 41, High Street, Stoke Newingtou, N. 

Haiman, Mr. J. Swintou, near Manchester. 

Harburn, Mr. R. H., 71, ^Market Place, Bishop Auckland. 

Harcus, Mr. J., 11, Grey Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Hardcastle, Mr. T. P., 17, Turncroft Lane, Stockport. 

Hardeman, Mr. J., 43, Bury New Eoad, Manchester. 

Hardie, Mr. .J., 68, High Street, Dundee. 

Harding, Mr. J. , 4, Market Street, Harwich. 

Harding. Mr. J. J., Sudbury, Suffolk. 

Hardman, Mr. J. W., 106, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds. 

Hardwicke, Mr. E. J., 4, Meat Market, Bury St. Edmunds. 

Hardv, Mr. S. C, 177, Regent Street, W. 

Hargi-aves, Mr. H. L., 30, High Street, Oldham. 

Hargreaves, Mr. J., 50, Sankey Street, Warrington. 

Hargreaves, Mr. M., 108, Fylde Road, Preston, Lanes. 

Hargi-eaves, Mr. R., Clitheroe. 

Harley, Mr. J., 3, James's Square. Crieff, N.B. 

Harrington, Mr. A., Needham Market, Suffolk. 

Harrington, Mr. A., jun., "Walsham-le-Willows, Suffolk. 

Harrington, Mr. W. (L.A.H.D.), 80, Patrick Street, Cork. 

Harris, Mr. E. R., 30, Richmond Place, Brighton. 

Harris, Mr. H. W., 208, High Street, Rochester. 

Harris, Mr. .J. , 67, Wellingborough Road, Northampton. 

Harris, Mr. M. C. J., West Street, Crewkerne. 

Harris, Mr. W. W., High Street, Highgate, N. 

Harrison, G., Ph.D., F.C.S., 265, Glossop Road, Sheffield. 

Harrison, Mr. J., 7, Central Beach, Blackpool. 

Harrison, Mr. J., 33, Bridge Street, Sunderland. 

Harrison, Mr. .J., Address unknown. 

Harrison, Mr". R., Farnworth, near Bolton. 

Harrison, Mr. T., Sun Bridge, Bradford, Yorkshire. 

Harrison, Mr. W. B., 6, Bridge Street, Sunderland. 

narrower, Mr. P., 136, Cowcaddens Street, Glasgow. 

Hart, Mr. J., 131, Embden Street, Hulme, Manchester. 

Hart, Mr. J., 130, Newport Street, Bolton. 

Hart, Mr. T., Bolton New Road, Atherton, near Manchester. 

Hart, Mr. W., 99, Higher Bridge Street, Little Bolton. 

Hartland, Mr. J., St. Augustine's Parade, Bristol. 

Hartshorn, Mr. A. F., Ironbridge, Shropshire. 

Hartt, Mr. C, 107, Grafton Street, Dublin. 

Harvey, Mr. E., Giltspur Street, E.C. 

Harvey, Mr. S., 8, High Street, Canterbui^. 

Harvey, Mr. W. R., 98, Humberstone Road, Leicester. 

Harvie, Mr. G., Princes Street, Helensburgh. 

Havvie, Mr. J., 68, Stirling Street, Airdrie, N.B. 

Haselden, A. F., F.L.S., 18, Conduit Street, W. 

Haslett, Mr. J., 18, North Street, Belfast. 

Hasselby, Mr. T. J., 1, Baxtergate, Doncaster, Yorkshire. 

Hatch, Mr. R. M., Claremont House, lledland, Bristol. 

Hatfield, Mr. G. B., 817, Commercial Road, Limehouse, E. 

Havill, Mr. P. W., 15, Fore Street, Tiverton, Devon. 

Hawkin, Mr. J., Bedale, Yorks. 

Hawkins, Mr. T., 32, Ludgate Hill, E.C. 

Hay, Mr. D., Nelson-in-Marsden, Burnley. 

Hayes, Mr. .1., Great Warley, Essex. 

Hayes, Mr. W., 12, Grafton Street, Dublin. 

Haydon, Mr. W. F., 23, Burliogton Chambers, Birmingham. 


Hayhoe, Mr. W., 60, St. George's Road, Pimlico, S.W. 

Hayles, Mr. B. H., Esplanade, Ealiug, Middlesex. 

Haynes, Mr. C. H., 103, Talbot Road, Bayswater, W. 

Hayton, Mr. P., High Street, Wigton, Cumberland. 

HaVward, BIr. C. J., Lincoln. 

Hayward, Mr. W. H., Fore Street, Trowbridge, Wilts. 

Heald, Mr. B., Sleaford. 

Heap, Mr. E., 149, Junction Road, Upper Holloway, N. 

Hearder, Mr. H. P., •2-1, Westwell Street, Plymouth. 

Hoarder, Mr. W., 1, Victoria Parade, Torquay. 

Heath, Mr. E. A., 114, Ebury Street, S.W. 

Heathtield, W. E., F.C.S., F.R.S.E., 8, Wilson Street, Fiusbury, 

Heatou, Prof. C. W., F.C.S., Lessness Heath, Kent. 
Hebden, Mr. W\ C, Northgate, Halifax. 
Helmore, Mr. W. H., 15, Old Bond Street, Bath. 
Hemingway, Mr. A., 20, Portman Street, W. 
Hemingway, Mr. E., 20, Portman Street, W. 
Hemingway, Mr. W. 20, Portman Street, W. 
Henderson, Mr. C, Wibsey, near Bradford. 
Henderson, Mr. M. -J., Main Street, Keswick. 
Henty, Mr. H. M., 19, High Street, St. John's Wood, N.W. 
Heriugton, Mr. J., Leighton Buzzard, Beds. 
Herring, Mr. H., 40, Aldersgate Street, E.G. 
Hewitt, Mr. G., 13, Bull Ring, Kidderminster. 
Hewlett. Mr. C. J., Cree Church Lane, E.G. 
Hey, Mr. D., Hebden Bridge, Yorks. 

Heywood, J. S. C, F.C.S., 13, Hanover Terrace, Notting Hill, W. 
Hick, Mr. A., High Street, Wath-on-Dearue. 
Hick, Mr. J., 3, Broadstones, Bradford. 
Hickey, Mr. E. L., 199, King's Road, Chelsea, S.W. 
Hickin, Mr. H., Mardol Head, Shrewsbury. 
Hickman, Mr. W., Archer Street, Notting Hill, W. 
Higgins, Mr. W., 49, Borough, Farnham, Surrey. 
Highway, Mr. H., Beaconsfield, Walsall. 
Hilder,'R. T., M.D., Grove Lodge, Balham, S.W. 
Hilditch, Mr. T., 96, Tipping Street, Ardwick, Manchester. 
Hill, Mr. A., 14, Oxford Street, South Heigham, Norwich. 
Hill, Mr. A. A., Bowlish House, Shepton Mallet. 
Hill, Mr. A. B., 101, Southwark Street, S.E. 
Hill, Mr. F. (Messrs. Hirst & Co.), Aire Street, Leeds. 
Hill, Mr. J., 1, Castle Street, Reading. 
Hilhdge, Mr. G., 140, Friargate, Preston. 
Hillier, Mr. H., 7, Bridge Street, Bath. 

Hills, Mr. H. W., 2, Etloe Terrace, Carlisle Road, Leyton, Essex. 
Hills, T. H., F.C.S., 338, Oxford Street, W. 
Hills, W., F.C.S., 338, Oxford Street, W. 
Hinchliffe, Mr. F. G. U., 77, Portland Street, Manchester. 
Hind, Mr. T. W. L., Kendal. 
Hinds, Mr. H. D., Pontardulais, Carmarthenshire. 
Hinds, Mr. J., 127, Gosford Street, Coventry. 
Hinds, Mr. W., Coventry. 

Hirst, Mr. J., 17, Old Street, Ashton-under-Lyme. 
Hiscock, Mr. R., 17, Broadgate, Coventry. 
Histed, Mr. E., 2, Upper St. James Street, Brighton. 
Hitchcock, Mr. C. E., 108, High Street, Oxford. 
Hitchin, Mr. R. , 54, St. James' Street, Burnley. 
Hitchman, Mr. H., Market Place, Kettering. 

Hobbes, Mr. A. E., 1, St. Paul's Street, Milton-r(xt-Sitting- 


Hobson, A. S., F.C.S., 3, Upper Ileatbfield Terrace, Turnliam 
Green, W. 

Hobson, Mr. C, Market Place, Beverley. 

Hobson, Mr. H., 64, Upper Rushall Street, Walsall. 

Hocken, Mr. J., 31, Old Hall Street, Liverpool. 

Hodge, Mr. J., 'lid, Overgate, Dundee. 

Hodges, Prof. J. F., M.D., Queen's College, Belfast. 

Hodges, Mr. J. F. W., Queen's College, Belfast. 

Hodges, Mr. W., Eastgate Row, Chester. 

Hodgkinsou, IMr. C, 127, Aldersgate Street, E.G. 

Hodgkinson, Mr. G., 11, Cross Cheaping, Coventry. 

Hodgkinsou, Mr. J. S., Matlock Bridge. 

Hodgk-inson, Mr. W., 127, Aldersgate Street, E.C. 

Hodkinson, Blr. .J., Mill Street, Macclesfield. 

Hodsoll, Mr. T. W. H., 17. Cross Street, Shepherdess Walk, N. 

Hogg, Mr. J., 1, Bedford Square, W.C. 

Hogg, Mr. R.. 9, Albion Place, Hyde Park Square, W. 

Holdsworth, Mr. T. W., 32, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham. 

Holford, Mr. T. C, 342, High Street, Stratford, E. 

Hollidav, Mr. T.. Mevrick House, Hill Top, West Bromwich. 

Hollier,'Mr. E., Market Place. Dudley. 

Hollin-worth, Mr. W., Birch Yale, near Stockport. 

Holmes, Mr. E. M.. 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Holmes, Mr. F. G., Brill. 

Holmes, Mr. J., Crown Street, Leeds. 

Holmes, Mr. J. T., 30, Upper Baggot Street, Dublin. 

Holmes, Mr. T., 349, Blackburn Road, Bolton. 

Holmes. Mr. W. M., 338, Oxford Street, W. 

Holstead, Mr. T., St. Helen's Road, Daubhill, Bolton. 

Holt, Mr. S., 1G4, West Derby Road, Liverpool. 

Hood, Mr. W., M.R.C.S., Castlegate, York. 

Hooper, Mr. B., 43, King William Street, E.C. 

Hopkin, Mr. W^ K., 16, Cross Street, Hatton Garden, E.C. 

Hopkinson, Mr. T., Grantham. 

Hopton, Mr. E., Idle, Yorks. 

Hopwood, Mr. T. S., Richmond, Surrey. 

Horncastle, Mr. H., 54, Fargate, Sheffield. 

Horncastle, Mr. J., 17, Craven Road, Westbourne Terrace, W. 

Home, Mr. G., 307, Oxford Street, Manchester. 

Homer, Mr. E., 20, Bucklersbury, E.C. 

Horner, Mr. E., jun., 20, Bucklersburv, E.C. 

Horrell, Mr. A. E., 34, High Street, Dartford. 

Horsfield, Mr. J. N., Sweet Street, Leeds. 

Horsley, J., F.C.S., The Laboratory, Police Station, Cheltenham. 

Horsley, Mr. T. W., 274, Portobello Road, Notting Hill, W. 

Hothersall, Mr. J., 25, Standishgate, Wigan. 

Houghton, Mr. E. W., R. N. Hospital, Haulbowliue, near Queens- 

Houghton, Mr. T., 53, St. Clements, Oxford. 

Houghton, Mr. W., 32, Portland Street, Southport. 

How, Mr. W., 52, South Street, Dorchester. 

Howard, D., F.C.S., Stratford, E. 

Howard, J. E.. F K.S., Tottenham. 

Howard, Mr. W. D., Stratford, E. 

Howden, Mr. R., 78, Gracechurcli Street, E.C. 

Howe, Mr. 0. G., Stony Stratford, Bucks. 

Howell, Mr. M., 61, High Street, Peckham, S.E. 

Howie, Mr. W. L., 8, East London Street, Edinburgh. 

Howlett, Mr. H. T., 22, Berkeley Street, Southsea, Portsmouth. 

Hewlett, Mr. W. H., The Dispensary, Gainsborough. 



Howman, Mr. P., Winchcombe. 

Howorth, Mr. G. B., Address unknown. 

Howortb, Mr. J., Market Place, Doncaster. 

HucklebridKe, Mr. J. M., 116, Ebury Street, S.W. 

Huggins, Mr. P., 235, Strand, W.C. 

Huglies, Mr. E., 1-1, Market Place, Altrincliam, Cbeshire. 

Hughes, Blr. E., 7, Bridge Street, Llanelly, Carmartlienshire. 

Hughes, Mr. E. G-., Cateaton Street, Manchester. 

Hughes, Mr. F. P., Borrowstowness, N.B. 

Hughes, Mr. H., 6, Bridge Street, Bridgnorth. 

Hughes, Mr. H. M., Cross Square, St. David's. 

Hughes, Mr. J. E., 15, Old Bond Street, Bath. 

Hughes, Mr. L. S., 40, Aldersgate Street, E.C. 

Hughes, Mr. P., Mona Drug Hall, Llangefni, Anglesey. 

Hughes, Mr. S., 154, High Street, Stourbridge. 

Hughes, Mr. T., Bed House, Llandilo, South Wales. 

Hughes, Mr. W., High Street, Presteigne, Radnorshire. 

Hugill, Mr. J., 147, Cannon Street, E.C. 

Hulley, Mr. J., 99, Manchester Road, Heaton Norris, Stockport. 

Humby, Mr. L. W., Market Place, "Warminster. 

Hume, Mr. A., 61, Northumberland Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Hume, Mr. J. W. D., 16, Worcester Street, Gloucester. 

Hume, Mr. R., 102, Cowcaddens Street, Glasgow. 

Humpage, Mr. B., Turnham Green, W. 

Humphries, Mr. E., Garston, Liverpool. 

Humphries, Mr. E., 119, Hammersmith Eoad, West Kensington, W. 

Hunt, Mr. A., Fore Street, Exeter. 

Hunt, Mr. C, 29, Chapel Street, Belgrave Square, S.W. 

Hunt, Mr. L., 2, Albert Bridge, Manchester. 

Hunt, Mr. R., 45, High Street, Winchester. 

Hunt, Mr. T., Workhouse, Liverpool. 

Hunter, Mr. F. N., 39, Saddler Street, Durham. 

Hunter, Mr. G., Withernsea, Yorks. 

Hunter, Mr. H., 71, Market Place, Whitehaven, Cimiberland. 

Hunter, Mr. J. C, 96, Great Western Road, Glasgow. 

Hurst, Mr. J., 27, Bottomoth Moor, Oldham. 

Hurst, Mr. J. B., Market Place, Louth. 

Husband, BIr. J. C, 2, Queen Street, Exeter. 

Huskisson, H. 0., F.C.S., Swinton Street, Gray's Inn Road, W.C. 

HutchiDs, Mr. C, Wind Street, Neath. 

Hutchinson, Mr. J., 6, Spring Gardens, Buxton, Derbyshire. 

Hyne, Mr. H., 132, Seymour Place, Bryanston Square, W. 

Iberson, Mr. J. , 6. Sheffield Road, Barnsley. 

IlifFe, Mr. T. P., 29, Market Place, Nuneaton. 

niingworth, Mr. W. H., 7, High Grove, Southowram, near Halifax. 

Imrie, Mr. D., 48, Front Street, Consett, Durham. 

Ince,J., F.L.S.,F.C.S., F.R.M. S., 29, St. Stephen'sRd., Shepherd's Bush. 

Ingall, Mr. J., Ashford, Kent. 

Ingham, Mr. J., Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Inglis, Mr. H., 211, Every Street, Manchester. 

Iredale, Mr. G., 171, York Street, Leeds. 

Iredale, Mr. T., 129, North Street, I,eeds. 

Irish, Mr. T. C, Southgate, Middlesex. 

Ismay, Mr. J. G., Groat Market, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Ive, Mr. W., 115, Gloucester Road, South Kensington, W. 

Izod, Mr. J., Church Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 

Jaap, Mr. J., 268, Buchanan Street, Glasgow. 

Jackson, Mr. A. H., 43, Gt. Ducie Street, Strangeways, Manchester. 

B B 


Jackson, Mr. C, Church Road, Acton, W. 

Jackson, Mr. G. , 759, Rochdale Road, Harpnrhey, Manchester. 

Jackson, Mr. J., 16, Talbot Road, Blackpool, Lanes. 

Jackson, ^Ir. J., Messrs. Harrison, Parkinson & Co., Bradford. 

Jackson, Mr. J. H. , Finkle Street, Stockton-on-Tees. 

Jackson, Mr. J. T., Westwood, Oldham. 

Jackson, Mr. R., 2, Clegg Street, Oldham. 

Jackson, Mr. R., 52, Bridlesmith Gate, Nottingham. 

Jackson, Mr. W., Crediton, Devon. 

Jackson, Mr. W. , 43, Glover Street, Leeds. 

James, Mr. J. T., 15, Princes Street, Hanover Square, W. 

Jarmain, Mr. G., Huddersfield. 

Jefferson, Mr. P., 14;5, Meadow Lane, Leeds. 

Jefferson, Mr. T., Cliurch Street, Lower Edmonton, N. 

Jeffrev, Mr. T. A.. Pittsville, Cheltenham. 

Jeffries, Mr. H., 23, High Street, Guildford. 

Jenkins, Mr. J. T., Denman Street, New Radford, Nottingham. 

Jennings, F. M., F.C.S., Brown Street, Cork. 

Jennings, Mr. T. H., 237, Hotwell Road, BristoL 

Jewell, Mr. R. J., 86, New Bond Street, W. 

Job, Mr. C. F., Market Place, Wakefield. 

Jobson, Mr. R., 125, Scotswood Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

John, Mr. D. W., Main Street, Pembroke. 

John, Mr. W. D., 7, Maughan Terrace, Penarth, near Cardiff. 

Johns, Mr. T. J. R., 8, Cumberland Street, Devonport. 

Johnson, Mr. A., 1, Beech Cottage, Moorgate Road, Rotherham. 

Johnson, C, F.R.C.S., L.A.C., Castle Park, Lancaster. 

Johnson, Mr. F., Prestwieh, near Manchester. 

Johnson, Mr. J., 8, Brondesbury Terrace, Kilburn, N.W. 

Johnson, Mr. J. B., Uttoxeter. 

Johnson, Mr. J. H., 7, Church Street, Liverpool. 

Johnson, Mr. M.,Huyton, Liverpool. 

Johnson, Mr. M., Oakenshaw, Clayton-le-Moors. J 

Johnson, Mr. S. E., Ashby-de-la-Zouch. ■ 

Johnson, Mr. T., 80, Wallgate, Wigan. ^ 

Johnson, Mr. T. S., 5, Holyrood Terrace, Malvern. 

Johnson, Mr. W., 4, Derby Street, Leek, Staffordshire, 

Johnstone, Mr. W., Cromarty, N.B. 

Jones, Mr. A. M., King Street, Brynmawr, Breconshire. 

Jones, Mr. C, 7, Market Square, Hanley. 

Jones, Mr. E. B. , Lammas Street, Carmarthen. 

Jones, Mr. E. P., 52, High Street, Rhyl. 

Jones, E. W. T., F.C.S., 10, Victoria Street, Wolverhampton. 

Jones, Mr. F., 8.3, Oxford Street, Liverpool. 

Jones, Mr. IL, Berwvn Street, Llangollen. 

Jones, Mr. H. S., 139, Fulham Road, S.W. 

Jones, Mr. J., 60, Chester Road, Hulme, Manchester. 

Jones, Mr. J., 27, Station Road, Hafffield. 

Jones, Mr. J. A., 74, Hagley Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

Jones, Mr. J. H., 9, Finsbury Place North, E.C. 

Jones, Mr. J. P., 2, Bridge Street, Aberayrou. 

Jones, Mr. John, Market Place, Llanrwst. 

Jones, Mr. J. T., Bute Road, Bute Town, Cardiff. 

Jones, Mr. K. L., Connah's Quay, Flintshire. 

Jones, Mr. M., Flint. 

Jones, Mr. M. H., Villiers Street, Briton Ferry. 

Jones, Mr. R. G., Commercial Place, Lye, Stourbridge. 

Jones, Mr. R. T., Bute Street, Treherbert. 

Jones, Mr. S. U., Cliirton House, Leamington. 

Jones, T., F.G.S., F.R.A.S., Brunswick Yillas, Shooter's Hill, Kent. 


Jones, Mr. T. P., 33, Broad Street, Welcbpool, 

Jones, Mr. W. C, 23, Bayswater Terrace, Bayswater, W. 

Kay, Mr. J., High Street, Crewe. 
Kaye, Mr. H., Berry Brow, Huddersfield. 
Kearnes, Mr. R. H., Swan Bank, Bilston. 
Keen, Mr. B., Totnes, Devon. 
Keene, Mr. E., 143, New Bond Street, W. 
Keeue, Mr. J., Biggenden, Brenchley, Kent. 
Kelly, Mr. E., Croscombe House, Wells, Somersetshire. 
Kemble, Mr. J., LostwitLiel, Cornwall. 
Kemp, Mr. D., 106. High Street, Portobello, Mid-Lothian. 
Kemp, Mr. J., Cullen, Banffshire. 
Kemp, Mr. J., 11, North Street, Brighton. 
Kendall, Mr. F,, Bishopton, Stratford-on-Avon. 
Kennedy, Blr. W., 59, Trongate, Glasgow. 
Kent, Mr. G. F., 134, Broad Street, Pendleton, Manchester. 
Ker, Mr. A. , 92, Lower Moss Lane, Hulme, Manchester. 
Kerfoot, Mr. T., 113, Loudon Road, Manchester. 
Kernot, G. C, M.D., 5, Elphinstone Road, Hastings. 
Kerr, Mr. C, 56, Nethergate, Dundee. 
Kershaw, Mr. J., Neville Street, Southport. 
Keyworth, G. A., F.C.S., Harold-Dene, Hastings. 
Kimberley, Mr. W. , 22, Balsall Street, Birmingham. 
Kinch, Mr. C. J., Eaton Hastings, Lechlade. 
King, Mr. W., 4, Market Place, Huddersfield. 
Kingerlee, Mr. G., Castle Street, Buckingham. 
Kingsford, Mr. F., 54, Piccadilly, W. 

Kingzett, C. T., F.C.S., Analytical Laboratory, 1, Victoria Street, West- 
minster, S.W. 
Kinninmont, Mr. A., 69, South Portland Street, Glasgow. 
Kirk, Mr. S., 89, Upper North Street, Poplar, E. 
Kirkbride, Mr. W., 8, Midd